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Illustration of Bifidobacterium bacteria in the human intestine. This Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria is the main component of the human large intestine microbiome. It has a unique hexose (sugar) metabolism, called the bifid shunt, which can be used as a diagnostic test for bifidobacteria. Bifidobacteria are probiotic bacteria, which means that they may beneficially affect the host upon ingestion by improving the balance of the intestinal microflora.