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SPL RM December 2018 (710)

234... z 6
! EN_01352078_0361 SCI
Binary asteroid 288P, illustration. This asteroid is located in the main asteroid belt between the planets Mars and Jupiter. The object is unique as it is a binary asteroid which also behaves like a comet. The comet-like properties are the result of water sublimation, caused by the heat of the Sun. The orbit of the asteroids is marked by a blue ellipse. Image published in 2017.
! EN_01352078_0362 SCI
Saturn's northern auroras, ultraviolet Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image. This is Saturn's northern hemisphere, with the auroras (white ring near northern pole) showing a rich variety of emissions with highly variable localised features. The variability of the auroras is influenced by both the solar wind and the rapid rotation of Saturn. Auroras are formed as the solar wind, channelled by planetary magnetic fields, impacts a planet's atmosphere. This ultraviolet image was obtained with the HST's Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS). Image published in 2018.
! EN_01352078_0363 SCI
Hubble Ultra Deep Field. Obtained in 2003 and 2004, this view shows distant galaxies in an area of the constellation Fornax, as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). The view shows nearly 10,000 galaxies in what is called the Hubble Ultra Deep Field. The galaxies are of various ages, sizes, shapes, and colours. The smallest, reddest galaxies may be among the most distant known, existing when the universe was just 800 million years old. The nearest galaxies (brighter spirals and ellipticals) are from about 1 billion years ago, when the universe was 13 billion years old. This image consists of 800 exposures taken over 11 days, between September 2003 and January 2004. Image data in optical and infrared, from the HST's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS).
! EN_01352078_0364 SCI
Hubble eXtreme Deep Field. Optical and infrared image of distant galaxies in an area of the constellation Fornax, as seen by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). This combines data from the Hubble Ultra Deep Field and Hubble Ultra Deep Field Infrared. The area includes 5500 galaxies, some of them among the most distant known, existing when the universe was only a few hundred million years old. Some are the most distant objects ever identified. Image data from the HST's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Image published in 2012. Ph: NASA, ESA, G. Illingworth, D. Magee, and P. Oesch (University of California, Santa Cruz), R. Bouwens (Leiden University)
! EN_01352078_0365 SCI
Hubble Ultra Deep Field, ultraviolet coverage. The Hubble Ultra Deep Field was first obtained in 2003 and 2004, and has been extended over the years with the addition of coverage in other wavelengths such an infrared. This image includes new coverage in ultraviolet (UV) wavelengths. The area shown (in the constellation of Fornax) includes 5500 galaxies, some of them among the most distant known, existing when the universe was only a few hundred million years old. Some are the most distant objects ever identified. The study is called the Ultraviolet Coverage of the Hubble Ultra Deep Field (UVUDF) project. Image data obtained by the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)'s Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Image published in 2014. Ph: NASA, ESA, H. Teplitz and M. Rafelski (IPAC/Caltech), A. Koekemoer (STScI), R. Windhorst (Arizona State University), and Z. Leva
! EN_01352078_0366 SCI
GOODS North Field, ultraviolet coverage. Since the Hubble Deep Field in 1995, deeper observations over more wavelengths have revealed more details about the oldest galaxies from the early universe. This image is part of the GOODS North Field (in the constellation of Ursa Major), which includes new Hubble data at ultraviolet wavelengths (in addition to infrared and optical). This survey helps to track the evolution of the universe and the birth of stars over the last 11 billion years. This is part of the Hubble Deep UV (HDUV) Legacy Survey, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)'s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) as well as the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). GOODS is the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey. This mosaic is 14 times the area of the Hubble Ultraviolet Ultra Deep Field released in 2014. Image published in 2018.
! EN_01352078_0367 SCI
GOODS South Field, ultraviolet coverage. Since the Hubble Deep Field in 1995, deeper observations over more wavelengths have revealed more details about the oldest galaxies from the early universe. This image is part of the GOODS South Field (in the constellation of Fornax), which includes new Hubble data at ultraviolet wavelengths (in addition to infrared and optical). This survey helps to track the evolution of the universe and the birth of stars over the last 11 billion years. This is part of the Hubble Deep UV (HDUV) Legacy Survey, using the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)'s Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) as well as the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). GOODS is the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey. This mosaic is 14 times the area of the Hubble Ultraviolet Ultra Deep Field released in 2014. Image published in 2018.
! EN_01352078_0368 SCI
Abell 370 galaxy cluster, Hubble Frontier Field. The galaxy cluster Abell 370 is 4 billion light years from Earth in the constellation of Cetus. As well as numerous galaxies from billions of years ago, the foreground shows trails (white) from asteroid that are within the solar system. The curvature is due to the effects of parallax. The bluer curves are due to gravitational lensing of distant galaxies. This image combines optical and infrared data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)'s Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Image data obtained between 2009 and 2015 as part of the Frontier Fields programme.
! EN_01352078_0369 SCI
Galaxy cluster SDSS J0333+0651. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of a foreground galaxy (lower left) and the galaxy cluster SDSS J0333+0651. Studying clusters such as this gives an insight into the evolution of the early universe. An example of gravitational lensing is at upper left. Image data (optical and infrared) from the HST's Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Image published in 2018.
! EN_01352078_0370 SCI
Supernova remannt SN 1987A, 1994 to 2016, montage of Hubble Space Telescope (HST) images. This supernova explosion was first observed in 1987 and is among the brightest supernova within the last 400 years. The HST began observing the aftermath of the explosion shortly after it was launched in 1990. The growing number of bright spots on the ring is due to shock waves of material hitting the ring, causing areas to glow. The ring, about one light year across, was probably shed by the star about 20,000 years before the star exploded. SN 1987A is some 170,000 light years from Earth, in the constellation of Dorado. Image published in 2017.
! EN_01352078_0371 SCI
Kepler-13Ab exoplanet and host stars, illustration. Kepler-13Ab (lower centre) is a 'hot Jupiter' that orbits very close to its host star, Kepler-13A (centre). Seen in the background is the star's binary companion, Kepler-13B, and the third member of the multiple-star system, the orange dwarf star Kepler-13C. Kepler-13Ab is six times more massive than Jupiter. It is one of the hottest known of the 'hot Jupiters', with a dayside temperature of nearly 5000 degrees Celsius. The planet's atmospheric temperature profile was obtained using the Hubble Space Telescope. This planet is also tidally locked, with one side permanently facing its parent star. The Kepler-13 system is 1730 light years from Earth in the constellation of Lyra.
! EN_01352078_0372 SCI
Trumpler 16 stars, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image. Dominating this area of space are a pair of colossal stars, WR 25 and Tr16-244, part of the open star cluster Trumpler 16. This cluster is embedded within the Carina Nebula, which is 7500 light years from Earth in the constellation of Carina. WR 25 (a Wolf-Rayet star) is at centre. Tr16-244 is just to the upper left of WR 25. The orange star at centre left is a foreground star, located much closer to Earth than the Carina Nebula. This optical and infrared image was obtained with the HST's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) sensor. Image published in 2008. PH:NASA, ESA and Jesus Maiz Apellaniz (Instituto de Astrofнsica de Andalucia, Spain)/STScI
! EN_01352078_0373 SCI
Trumpler 16 stars and nebula, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image. Dominating this area of space are a pair of colossal stars at lower centre, WR 25 and Tr16-244, part of the open star cluster Trumpler 16. This cluster is embedded within the Carina Nebula, which is 7500 light years from Earth in the constellation of Carina. WR 25 is a Wolf-Rayet star. For a close-up of the stars, see image C041/7558. This optical and infrared image was obtained with the HST's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) sensor. Image published in 2008. PH: NASA, ESA and Jesus Maiz Apellaniz (Instituto de Astrofнsica de Andalucia, Spain)/STScI
! EN_01352078_0374 SCI
Stars in globular cluster NGC 6362, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image. Tightly bound by gravity, globular clusters are composed of old stars, which, at around 10 billion years old, are much older than the Sun. These stars form the centre of globular cluster NGC 6362. The core of a globular cluster contains a high concentration of stars with different colours. Here, some stars appear younger and bluer than their companions, and they have been named blue stragglers. NGC 6362 contains many of these stars. NGC 6362 is located about 25,000 light-years from Earth in the constellation of Ara. This image was created combining ultraviolet, visual (optical) and infrared images taken with the Advanced Camera for Surveys and the Wide Field Camera 3 of the HST. Image published in 2012.
! EN_01352078_0375 SCI
Stars in bulge of Milky Way, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image. The crowded ancient central hub or bulge of the Milky Way contains ageing red giant stars and more plentiful younger and smaller, white, Sun-like stars. Most of the bright blue stars are in the foreground are recently formed stars in the galactic disc. Within the bulge, stars richer in elements heavier than hydrogen and helium are orbiting around the galactic centre faster than older stars that are deficient in heavier elements. This composite of infrared and visible light was obtained with the HST's Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). The observations are part of two Hubble surveys: the Galactic Bulge Treasury Program (GBTP) and the Sagittarius Window Eclipsing Extrasolar Planet Search (SWEEPS). The galactic centre is 26,000 light years away in the constellation of Sagittarius. Image published in 2018.
Model Released
! EN_01352078_0376 SCI
Herbig-Haro jet HH 24, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image. This star has formed in a starbirth region known as the Orion B molecular cloud complex. This is 1350 light years from Earth in the constellation of Orion. Just to the right of the cloaked star, the bright points are young stars that are shining through and clearing the area around them with their powerful radiation. This optical and infrared image was obtained with the HST's Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2) and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) sensors. Image published in 2015.
! EN_01352078_0377 SCI
Mars InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) team members Kris Bruvold (left) and Sandy Krasner (right) celebrating after receiving confirmation that the Mars lander successfully touched down on the surface of Mars. The lander is designed to studying the interior of Mars. It will investigate the processes that formed and shaped Mars and its findings will improve our understanding of the evolution of the inner solar system's rocky planets. InSight was launched on 5 May 2018. Photographed on 26th November 2018, in the Mission Support Area at NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, USA.
! EN_01352078_0378 SCI
InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) lander on Mars. This is the first picture from the Instrument Deployment Camera (IDC) on NASA's InSight lander. It was taken on 26th November, the day InSight successfully touched down on Mars. The transparent protective dust cover is still on the camera's lens. The InSight lander is designed to studying the interior of Mars. It will investigate the processes that formed and shaped Mars and its findings will improve our understanding of the evolution of the inner solar system's rocky planets.
! EN_01352078_0379 SCI
First image taken by NASA's InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) lander on Mars. It was taken by the Instrument Context Camera (ICC) on 26th November, the day InSight successfully touched down on Mars. The transparent protective dust cover is still on the camera's lens. The InSight lander is designed to studying the interior of Mars. It will investigate the processes that formed and shaped Mars and its findings will improve our understanding of the evolution of the inner solar system's rocky planets.
! EN_01352078_0380 SCI
Mars imaged by the MarCO-B (Mars Cube One-B) CubeSat (partly seen at right) at a distance of 7,600 kilometers. MarCO-B is one of two experimental CubeSats that were orbiting Mars as communication relays for the entry, descent and landing (EDL) phase of NASA's InSight Mars lander. They beamed data directly back to Earth without having to wait for the lander itself to upload the data, and without having to use the slower Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) as an intermediary. Image obtained on 26th November 2018.
! EN_01352078_0381 SCI
Colliding galaxies NGC 1512 and NGC 1510, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image. At left is the barred spiral galaxy NGC 1512, with the dwarf galaxy NGC 1510 at right. Both galaxies are about 30 million light years from Earth, in the constellation of Horologium. They are currently in the process of merging. At the end of this process NGC 1512 will have cannibalised its smaller companion. 30 million light years. This optical and ultraviolet image was obtained by the HST's Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Image published in 2017.
! EN_01352078_0382 SCI
Colliding galaxies Arp 256, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image. Arp 256 is a system of two spiral galaxies in an early stage of merging. The galaxies contain blue knots of star formation, triggered by the close interaction between the two galaxies. Arp 256 is 350 million light years away in the constellation of Cetus. This image was taken by the HST's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and its Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Image published in 2018.
! EN_01352078_0383 SCI
Peculiar galaxy NGC 3256, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image. This galaxy is the result of a past galactic merger, which created its distorted appearance. It is an ideal target to investigate starbursts that have been triggered by galaxy mergers. NGC 3256 is 100 million light years from Earth, in the constellation of Vela. This optical image was obtained with the HST's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Image published in 2018.
! EN_01352078_0384 SCI
Irregular galaxy NGC 4485, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image. This galaxy is irregular in shape, caused by an interaction with a nearby galaxy. Part of NGC 4485 has been dragged towards a second galaxy (NGC 4490) which is out of frame towards bottom right. Between them, these two galaxies make up a galaxy pair called Arp 269, and have turned from spiral galaxies into irregular ones. When galaxies interact hydrogen gas is shared between them, triggering intense bursts of star formation. The orange knots of light at lower right are examples of such regions, clouded with gas and dust. NGC 4485 is 25 million light years from Earth, in the constellation of Canes Venatici. This optical image was obtained with the HST's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). Image published in 2014.
! EN_01352078_0385 SCI
Irregular galaxy NGC 4861, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image. This dwarf irregular galaxy is a candidate for a phenomenon known as a 'galactic wind'. Smaller galaxies are more likely to have outflows of fast charged particles known as galactic winds, powered by the ongoing process of star formation. New stars are forming in the bright, colourful 'head' of NGC 4861 (lower left) and ejecting streams of high-speed particles. This galaxy is 30 million light years from Earth, in the constellation of Canes Venatici. This optical image was obtained by the HST's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Image published in 2017.
! EN_01352078_0386 SCI
Galaxy ESO 376-16 (upper centre), Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image. On the basis of its rather ill-defined morphology, ESO 376-16 is thought to be either a late-type spiral or a dwarf irregular galaxy. Researchers have used the HST to gauge the distance to galaxies including ESO 376-16 by measuring the luminosities of bright red-giant-branch stars in the galaxies. This data was used to produce 3D maps of the distribution of galaxies in that part of the universe. ESO 376-16 is 23 million light years from Earth, in the constellation of Antlia. This optical image was obtained by the HST's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). Image published in 2017.
! EN_01352078_0387 SCI
Barred spiral galaxy UGC 6093, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image. Classified as an active galaxy, UGC 6093 has an active galactic nucleus (AGN), a compact region at its centre within which material is dragged towards a supermassive black hole. As this black hole destroys the surrounding matter it emits intense radiation, causing it to shine brightly. UGC 6093 acts as a giant astronomical laser that emits light at microwave wavelengths. It is known as a megamaser (maser being the term for a microwave laser). Megamasers such as UGC 6093 can be some 100 million times brighter than masers found in galaxies like the Milky Way. UGC 6093 is 500 million light years from Earth, in the constellation of Leo. This optical, infrared and ultraviolet image was obtained with the HST's Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). Image published in 2018.
! EN_01352078_0388 SCI
Dust-bound supermassive black hole. Illustration of a dust torus around a supermassive black hole at the centre of an active galaxy. Depending on the orientation with respect to observers on Earth, this dust torus may obscure the black hole. If there is no obscuration, it is a 'type 1 source'. A 'type 2 source' has the dust torus edge-on as viewed from Earth. The identification of a population of high-power obscured black holes and the active galaxies surrounding them has been a key goal for astronomers. In this illustration the jets coming out of the regions nearest the black hole are also seen. The jets emerge from an area close to the black hole where a disk of accreted material rotates (not seen here). This illustration is based on research involving the Astrophysical Virtual Observatory (AVO) and the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey (GOODS). Artwork published in 2004.
! EN_01352078_0389 SCI
3D printer, illustration. 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, creates three-dimensional objects by the successive addition of layers of material.
! EN_01352078_0390 SCI
Lensed quasars, gravitational lensing montage. This montage shows five lensed quasars and the foreground galaxies studied by the H0LICOW (H0 Lenses in COSMOGRAIL's Wellspring) collaboration. Using these objects astronomers were able to make an independent measurement of the Hubble constant (a measure of the size and age of the universe). They calculated that the universe is actually expanding faster than expected on the basis of our cosmological model. COSMOGRAIL is the COSmological MOnitoring of GRAvItational Lenses. Image published in 2017.
! EN_01352078_0391 SCI
3D printer, illustration. 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, creates three-dimensional objects by the successive addition of layers of material.
! EN_01352078_0392 SCI
3D printer, illustration. 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, creates three-dimensional objects by the successive addition of layers of material.
! EN_01352078_0393 SCI
3D printer, illustration. 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, creates three-dimensional objects by the successive addition of layers of material.
! EN_01352078_0394 SCI
3D printer, illustration. 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, creates three-dimensional objects by the successive addition of layers of material.
! EN_01352078_0395 SCI
3D printer, illustration. 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, creates three-dimensional objects by the successive addition of layers of material.
! EN_01352078_0396 SCI
3D printer, illustration. 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, creates three-dimensional objects by the successive addition of layers of material.
! EN_01352078_0397 SCI
3D printer, illustration. 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, creates three-dimensional objects by the successive addition of layers of material.
! EN_01352078_0398 SCI
3D printer, illustration. 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, creates three-dimensional objects by the successive addition of layers of material.
! EN_01352078_0399 SCI
3D printer, illustration. 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, creates three-dimensional objects by the successive addition of layers of material.
! EN_01352078_0400 SCI
3D printer, illustration. 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, creates three-dimensional objects by the successive addition of layers of material.
! EN_01352078_0401 SCI
3D printer, illustration. 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, creates three-dimensional objects by the successive addition of layers of material.
! EN_01352078_0402 SCI
3D printer, illustration. 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, creates three-dimensional objects by the successive addition of layers of material.
! EN_01352078_0403 SCI
3D printer, illustration. 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, creates three-dimensional objects by the successive addition of layers of material.
! EN_01352078_0404 SCI
3D printer, illustration. 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, creates three-dimensional objects by the successive addition of layers of material.
! EN_01352078_0405 SCI
3D printer, illustration. 3D printing, also known as additive manufacturing, creates three-dimensional objects by the successive addition of layers of material.
! EN_01352078_0406 SCI
Albatross flying using dynamic soaring, illustration. Dynamic soaring allows these birds to travel long distances while expendinding minimal energy. The albatross flies just above the ocean surface and soars and dives between contrasting air currents. When maneouvering between currents the bird banks to make the most of the wind's energy. The albatross skeleton allows the bird to lock its wings in place during flight, further conserving energy.
! EN_01352078_0407 SCI
Albatross flying using dynamic soaring, illustration. Dynamic soaring allows these birds to travel long distances while expendinding minimal energy. The albatross flies just above the ocean surface and soars and dives between contrasting air currents. When maneouvering between currents the bird banks to make the most of the wind's energy. The albatross skeleton allows the bird to lock its wings in place during flight, further conserving energy.
! EN_01352078_0408 SCI
Albatross flying using dynamic soaring, illustration. Dynamic soaring allows these birds to travel long distances while expendinding minimal energy. The albatross flies just above the ocean surface and soars and dives between contrasting air currents. When maneouvering between currents the bird banks to make the most of the wind's energy. The albatross skeleton allows the bird to lock its wings in place during flight, further conserving energy.
! EN_01352078_0409 SCI
Albatross flying using dynamic soaring, illustration. Dynamic soaring allows these birds to travel long distances while expendinding minimal energy. The albatross flies just above the ocean surface and soars and dives between contrasting air currents. When maneouvering between currents the bird banks to make the most of the wind's energy. The albatross skeleton allows the bird to lock its wings in place during flight, further conserving energy.
! EN_01352078_0410 SCI
Map of the Empire of Alexander the Great. Alexander became king of the Greek kingdom of Macedon in 336 BC at the age of 20. This map shows the route (grey) of his journey eastwards as he conquered the Persian Empire, and the extent of the Greek Empire (dark orange) at Alexander's death in 323 BC. Alexander started his military campaign in 334 BC, marching east from Macedonia through western Asia Minor. By 332 BC Alexander had won battles throughout Asia Minor, the Levant and Syria, and reached Egypt. In 331 BC Alexander marched through Mesopotamia, where he defeated the Persian king Darius III for the final time and declared himself King of Persia in 330 BC. He then marched east through Persia, reaching modern day Afghanistan and India before returning home.
! EN_01352078_0411 SCI
Map of the Empire of Alexander the Great. Alexander became king of the Greek kingdom of Macedon in 336 BC at the age of 20. This map shows the route (grey) of his journey eastwards as he conquered the Persian Empire, and the extent of the Greek Empire (dark orange) at Alexander's death in 323 BC. Alexander started his military campaign in 334 BC, marching east from Macedonia through western Asia Minor. By 332 BC Alexander had won battles throughout Asia Minor, the Levant and Syria, and reached Egypt. In 331 BC Alexander marched through Mesopotamia, where he defeated the Persian king Darius III for the final time and declared himself King of Persia in 330 BC. He then marched east through Persia, reaching modern day Afghanistan and India before returning home.
! EN_01352078_0412 SCI
Map of the Empire of Alexander the Great. Alexander became king of the Greek kingdom of Macedon in 336 BC at the age of 20. This map shows the route (red) of his journey eastwards as he conquered the Persian Empire, and the extent of the Greek Empire (dark orange) at Alexander's death in 323 BC. Alexander started his military campaign in 334 BC, marching east from Macedonia through western Asia Minor. By 332 BC Alexander had won battles throughout Asia Minor, the Levant and Syria, and reached Egypt. In 331 BC Alexander marched through Mesopotamia, where he defeated the Persian king Darius III for the final time and declared himself King of Persia in 330 BC. He then marched east through Persia, reaching modern day Afghanistan and India before returning home.
! EN_01352078_0413 SCI
Map of the Empire of Alexander the Great. Alexander became king of the Greek kingdom of Macedon in 336 BC at the age of 20. This map shows the route (red) of his journey eastwards as he conquered the Persian Empire, and the extent of the Greek Empire (dark orange) at Alexander's death in 323 BC. Alexander started his military campaign in 334 BC, marching east from Macedonia through western Asia Minor. By 332 BC Alexander had won battles throughout Asia Minor, the Levant and Syria, and reached Egypt. In 331 BC Alexander marched through Mesopotamia, where he defeated the Persian king Darius III for the final time and declared himself King of Persia in 330 BC. He then marched east through Persia, reaching modern day Afghanistan and India before returning home.
! EN_01352078_0414 SCI
Antibiotic cell membrane effect. Artwork of the natural antibiotic peptide defensin (orange) disrupting the cell membrane of a bacterium (top right). The defensin inserts itself into the lipid bilayer (top) and rotates, causing the lipid molecules to reconfigure themselves (centre). This eventually leads to the membrane splitting to form a pore (bottom), which causes the cell contents to leak out, destroying the bacterium. The initial insertion of the defensins is by electrostatic attraction.
! EN_01352078_0415 SCI
Illustration of one of the exoplanets orbiting Gliese 667 C (largest star, orange) in the Gliese 667 system. The Gliese 667 A/B binary star system is to the upper right of Gliese 667 C. There are at least seven planets in this multiple star system, which lies around 24 light years from Earth, in the constellation Scorpius.
! EN_01352078_0416 SCI
Illustration of the red giant star Kepler-56 devouring its two planets Kepler-56b and Kepler-56c. The star is around 1.3 times the size of our Sun at the moment, but is expanding as it dies. In 130 to 155 million years this expansion will lead to the destruction of the orbiting planets. The Kepler-56 is around 3,000 light years away from Earth in the constellation Cygnus.
! EN_01352078_0417 SCI
Illustration of the exoplanet Kepler-78b orbiting its star Kepler 78. The planet, which has a diameter 20 per cent larger than Earth's, orbits extremely close to its star. The orbit is 40 times closer than Mercury's is to our Sun and is completed in 8.5 hours. Due to this the planet's surface temperature is estimated at between 2,300 and 3,100 Kelvin. Kepler-78 is located in the constellation Cygnus.
! EN_01352078_0418 SCI
The Death of Socrates (1787) by the French artist Jacques-Louis David. This famous scene, described in the writings of Plato (at foot of bed), shows the Ancient Greek philosopher Socrates (c.470-399 BC, centre) still teaching his students in prison as he reaches for a cup of hemlock (a poison) with which to commit suicide. This scene followed his conviction for corrupting the youth of Athens with his teachings. His friend Crito is holding his leg. In the background, his wife is seen leaving the prison.
! EN_01352078_0419 SCI
Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), Italian explorer. Based on flawed assumptions of geography, Columbus calculated that a westward route from Europe to Asia would be 3700 kilometres (as opposed to the true 19,600 kilometres). He secured the support of Queen Isabella I of Spain and in 1492 his ships arrived in the Bahamas, Hispaniola and Cuba. He had discovered the Americas, though he thought he had reached Asia. He was appointed Viceroy and Governor of the Indies, and over a further three voyages he explored the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico. This portrait, said to be of Columbus, dates from 1519, and is by Italian artist Sebastiano del Piombo (c.1485 1547).
! EN_01352078_0420 SCI
Erasmus (c.1466-1536), Dutch theologian, writing in his study, with a vase of lillies. Born Gerrit Gerritszoon, and later known as Desiderius Erasmus of Rotterdam, Erasmus studied in monastic schools, and then travelled all over Europe as an independent scholar. He prepared a new edition of the New Testament (published in 1516), as well as other Biblical and theological works. Erasmus was sympathetic to the ideas of Martin Luther, but he declined to take sides in the developing struggle of the Reformation. His best-known work is 'Praise of Folly' (written 1509), a satirical work on the Roman Catholic Church. This engraving dates from 1526, and is by German artist Albrecht Durer (1471-1528). The Latin and Greek inscription states: 'This image of Erasmus of Rotterdam was drawn from life by Albrecht Durer'. Below are the date, 1526, in Roman numerals, and the artist's monogram.
! EN_01352078_0421 SCI
Charles V and Philip II of Spain. Cameo carved in a variety of onyx called sardonyx, showing the overlapping profiles of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (1500-1558), who was also Charles I of Spain, and his son who succeeded him as Philip II of Spain (15267-1598). This type of overlapping profile is known as a jugate portrait. Behind the two men is a winged thunderbolt. The carving, which dates from 1550, is by the renowned Hapsburg Italian court sculptor Leone Leoni.
! EN_01352078_0422 SCI
William Oughtred (1575-1660), English mathematician, holding a book. Oughtred was educated at Eton College and later at Cambridge University, England. He was ordained as a priest in 1603. His clerical post gave him time to work on mathematics. In 1631 he published the 'Clavis mathematicae' (the key to mathematics). Oughtred also introduced a number of mathematical symbols, such as the 'x' for multiplication and the sin and cos notation for trigonometry. He also invented the circular slide rule and the rectilinear slide rule. This 1644 artwork is from the frontispiece to Oughtred's 'The key of the mathematicks new forged and filed' (1647).
! EN_01352078_0423 SCI
Elias Allen (c.1588-1653), English instrument maker. The instruments shown at right include a sundial, a sector, dividers, measuring devices, and a mariner's astrolabe and compass. Allen's associates included the mathematicians William Oughtred and Edmund Gunter. This 1653 etching is by Bohemian artist Wenceslaus Hollar, after an earlier portrait by Hendrick van der Borcht.
! EN_01352078_0424 SCI
Philip IV of Spain. Oil-on-canvas painting of Philip IV (1605-1665), who reigned as King of Spain from 1621 to his death. He was also King of Portugal from 1621 to 1640. This portrait dates from around 1624, and shows the king wearing a gold chain and the emblem of the Order of the Golden Fleece. The painting is by Spanish artist Diego Velazquez.
! EN_01352078_0425 SCI
Philip IV of Spain. Oil-on-canvas painting of Philip IV (1605-1665), who reigned as King of Spain from 1621 to his death. He was also King of Portugal from 1621 to 1640. This portrait dates from around 1628, and shows the king in Flemish cavalry parade armour. He holds a commander's baton in his right hand and wears an ornate rapier on his left hip. The painting is by Flemish artist Gaspar de Crayer.
! EN_01352078_0426 SCI
French Royal Academy of Sciences. Historical illustration of Louis XIV visiting the 'Academie des sciences' in Paris, France, in 1671. The artwork shows people meeting with the French King in a room with various science objects. Through the window, a building is being constructed and a garden has been laid out in geometric form. There is a map on the floor, and animal and human skeletons, and astronomical instruments, on the walls. Louis XVI founded this Royal Society in 1666. This 1671 artwork is by French artist Sebastien Leclerc I (1637-1714).
! EN_01352078_0427 SCI
Gerard de Lairesse (1641-1711), Dutch painter. Initially influenced by Rembrandt, de Lairesse later developed a style similar to that of Nicolas Poussin. De Lairesse was also a noted art theorist, writing influential texts such as 'Grondlegginge Ter Teekenkonst' (Foundations of Drawing, 1701) and 'Groot Schilderboek' (Great Book of Painting, 1707) This oil-on-canvas painting by Dutch artist Rembrandt dates from the period 1665 to 1667. By this time, the effects of de Lairesse's congenital syphilis were visible in his bulbous features. The condition resulted in his blindness by around 1690.
! EN_01352078_0428 SCI
Lavoisier and his wife. This 1788 portrait, by the French painter Jacques-Louis David (1748-1825), shows the French chemist Antoine Lavoisier (1743-1794) and his wife Marie-Anne Pierrette Paulze (1758-1836), more commonly known as Madame Lavoisier. They married in 1771 when she was 13, and over the years she helped her husband with much of his scientific work. Scientific equipment shown here include a barometer, a gasometer, a water still, a glass bell jar, and a large round-bottom flask with a tap. The original portrait, which is oil on canvas, is held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York, USA.
! EN_01352078_0429 SCI
Jean-Baptiste Biot (1774-1862), French physicist. Biot's most famous work concerned optical activity. He showed for the first time that different types of quartz rotate the plane of polarised light in different directions, later extending this to many other substances. He demonstrated that the amount of rotation is proportional to the path length of light through the medium and to the medium's concentration. In 1804 with Gay-Lussac he made an early balloon ascent and made meteorological and magnetic observations up to 5000 metres. This 1820 lithograph is by French artist Jules Boilly (1796-1874).
! EN_01352078_0430 SCI
Editorial use only Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-1859), British civil engineer and ship designer, in front of chains at the launching of the 'SS Great Eastern' in 1857. In 1825, Brunel helped his father to construct the first tunnel under the Thames in London, England. In 1830, he won the competition to design the Clifton Suspension Bridge in Bristol. In 1833, he was appointed engineer of the Great Western Railway (GWR), designing railway track between London and south-west England. He also designed trans-Atlantic steam ships, including the Great Britain, the Great Western, and the Great Eastern. Brunel was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 1830. This albumen silver print was produced from a glass negative by British photographer Robert Howlett (1831-1858).
! EN_01352078_0431 SCI
Editorial use only Thereza Dillwyn Llewelyn (1834-1926), Welsh scientist and photography pioneer. Llewelyn's father (who took this photograph) was the botanist John Dillwyn Llewelyn. Here, aged around 20 in around 1854, Thereza is using a microscope to study botanical specimens. This image is a salted paper print from a glass negative. The border is a photogram of ferns. Thereza worked in many areas, including photography, astronomy and chemistry.
! EN_01352078_0432 SCI
Thomas Price (1837-1912), Welsh-born chemist and assayer, in his laboratory in San Francisco, California, USA. Price arrived in the USA in 1862. He worked as an assayer for the San Francisco Refinery, as well as teaching chemistry at Toland Medical College. He later become a freelance consultant providing services to mining companies worldwide. This oil-on-canvas painting is by US artist Henry Alexander. It dates from the period 1885 to 1887.
! EN_01352078_0433 SCI
Editorial use only Alice Liddell portrait by Lewis Carroll, depicting her as a 'beggar maid'. Alice Liddell (1852-1934) inspired British author Charles Dodgson (better known as Lewis Carroll) to write the novel 'Alice in Wonderland' (1865). Dodgson was a friend of the Liddell family, and told stories for their daughters. Alice persuaded him to write the stories down, but her parents eventually banned Dodgson from seeing her. Dodgson was a noted early portrait photographer, and also took pictures of young girls, including some posing naked. Criticism of this activity led him to give up photography in 1880, and he ordered that his collection of images be burnt on his death. This albumen silver print is from glass negative taken in 1858 by Dodgson, when Alice was aged six.
! EN_01352078_0434 SCI
Illustration of the InSight (Interior Exploration using Seismic Investigations, Geodesy and Heat Transport) lander deploying its Seismic Experiment for Interior Structure (SEIS) onto the Martian surface. The lander's robotic arm (IDA) is removing the protective WTS (Wind and Thermal Shield) from SEIS. The InSight lander is designed to studying the interior of Mars. It will investigate the processes that formed and shaped Mars and its findings will improve our understanding of the evolution of the inner solar system's rocky planets. InSight was launched on 5 May 2018 and successfully landed on Mars on 26th November 2018.
! EN_01352078_0435 SCI
Illustration of the exoplanet Kepler-78b orbiting its star Kepler 78. The planet, which has a diameter 20 per cent larger than Earth's, orbits extremely close to its star. The orbit is 40 times closer than Mercury's is to our Sun and is completed in 8.5 hours. Due to this the planet's surface temperature is estimated at between 2,300 and 3,100 Kelvin. Kepler-78 is located in the constellation Cygnus.
! EN_01352078_0436 SCI
Illustration of the exoplanet Kepler-78b. The planet, which has a diameter 20 per cent larger than Earth's, orbits extremely close to its star. The orbit is 40 times closer than Mercury's is to our Sun and is completed in 8.5 hours. Due to this the planet's surface temperature is estimated at between 2,300 and 3,100 Kelvin. Kepler-78 is located in the constellation Cygnus.
! EN_01352078_0437 SCI
Illustration of the exoplanet Kepler-78b. The planet, which has a diameter 20 per cent larger than Earth's, orbits extremely close to its star. The orbit is 40 times closer than Mercury's is to our Sun and is completed in 8.5 hours. Due to this the planet's surface temperature is estimated at between 2,300 and 3,100 Kelvin. Kepler-78 is located in the constellation Cygnus.
! EN_01352078_0438 SCI
Alpha-gal allergy, illustration. Alpha-gal allergy, also known as meat allergy, is a reaction to the carbohydrate galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). Alpha-gal is present in all mammals apart from Old World monkeys and apes (including humans) and so is found in a number of meat products including pork and beef. Humans can become sensitised to alpha-gal after being bitten by a tick (far left) that transfers the carbohydrate (blue spheres) to the bloodstream, where the immune system attacks the foreign particle (second on left). When the individual next eats meat (second from right) the immune system mounts a reaction to the alpha-gal (far right) that can cause a range of symptoms than can include a runny nose, itching, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, or vomiting.
! EN_01352078_0439 SCI
Alpha-gal allergy, illustration. Alpha-gal allergy, also known as meat allergy, is a reaction to the carbohydrate galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). Alpha-gal is present in all mammals apart from Old World monkeys and apes (including humans) and so is found in a number of meat products including pork and beef. Humans can become sensitised to alpha-gal after being bitten by a tick (far left) that transfers the carbohydrate to the bloodstream, where the immune system attacks the foreign particle (second on left). When the individual next eats meat (second from right) the immune system mounts a reaction to the alpha-gal (far right) that can cause a range of symptoms than can include a runny nose, itching, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, or vomiting.
! EN_01352078_0440 SCI
Alpha-gal allergy, illustration. Alpha-gal allergy, also known as meat allergy, is a reaction to the carbohydrate galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). Alpha-gal is present in all mammals apart from Old World monkeys and apes (including humans) and so is found in a number of meat products including pork and beef. Humans can become sensitised to alpha-gal after being bitten by a tick (far left) that transfers the carbohydrate to the bloodstream, where the immune system attacks the foreign particle (second on left). When the individual next eats meat (second from right) the immune system mounts a reaction to the alpha-gal (far right) that can cause a range of symptoms than can include a runny nose, itching, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, or vomiting.
! EN_01352078_0441 SCI
Alpha-gal allergy, illustration. Alpha-gal allergy, also known as meat allergy, is a reaction to the carbohydrate galactose-alpha-1,3-galactose (alpha-gal). Alpha-gal is present in all mammals apart from Old World monkeys and apes (including humans) and so is found in a number of meat products including pork and beef. Humans can become sensitised to alpha-gal after being bitten by a tick (far left) that transfers the carbohydrate (blue spheres) to the bloodstream, where the immune system attacks the foreign particle (second on left). When the individual next eats meat (second from right) the immune system mounts a reaction to the alpha-gal (far right) that can cause a range of symptoms than can include a runny nose, itching, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, or vomiting.
! EN_01352078_0442 SCI
Illustration showing the floor plan of Angkor, site of the ancient capital of the Khmer Empire in Cambodia. At centre is the walled city Angkor Thom. At the centre of the city is the Bayon, the state temple. The smaller area at bottom right is the temple of Angkor Wat. Angkor Thom was one of the largest cities in the world from the 9th to the 12th century. The area was excavated by the French in the 1860s.
! EN_01352078_0443 SCI
Illustration showing the floor plan of Angkor, site of the ancient capital of the Khmer Empire in Cambodia. At centre is the walled city Angkor Thom. At the centre of the city is the Bayon, the state temple. The smaller area at bottom right is the temple of Angkor Wat. Angkor Thom was one of the largest cities in the world from the 9th to the 12th century. The area was excavated by the French in the 1860s.
! EN_01352078_0444 SCI
Muscle structure, illustration. Muscles (top left) are formed of groups of muscle bundles, or fascicles, which are themselves formed of bundles of muscle fibres. Muscles fibres (right) are formed of many myofibrils, the basic protein unit of a muscle cell, surrounded by sarcolemma connective tissue. Within the muscle fibre are mitochondria (orange), which provide energy, and transverse tubules (purple), an extension of the cell membrane that conduct action potentials through the muscle. Each myofibril is surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum (blue).
! EN_01352078_0445 SCI
Locomotive at New York World's Fair, 1939. The 1939 New York World's Fair was a universal exposition (Expo) held at the Flushing Meadows park in New York City, USA, over two seasons from April 1939 to October 1940. Over 44 million people attended the wide range of exhibits of current and future technology. In the background at right is the Trylon and Perisphere architectural exhibit. Photographed by US photographer Samuel Gottscho (1875-1971).
! EN_01352078_0446 SCI
Muscle structure, illustration. Muscles (top left) are formed of groups of muscle bundles, or fascicles, which are themselves formed of bundles of muscle fibres. Muscles fibres (right) are formed of many myofibrils, the basic protein unit of a muscle cell, surrounded by sarcolemma connective tissue. Within the muscle fibre are mitochondria (orange), which provide energy, and transverse tubules (purple), an extension of the cell membrane that conduct action potentials through the muscle. Each myofibril is surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum (blue).
! EN_01352078_0447 SCI
Muscle structure, illustration. Muscles (top left) are formed of groups of muscle bundles, or fascicles, which are themselves formed of bundles of muscle fibres. Muscles fibres (right) are formed of many myofibrils, the basic protein unit of a muscle cell, surrounded by sarcolemma connective tissue. Within the muscle fibre are mitochondria (orange), which provide energy, and transverse tubules (purple), an extension of the cell membrane that conduct action potentials through the muscle. Each myofibril is surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum (blue).
! EN_01352078_0448 SCI
Muscle structure, illustration. Muscles (top left) are formed of groups of muscle bundles, or fascicles, which are themselves formed of bundles of muscle fibres. Muscles fibres (right) are formed of many myofibrils, the basic protein unit of a muscle cell, surrounded by sarcolemma connective tissue. Within the muscle fibre are mitochondria (orange), which provide energy, and transverse tubules (purple), an extension of the cell membrane that conduct action potentials through the muscle. Each myofibril is surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum (blue).
! EN_01352078_0449 SCI
Muscle structure, illustration. Muscles (top left) are formed of groups of muscle bundles, or fascicles, which are themselves formed of bundles of muscle fibres. Muscles fibres (right) are formed of many myofibrils, the basic protein unit of a muscle cell, surrounded by sarcolemma connective tissue. Within the muscle fibre are mitochondria (orange), which provide energy, and transverse tubules (purple), an extension of the cell membrane that conduct action potentials through the muscle. Each myofibril is surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum (blue).
! EN_01352078_0450 SCI
Muscle structure, illustration. Muscles (top left) are formed of groups of muscle bundles, or fascicles, which are themselves formed of bundles of muscle fibres. Muscles fibres (right) are formed of many myofibrils, the basic protein unit of a muscle cell, surrounded by sarcolemma connective tissue. Within the muscle fibre are mitochondria (orange), which provide energy, and transverse tubules (purple), an extension of the cell membrane that conduct action potentials through the muscle. Each myofibril is surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum (blue).
! EN_01352078_0451 SCI
Muscle structure, illustration. Muscles (top left) are formed of groups of muscle bundles, or fascicles, which are themselves formed of bundles of muscle fibres. Muscles fibres (right) are formed of many myofibrils, the basic protein unit of a muscle cell, surrounded by sarcolemma connective tissue. Within the muscle fibre are mitochondria (orange), which provide energy, and transverse tubules (purple), an extension of the cell membrane that conduct action potentials through the muscle. Each myofibril is surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum (blue).
! EN_01352078_0452 SCI
Muscle structure, illustration. Muscles (top left) are formed of groups of muscle bundles, or fascicles, which are themselves formed of bundles of muscle fibres. Muscles fibres (right) are formed of many myofibrils, the basic protein unit of a muscle cell, surrounded by sarcolemma connective tissue. Within the muscle fibre are mitochondria (orange), which provide energy, and transverse tubules (purple), an extension of the cell membrane that conduct action potentials through the muscle. Each myofibril is surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum (blue).
! EN_01352078_0453 SCI
First Atlantic telegraph cable, 1858. This telegraph cable was laid between Newfoundland and Valentia Bay (Ireland). Laid by the American steamer Niagara and British steamer Agamemnon, the cable transmitted its first message on 17 August 1858. The cable consisted of a core of copper wires, surrounded by gutta-percha (latex), tarred hemp and an outer sheath of iron wires. It weighed 625 kilograms per kilometre. This first cable failed in September 1858, but a second cable was laid in 1865.
! EN_01352078_0454 SCI
Muscle structure, illustration. Muscles (top left) are formed of groups of muscle bundles, or fascicles, which are themselves formed of bundles of muscle fibres. Muscles fibres (right) are formed of many myofibrils, the basic protein unit of a muscle cell, surrounded by sarcolemma connective tissue. Within the muscle fibre are mitochondria (orange), which provide energy, and transverse tubules (purple), an extension of the cell membrane that conduct action potentials through the muscle. Each myofibril is surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum (blue).
! EN_01352078_0455 SCI
Muscle structure, illustration. Muscles (top left) are formed of groups of muscle bundles, or fascicles, which are themselves formed of bundles of muscle fibres. Muscles fibres (right) are formed of many myofibrils, the basic protein unit of a muscle cell, surrounded by sarcolemma connective tissue. Within the muscle fibre are mitochondria (orange), which provide energy, and transverse tubules (purple), an extension of the cell membrane that conduct action potentials through the muscle. Each myofibril is surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum (blue).
! EN_01352078_0456 SCI
Muscle fibre structure, illustration. Muscles fibres (right) are formed of many myofibrils (red), the basic protein unit of a muscle cell, surrounded by sarcolemma connective tissue (pink). Within the muscle fibre are mitochondria (orange), which provide energy, and transverse tubules (purple), an extension of the cell membrane that conduct action potentials through the muscle. Each myofibril is surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum (blue).
! EN_01352078_0457 SCI
Muscle fibre structure, illustration. Muscles fibres (right) are formed of many myofibrils (red), the basic protein unit of a muscle cell, surrounded by sarcolemma connective tissue (pink). Within the muscle fibre are mitochondria (orange), which provide energy, and transverse tubules (purple), an extension of the cell membrane that conduct action potentials through the muscle. Each myofibril is surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum (blue).
! EN_01352078_0458 SCI
Muscle fibre structure, illustration. Muscles fibres (right) are formed of many myofibrils (red), the basic protein unit of a muscle cell, surrounded by sarcolemma connective tissue (pink). Within the muscle fibre are mitochondria (orange), which provide energy, and transverse tubules (purple), an extension of the cell membrane that conduct action potentials through the muscle. Each myofibril is surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum (blue).
! EN_01352078_0459 SCI
Muscle fibre structure, illustration. Muscles fibres (right) are formed of many myofibrils (red), the basic protein unit of a muscle cell, surrounded by sarcolemma connective tissue (pink). Within the muscle fibre are mitochondria (orange), which provide energy, and transverse tubules (purple), an extension of the cell membrane that conduct action potentials through the muscle. Each myofibril is surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum (blue).
! EN_01352078_0460 SCI
Muscle fibre structure, illustration. Muscles fibres (right) are formed of many myofibrils (red), the basic protein unit of a muscle cell, surrounded by sarcolemma connective tissue (pink). Within the muscle fibre are mitochondria (orange), which provide energy, and transverse tubules (purple), an extension of the cell membrane that conduct action potentials through the muscle. Each myofibril is surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum (blue).
! EN_01352078_0461 SCI
Muscle fibre structure, illustration. Muscles fibres (right) are formed of many myofibrils (red), the basic protein unit of a muscle cell, surrounded by sarcolemma connective tissue (pink). Within the muscle fibre are mitochondria (orange), which provide energy, and transverse tubules (purple), an extension of the cell membrane that conduct action potentials through the muscle. Each myofibril is surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum (blue).
! EN_01352078_0462 SCI
Atlantic telegraph cable laying. Cable ship 'Agamemnon' in 1858, laying the first trans-Atlantic telegraph cable. This ship and its sister ship 'Niagara' made the first attempt to connect North America with Europe in 1857, but the cable snapped and was lost. The next year Agamemnon brought the cable ashore on 5 August 1858. The cable consisted of a core of copper wires, surrounded by gutta-percha (latex), tarred hemp and an outer sheath of iron wires. It weighed 625 kilograms per kilometre. Here, a whale is seen crossing the line as it is laid. This artwork is by British artist Robert Charles Dudley, dating from the period 1865 to 1866.
! EN_01352078_0463 SCI
Capers, gorse and a beetle (upper left). 17th-century illustration of plants and a beetle, part of a study by German naturalist and botanical illustrator Maria Sibylla Merian (1647-1717). Born in Frankfurt, Germany, daughter of a Swiss engraver, Merian was both a botanical illustrator and naturalist. Between 1675 and 1680, she published three books, with hand-coloured engravings, on plants and caterpillars and their life cycle. She also studied and described the life cycles of 186 insect species. This watercolour was published in 1693.
! EN_01352078_0464 SCI
Fruits, insects and shells, historical illustration. This watercolour is attributed to German painter Georg Flegel (1566-1638). It dates from the late-16th to mid-17th century.
! EN_01352078_0465 SCI
Effect of sea level on tectonic plates. Illustration showing a subduction zone between two tectonic plates. An oceanic plate (right) is descending beneath a continental plate (left). Subductions zones have a high rate of volcanic and earthquake activity. If there is an increase in pressure on the subduction zone, for example caused by a rise in sea level above it, the subduction process is accelerated and volcanic and earthquake activity can become more frequent and more violent.
! EN_01352078_0466 SCI
Effect of sea level on tectonic plates. Illustration showing a subduction zone between two tectonic plates. An oceanic plate (right) is descending beneath a continental plate (left). Subductions zones have a high rate of volcanic and earthquake activity. If there is an increase in pressure on the subduction zone, for example caused by a rise in sea level above it, the subduction process is accelerated and volcanic and earthquake activity can become more frequent and more violent.
! EN_01352078_0467 SCI
Effect of sea level on tectonic plates. Illustration showing a subduction zone between two tectonic plates. An oceanic plate (right) is descending beneath a continental plate (left). Subductions zones have a high rate of volcanic and earthquake activity. If there is an increase in pressure on the subduction zone, for example caused by a rise in sea level above it, the subduction process is accelerated and volcanic and earthquake activity can become more frequent and more violent.
! EN_01352078_0468 SCI
Effect of sea level on tectonic plates. Illustration showing a subduction zone between two tectonic plates. An oceanic plate (right) is descending beneath a continental plate (left). Subductions zones have a high rate of volcanic and earthquake activity. If there is an increase in pressure on the subduction zone, for example caused by a rise in sea level above it, the subduction process is accelerated and volcanic and earthquake activity can become more frequent and more violent.
! EN_01352078_0469 SCI
Illustration showing that an increase in sea level leads to an increase in volcanic activity. The increase in sea level leads to an increase in pressure pushing down on the Earth's crust and upper mantle. This pressure results in an increase in the production and eruption of magma, and more volcanic activity.
! EN_01352078_0470 SCI
Part of the constellation of Cygnus, 1880s. This albumen silver print was obtained from a glass negative exposed on 13 August 1885, by the French astronomer and brothers Paul and Prosper Henry. They used a new photographic technique to track the stars across the night sky during long exposures. This revealed numerous distant stars that are not visible to the naked eye.
! EN_01352078_0471 SCI
Illustration showing that an increase in sea level leads to an increase in volcanic activity. The increase in sea level leads to an increase in pressure pushing down on the Earth's crust and upper mantle. This pressure results in an increase in the production and eruption of magma, and more volcanic activity.
! EN_01352078_0472 SCI
Sturtian glaciation, Cryogenian period. Illustration showing the Earth during a glaciation in the Cryogenian period. This geologic period lasted from 850 to 635 million years ago, and included several global glaciations covering the entire Earth (the 'Snowball Earth' hypothesis). This is the Earth at the start of the Sturtian glaciation (750 to 700 million years ago), with the Rodinia supercontinent beginning to break up. Such glaciations killed most life, but when they ended the survivors exploded in evolutionary diversity.
! EN_01352078_0473 SCI
Sturtian glaciation, Cryogenian period. Illustration showing the Earth just before a glaciation in the Cryogenian period. This geologic period lasted from 850 to 635 million years ago, and included several global glaciations covering the entire Earth (the 'Snowball Earth' hypothesis). This is the Earth before the Sturtian glaciation (750 to 700 million years ago), with the Rodinia supercontinent beginning to break up. Such glaciations killed most life, but when they ended the survivors exploded in evolutionary diversity.
! EN_01352078_0474 SCI
Sturtian glaciation, Cryogenian period. Illustration showing the Earth during a glaciation in the Cryogenian period. This geologic period lasted from 850 to 635 million years ago, and included several global glaciations covering the entire Earth (the 'Snowball Earth' hypothesis). This is the Earth during the Sturtian glaciation (750 to 700 million years ago), with the Rodinia supercontinent beginning to break up. Such glaciations killed most life, but when they ended the survivors exploded in evolutionary diversity.
! EN_01352078_0475 SCI
Editorial use only Observing the solar eclipse of 17 April 1912. People in the streets of Paris, France, watching the Sun as it is covered by the Moon. Total solar eclipses usually occur less than once a year, and can only be seen from a small area of the Earth's surface. Centuries can pass before another total solar eclipse is visible from the same location. This eclipse was a hybrid event, starting and ending as an annular eclipse, with only a small portion of totality. Photographed by French photographer Eugene Atget (1857-1927).
! EN_01352078_0476 SCI
Sturtian glaciation, Cryogenian period. Illustration showing the Earth during a glaciation in the Cryogenian period. This geologic period lasted from 850 to 635 million years ago, and included several global glaciations covering the entire Earth (the 'Snowball Earth' hypothesis). This is the Earth during the Sturtian glaciation (750 to 700 million years ago), with the Rodinia supercontinent beginning to break up. Such glaciations killed most life, but when they ended the survivors exploded in evolutionary diversity.
! EN_01352078_0477 SCI
Earth's volcanoes and fault lines. Map of the Earth showing the location of volcanoes (orange) and the boundaries (white lines) of the tectonic plates that make up the Earth's crust. These tectonic plates move over the molten rock below them, colliding with and moving past, under and over each other. Immense pressures can build up, which are released during an earthquake. Where a plate is being destroyed under another one (seen around the Pacific Ocean), volcanoes form as the molten rock rises to the surface. Volcanoes can also form at isolated hotspots, such as Hawaii (centre left).
! EN_01352078_0478 SCI
Earth's volcanoes and fault lines. Map of the Earth showing the location of volcanoes (orange) and the boundaries (red lines) of the tectonic plates that make up the Earth's crust. These tectonic plates move over the molten rock below them, colliding with and moving past, under and over each other. Immense pressures can build up, which are released during an earthquake. Where a plate is being destroyed under another one (seen around the Pacific Ocean), volcanoes form as the molten rock rises to the surface. Volcanoes can also form at isolated hotspots, such as Hawaii (centre left).
! EN_01352078_0479 SCI
Earth's volcanoes. Map of the Earth showing the location of volcanoes (orange). Volcanoes form where a tectonic plate is being destroyed under another one (seen around the Pacific Ocean) as the molten rock rises to the surface. Volcanoes can also form at isolated hotspots, such as Hawaii (centre left).
! EN_01352078_0480 SCI
Earth's volcanoes. Map of the Earth showing the location of volcanoes (orange). Volcanoes form where a tectonic plate is being destroyed under another one (seen around the Pacific Ocean) as the molten rock rises to the surface. Volcanoes can also form at isolated hotspots, such as Hawaii (centre left).
! EN_01352078_0481 SCI
Earth's fault lines. Map of the Earth showing the location of the boundaries (red lines) of the tectonic plates that make up the Earth's crust. These tectonic plates move over the molten rock below them, colliding with and moving past, under and over each other. Immense pressures can build up, which are released during an earthquake. Where a plate is being destroyed under another one (seen around the Pacific Ocean), volcanoes form as the molten rock rises to the surface.
! EN_01352078_0482 SCI
Egyptian papyrus representation of Saturn. Fragments of excavated papyrus from Ancient Egypt with a representation of the planet Saturn. This papyrus dates from the Third Intermediate Period to Late Period (Dynasty 25 26), from around 525 to 200 BC. It was excavated in 1918-19 from Tomb MMA 601 at Deir el-Bahri, Thebes, Upper Egypt.
! EN_01352078_0483 SCI
Egyptian writing board. Gessoed wooden board that can be painted over for re-use. This board still bears traces of earlier writing (at left). The main text is a model letter that the student copied and memorised. Spelling mistakes have been corrected in red ink by the teacher. This object dates from the Middle Kingdom (Dynasty 12), from around 1981 BC to 1802 BC. It was found in Upper Egypt.
! EN_01352078_0484 SCI
Egyptian writing board. Gessoed wooden board that can be painted over for re-use. This board has been used by a student who is still learning the best writing techniques. This object dates from the First Intermediate Period (Dynasty 11 or earlier), from around 2030 BC.
! EN_01352078_0485 SCI
Weighing of the heart, Egyptian Book of the Dead. Scene from the funerary papyrus for Nany, a Singer of Amun, showing the weighing of the heart that is used to judge the dead in the afterlife. Nany is at left, with Isis at far left. The god Osiris is at right. The jackal-headed Anubis is at centre. The baboon on the scales represents Thoth, the god of wisdom. Nany's heart (on left-hand scale) has been successfully weighed against Mat (goddess of justice and truth), who is the small figure on the right-hand scale. Across top, Nany meets falcon god Horus, and stands by her own tomb. This papyrus dates from the Third Intermediate Period (Dynasty 21), from around 1050 BC, during the reign of Psusennes I and Psusennes II. The papyrus was excavated in 1928-29 from the Tomb of Meritamun (MMA 65 at Deir el-Bahri, Thebes, Upper Egypt.
! EN_01352078_0486 SCI
Clownfish (Amphiprion percula) breeding male and female, and non-breeding individual (left). Photographed in Kimbe Bay, West New Britain, Papua New Guinea.
! EN_01352078_0487 SCI
Clownfish (Amphiprion percula) breeding male and female, and non-breeding individual (left). Photographed in Kimbe Bay, West New Britain, Papua New Guinea.
! EN_01352078_0488 SCI
Earth's airglow. Image showing the different colours of airglow that appear at varying altitudes in the Earth's atmosphere (from top to bottom: exosphere, thermosphere, mesosphere, stratosphere, troposphere). Airglow is a faint emission of light by a planetary atmosphere that occurs when atoms and molecules in the upper atmosphere, excited by sunlight, emit light to shed their excess energy. Airglow constantly shines throughout Earth's atmosphere creating a 'bubble' of light that encases the entire planet. The composition of the atmosphere at different altitudes causes different colours of light to be emitted and this effect can be used to study the different layers of the atmosphere, such as temperature, density, and composition.

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