poniedziałek, 18 grudnia 2017
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Życie po zmianach klimatu w Bangladeszu - Redux (70)

! EN_01281470_0042 RED
A climate migrant from Shyamnagar (Satkhira District) finds work as a rickshaw puller in Dhaka. Unemployment and salinity both is encouraging people to move from their usual habitat.
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! EN_01281470_0062 RED
Little cowboy works in the field whole day, there is not much work or educational facility in the small island.
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! EN_01281470_0001 RED
A fishermen village nearby Sundarbans forest.
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! EN_01281470_0008 RED
Fisherman walks through the alley in search of a suitable place for fishing.
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! EN_01281470_0010 RED
Children playing football beside coastal river.
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! EN_01281470_0014 RED
A fisherman living nearby Sundarbans forest fixing his boat. Due to change of climate and ecosystem it is sometime very difficult for them to catch expected amount of fish from the river.
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! EN_01281470_0039 RED
Coastal rivers are being gradually eroded due to frequent tidal floods.
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! EN_01281470_0040 RED
Shorno Rokta catches fish in the coastal rivers. She couldn't able build her house due to insufficient fund since the cyclone Aila hit Gabura in 2009.
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! EN_01281470_0061 RED
A boy is having haircut by his brother.
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! EN_01281470_0067 RED
Men fixing water pump to remove saline water from a pond. Because of huge scarcity of drinking water, people usually excavate ponds as an alternative source of fresh water.
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! EN_01281470_0007 RED
Shirina Khatun and her family moved out of Gabura after Aila cyclone destroyed their house. She has now started a poultry farm.
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! EN_01281470_0015 RED
An embankment building worker.
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! EN_01281470_0016 RED
Soil is being dig to create an embankment for protection of Gabura from tidal flood.
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! EN_01281470_0064 RED
Children studying in a village school.
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! EN_01281470_0066 RED
An infant is sleeping on a swing couch.
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! EN_01281470_0012 RED
She fishes nearby canals in the forest to support her family by providing food.
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! EN_01281470_0013 RED
Nijhum Dwip is a small island in northern Bay of Bengal, people from here are very religious when storm comes they have no one to call except God.
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! EN_01281470_0041 RED
A girl from Hatiya Island situated in northern bay of Bengal is a climate prone area of Bangladesh.
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! EN_01281470_0063 RED
People living in the islands around Bay of Bengal of Bangladesh face frequent natural calamity every year.
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! EN_01281470_0002 RED
According to a report from FAO, during the year 2003 to 2005, 177 people were victim of tiger attack around coastline areas and 117 were from Satkhira District. Hospital facilities in the locality near the Sundarbans are almost none. To get immediate aid after tiger attacks requires river ambulance services as well as emergency medical facilities around the forest. A kabiraj (village doctor) named Sushil Kumar Mondol claimed that he saved 141 tiger attack victims through out his life time.
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! EN_01281470_0009 RED
In general, women are responsible for household work. The impact of climate change around coastline areas of Bangladesh made women more vulnerable to poverty. They now have limited resources from nature and forests, as some parts belong to the Sundarbans and other river oriented places.
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! EN_01281470_0069 RED
Government forest department issues license and mawalis have to pay a certain amount of money. The Sundarbans are surrounded by many groups of pirates who also demand a fee per head to enter the forest. Tiger is another life threat for mawalis, every year a large number of people get eaten by tigers.
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! EN_01281470_0018 RED
Historically industrialized countries are responsible for causing climate change. Thus they should be providing compensations to the countries where people are forced to deal with the impacts of climate changes caused by their actions.
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! EN_01281470_0028 RED
Loss of crop caused by the flood, storm surge, cyclone, and drought are increasing every year. Salinity and permanent inundation are also limiting crop production. Salinity intrusion into the country side has reached 100km inland and degrades land resources. Land use for farming, shrimp farming and other uses in the declining context generates conflicts.
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! EN_01281470_0030 RED
Bangladesh is currently using around 217 877 hectares of area for shrimp farming and as the international demand grows, new areas are added every day. 80% of Bangladesh's shrimp farming area belongs to the Sundarbans. This country is one of the top ten prawn producers in the world. The usage of chemicals, antibiotics for the extensive farming in naturally flooded areas or artificially occupied lands is basically making the ecosystem disappear. It's an environmental crime which is associated by some powerful people who run this industry in Bangladesh.
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! EN_01281470_0036 RED
Shamim Hossain lost 11 members of his family during cyclone Aila. Their boat was drowned in flood water. His mother, sister, grandfather, grandmother, uncles and aunts all died in that catastrophe. His father was alive but he had left him in a religious orphanage permanently.
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! EN_01281470_0037 RED
Climate funds, compensations and loans with environment friendly climate oriented policies can help Bangladesh to fight and can reach its development goals.
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! EN_01281470_0060 RED
A great deal of NGO and government aid was donated to re-build houses for climate victims after Sidr and Aila, almost all of those houses were made of common materials. A study shows that the base of the houses should be climate resistant and eco-friendly as well. They used to use such materials before. For example, places around Sundarbans houses are normally built with Golpata (Nypa Fruticans). Gol leaves are environment friendly and keep houses in a balanced temperature. Since many people around coastline collect Gol leaves from Sundarban forest to make their dwelling, the forest gets trimmed regularly.
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! EN_01281470_0006 RED
According to a study by UKaid (P.K. Das) increase of frequency and extent hazards like cyclones, storm surges, droughts sea level rises put 63 million children in social and physical vulnerability in Bangladesh. Physical vulnerability may include death, injury, diseases, physical abuse, chronic malnutrition and forced labor. Social vulnerability includes loss of parents and family, internal displacement, risk of being trafficked, loss of property and assets, and lack of educational opportunities.
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! EN_01281470_0021 RED
An alternative possibility is coming up in mud crab fishing around coastline areas, many poor people, traders and transporters are directly or indirectly engaged in crab fishing. This can make some change into local and national economy in Bangladesh and also help to assist poor and landless people in adapting to climate changes. Crab collection from the Sundarbans is risky because of tigers. Especially considering, a lot has already died by their attacks. To ensure fair trade and to save crab fishermen it requires awareness initiatives, proper training and appropriate policies.
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! EN_01281470_0031 RED
The coastal population of Bangladesh depends on ground water (tube wells) for drinking, ponds and rivers for washing, bathing. Around 20 million people were primarily affected by various level of salinity.
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! EN_01281470_0057 RED
An agent is checking baby shrimps in a local shrimp market. Fishermen never get the proper price for their products.
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! EN_01281470_0019 RED
Migrated people from the coastal region are also facing the changes in urban climate. However, they are trying to cope with the new work and life in the cities.
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! EN_01281470_0024 RED
Abdul Hakim Gazi and many elders don't have access to medical facilities in Gabura Union. Local pharmacy generally prescribes medicines. People often go to voodoo practitioners to get healing of their diseases as well.
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! EN_01281470_0026 RED
Climate change is an environmental issue having significant implications on development, including achievement of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and its targets.
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! EN_01281470_0029 RED
The Sundarbans is the largest mangrove forest in the world where about 300 species of trees and herbs and about 425 species of wildlife including the Royal Bengal Tiger exist. The Sundarbans, also a World Heritage Site, covers about 4.2 per cent of the total Bangladesh where forests cover only 10.2 per cent of the land area. Out of a total area of 0.6 million hectares of the Sundarbans, 0.4 million hectares are forest areas, and the remaining part comprises water bodies mostly flowing through to the sea at the south. This mangrove forest generally bears the salt-tolerant forest ecosystem except some, amongst which are about 856.7 million Sundari (Heritiera fomes) trees and other species in the main land are less salt-tolerant. These trees are now on the verge of extinction primarily due to suffering from top-dying disease caused mainly due to increasing salinity in surrounding waters.
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! EN_01281470_0043 RED
Achia Khatun, a survivor of cyclone Aila, with her family took her shelter on the roof of their tin-shed home. Last year Achia went to Dhaka to work as a domestic worker. There is no work opportunity in her village. Many under aged girls shifted to Dhaka seeking work either in domestic or garments sectors.
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! EN_01281470_0045 RED
Cyclone along with flood brought sea water that caused permanent salinity. Regular water sources were damaged and crop field created food insecurity. The land became barren and trees couldn't sustain due to soil salinity.
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! EN_01281470_0054 RED
Salinity intrusion including sea level rising creates a harmful effect on the existing fish species. Water salinity exceeds the expected salinity level that is especially required for fresh water fish production.
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! EN_01281470_0065 RED
Children are growing up with huge uncertainty of their future. Migrations to cities, nearest districts and even India have already begun.
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! EN_01281470_0068 RED
Saline water absorbs foam; it is hard to wash cloths in such water. Anwara Begum with her husband and a child try to adapt in Gabura Union. Her husband works as a day labor and Anwara catches fish in the coastal river.
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! EN_01281470_0005 RED
Hindu community at Gabura celebrates Saraswati Puja (Goddess of Knowledge). The community is getting desolate day by day due to the fact that many Hindu people migrate to India every year during Durga Puja when the boarder gets open for Puja celebration.
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! EN_01281470_0025 RED
It is likely that natural disasters will damage more houses and will cause temporary migration. It may also require children to help more with household works leaving less time for schooling. Malnourishment and diseases also impair learning. Extreme climate change related disasters threaten school buildings and educational materials. For example, cyclone Sidr and Aila caused a huge damage to school buildings and wiped out teaching materials.
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! EN_01281470_0059 RED
The rate of unemployment has increased, as local peasant lose their job due to scarcity of agriculture land. Shrimp farming needs much less labor force than agriculture. As a result, many decide to migrate to richer areas while others become dependent on Sundarbans' forest resources. The Sundarbans' resources, however, are limited and their regenerative capabilities are slow.
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! EN_01281470_0056 RED
People received 30kg per person wheat as a ration from the government.
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! EN_01281470_0020 RED
A group of rickshaw pullers migrated from Shyamnagar (Satkhira District) is having a bath in Dhaka, the capital of Bangladesh.
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! EN_01281470_0038 RED
Communities in coastal areas have taken migration as an important adaptation strategy. To prevent migration more work opportunities should be created locally and more steps to fight back with natural disasters should be taken immediately. Otherwise, major cities like Dhaka, Chittagong in Bangladesh won't have capacity to place them all.
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! EN_01281470_0003 RED
The Sundarbans is threatened by over exploitation. The Royal Bengal tigers are also endangered as they come closer and closer to human settlements in search of food. As consequence the "man-tiger conflict" is increasing day by day. Hungry tigers attack on human beings. The rates of these attacks are increasing every day. Hashmat Sardar is a victim of tiger attack who lost left part of his face, now leading an unbelievably difficult life.
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! EN_01281470_0032 RED
Nargis Khatun lost her one eye while she was having a bath in a contaminated pond after the cyclone Aila in 2009. Safe water recourses have been destroyed, all ponds and tube-well are filled with saline water and the soil is also affected by salt.
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! EN_01281470_0047 RED
In the monsoon, rainwater harvesting is a major source of water collection. People often gather them and preserve for the upcoming dry seasons.
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! EN_01281470_0049 RED
A young girl digs deep into soil saturated with salt water, hoping to find logs to burn as fuel. Two years on from Cyclone Aila, the communities along Bangladesh's southwest coastline are starting to rebuild their lives. In the course of the cyclone, which struck in May 2009, surges of water up to three meters high battered the coast along the Bay of Bengal in Khulna district. It was already weakened by Cyclone Sidr, the worst ever in the region. Aila needed a tiny hit to destroy the defenses.
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! EN_01281470_0051 RED
Hazera Khatun witnessed many cyclones and is traumatized. She was taken to a cyclone shelter by her son at the time of cyclone Aila. Her family later lived on the water and rebuilt their house using leaves stripped from the forest.
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! EN_01281470_0058 RED
After arrival of the fishing boats from Sundarbans, a group of people works to sort fishes. Work opportunity is very limited around coastline areas.
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! EN_01281470_0023 RED
Older people spend their time playing cards.
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! EN_01281470_0048 RED
Women and children have to collect drinking water from distant places. Thus, the drop outs from primary schools around coastline areas are huge.
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! EN_01281470_0052 RED
Shrimp farming in the coastal areas is a lucrative business. The increase in salinity is likely to jeopardize shrimp farming. For the last few decades, more and more attention is being given to the sea fish and brackish water fisheries. Shrimp farmers are occupying agricultural lands and Holes are dug illegally for the brackish water. It is required to flow the saline water. It is resulting permanent soil salinity, affecting the local ecosystem.
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! EN_01281470_0004 RED
A group of mawali is having rest and getting ready for going inside the forest to collect honey. In order to survive in this brackish land, people are entering the Sundarbans legally and illegally. About a million people depend on the resources of Sundarbans forest. Traditional forest resource users are experiencing newcomers those who used to have different professions. Due to huge unemployment in the coastal areas, many have already moved to the cities, the rest are trying to demand resource sharing. This situation is creating conflict among original collectors of resources like mawali (honey collectors), bawali (gol leaf collectors), and fishermen including indigenous people Munda, Mahato and Bagdi.
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! EN_01281470_0022 RED
The rise of sea level may increase the rate of various types of health hazards like diarrhea, cholera and other diseases that are common in coastal areas of Bangladesh. Vibrio cholera is the microbe causing cholera. It survives longer in the coastline areas because of salinity level suits for its breeding. Musa Gazi had to suffer from similar diseases including skin problem and multiple occurrences of diarrhea.
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! EN_01281470_0046 RED
Much of the flood damage caused by Cyclone Aila was to the water and sanitation systems on which the Bangladeshi villagers depend. Floodwaters seeped into supplies used for drinking and washing, and latrines were washed away, allowing raw sewage to increase the threat to diseases such as cholera. This young boy in Gabura, one of the worst-hit villages in the Satkhira district, has access to safe drinking water - but has to cross a river to collect it. Livelihoods have also been lost: freshwater with sewage and saltwater, and seawater continues to flood farmlands at high tide two years on, making it impossible to grow crops.
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! EN_01281470_0050 RED
Mohammad Al-Amin Islam operates a small poultry farm jointly with his father. His father received micro loans that helped him to start with his business. Many people take loan from NGO to repay the previous loans; a productive business or investment on existing profession only may help out these people.
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! EN_01281470_0055 RED
Since losing her home to cyclone Aila, Achia Khatun still lives in the embankments. She is a fisher-woman who catches baby shrimps.
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! EN_01281470_0070 RED
Amena Khatun, a widow faced several cyclones in her life. Her house was swiped away by tidal flood during cyclone "Aila". Her son re-built the house without any aid. She has now become fully depended on her son who lives with his two kids.
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! EN_01281470_0033 RED
Women in the developing countries like Bangladesh mostly live under poverty and natural disasters. These are making them more vulnerable, affecting their livelihoods and security.
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! EN_01281470_0011 RED
In search of food, people around coastlines near Sundarbans have taken up a profession, catching excessively young shrimps from rivers degrading the marine ecology and biodiversity. As the places around coastlines are affected by salinity due to climate change people's usual professions are replaced by alternatives to survive in the hostile condition.
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! EN_01281470_0017 RED
Hope is the only thing that climate victims have in their mind.
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! EN_01281470_0034 RED
Because of the geographical setting, Bangladesh has to receive and drain out a huge volume of upstream waters. The flows of major rivers are originated from Himalayas; due to the temperature rise, melting glaciers may cause flood and water logging in many places around Bangladesh.
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! EN_01281470_0027 RED
Higher risks of embankment breaks are during floods. When the cyclone Aila affected the coastal area, the embankments easily broke down. In the report written by the Bangladesh Water Development Board it is clearly stated that the illegal pipes were used for shrimps' farming. These were responsible for the easy breaking of embankments during Aila.
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! EN_01281470_0044 RED
Gabura, a union of Satkhira District is comprised of twelve villages and an island near to the main land. About 35 thousand people live here. This area was washed out by the cyclone "Aila" in the year 2009. Hundreds of people drowned and died in the water. Survivors took immediate shelters. Some went to the nearest cyclone center. And the others went to their roofs and trees. For about two years after the cyclone, thousands of people had to stay and live on the embankment.
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! EN_01281470_0053 RED
Due to the lack of work opportunities, women are left with no choice but to catch baby shrimp from coastal rivers; the sell them in the local market. A great number of agents work for big shrimp firms. However, consuming saline water is harmful for skin and more seriously for an unborn child.
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! EN_01281470_0035 RED
The effect of climate change not only deals with environment but also pushes its impact indirectly on people and especially children. A study by the "Save the Children" indicates that climate change is the biggest health threat to children. The study observes the link between climate change and child survival rate. Because of climate change, they are getting more introduced with the diseases. Nearly 3.8 million children from Asia die before reaching five. In Bangladesh, malnutrition, pneumonia, diarrhea, malaria, polio is the main reason of child mortality. Climate change is directly impacting women and children. They are becoming poor to the poorest affecting on existing vulnerabilities like rural health system, food security, water and sanitation.
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