zamknij [x]
do:

Podbój kosmosu (86)

EN_01346867_0001 IMA
Part of the lunar surface, 1857. The surface of the Moon in the region of Mare Crisium at Old Moon. From "Astronomical Observations made at the Royal Observatory, Edinburgh". (Edinburgh, 1857).
EN_01346867_0002 IMA
Solar corona and prominences 1870. Observations made by the English astronomer Warren de la Rue (1815-1889) at Rivabellosa in Spain during a total solar eclipse, 18 July 1860. From "Le Ciel" by Camille Flammarion. (Paris 1870).
EN_01346867_0003 IMA
Solar corona and prominences 1860. Observations made by the English astronomer Warren de la Rue ( 1815-1889) at Rivabellosa in Spain during the total solar eclipse, 18 July 1860. From "Le Ciel" by Camille Flammarion. (Paris 1870).
EN_01346867_0004 IMA
John H Glenn, American astronaut, May 1998. In October 1998, the STS-95 mission flew from the Kennedy Space Center with the aim of examining the effects of space flight and ageing, for which Glenn was the test subject. During the 3.5 million mile journey, over eighty scientific experiments were carried out to learn more about the human body and how the Sun affects life on Earth. Glenn made his first space flight in 1962.
EN_01346867_0005 IMA
John H Glenn and crew members, June 1998. Wearing training versions of the Space Shuttle partial pressure launch and entry suit are (from the left) Scott Parazynski, Glenn, and Stephen Robinson. In October 1998, the STS-95 mission flew from the Kennedy Space Center with the aim of examining the effects of space flight and ageing, for which Glenn was the test subject. During the 3.5 million mile journey, over eighty scientific experiments were carried out to learn more about the human body and how the sun affects life on Earth.
EN_01346867_0006 IMA
John Glenn and crew, June 1998. Seated are Curtis L Brown and Steven W Lindsey. Standing, from the left are Scott F Parazynski and Steven K Robinson, Chiaki Mukai, Pedro Duque and John H Glenn. In October 1998, the STS-95 mission flew from the Kennedy Space Center with the aim of examining the effects of space flight and ageing, for which Glenn was the test subject. During the 3.5 million mile journey, over eighty scientific experiments were carried out to learn more about the human body and how the sun affects life on Earth.
EN_01346867_0007 IMA
Full view of Saturn and her rings, 1980. This picture, taken from Voyager 1 at 34 million kilometres, clearly shows the cloud patterns on the planet and the gap in the ring system. Two Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977 to explore the planets in the outer solar system. Voyager 1 flew past Jupiter at 278,000 kilometres in March 1979 and then past Saturn at a height of 124,000 kilometres in November 1980.
EN_01346867_0008 IMA
The planet Saturn, 1980. This picture was taken from Voyager 1 at 34 million kilometres and shows clear detail in Saturn's rings. Two Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977 to explore the planets in the outer solar system. Voyager 1 flew past Jupiter at 278,000 kilometres in March 1979 and then past Saturn at a height of 124,000 kilometres in November 1980.
EN_01346867_0009 IMA
Close up of Saturn's rings, 1981. Taken by Voyager 2 the clear ring structure can be seen as well as the distinct gap in the rings. Two Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977 to explore the planets in the outer solar system. Voyager 2 flew past Jupiter at 650,000 kilometres in July 1979 before flying on to Saturn which it reached in August 1981.
EN_01346867_0010 IMA
Colour-enhanced view of Saturn, 1980. Taken from the Voyager 2 spacecraft. The enhancement brings out the details in the cloud bands. Two Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977 to explore the planets in the outer solar system. Voyager 1 made its closest approach to Jupiter of 278,000 kilometres in March 1979 before flying on to Saturn which it reached in November 1980.
EN_01346867_0011 IMA
View of Mars, August 1976. Taken from Viking 2 Orbiter, the photograph shows the large Ascreaus Mons volcano swathed in clouds of ice crystals in the top right corner. Two Viking spacecraft were launched towards Mars in 1975, each carrying a lander spacecraft and an orbiter. Both successfully landed their probes on Mars to study the Martian environment, soil constituents and to search for simple life forms - none was found.
EN_01346867_0012 IMA
View of Mars, August 1976. Taken from the Viking 2 Orbiter, this photograph shows the large Ascreaus Mons volcano swathed in clouds of ice crystals in the top right corner. Two Viking spacecraft were launched towards Mars in 1975, each carrying a lander spacecraft and an orbiter. Both successfully landed their probes on Mars to study the Martian environment, soil constituents and to search for simple life forms - none was found.
EN_01346867_0013 IMA
Part of the "Grand Canyon", Marineris Vallis, on Mars, 1976. This view was taken by the Viking Orbiter 1 spacecraft. The canyons are some 4000 kilometres long and are over 6 kilometres deep in places. Two Viking spacecraft were launched towards Mars in 1975, each carrying a lander spacecraft and an orbiter. Both successfully landed their probes on Mars to study the Martian environment, soil constituents and to search for simple life forms, however none was found.
EN_01346867_0014 IMA
Great Red Spot on Jupiter, 1979. Voyager 1's image of a close up of the turbulent region around the Great Red Spot on Jupiter, a storm that has been raging for hundreds of years. The white spot shows another cloud system that appears to have formed around 1940. Two Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977 to explore the planets in the outer solar system. Voyager 1 flew past Jupiter at 278,000 kilometres in March 1979 before flying on to Saturn.
EN_01346867_0015 IMA
Great Red Spot on Jupiter, 1979. Voyager 1's image of a close up of the turbulent region around the Great Red Spot on Jupiter, a storm that has been raging for hundreds of years. The white spot shows another cloud system that appears to have formed around 1940. Two Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977 to explore the planets in the outer solar system. Voyager 1 flew past Jupiter at 278,000 kilometres in March 1979 before flying on to Saturn.
EN_01346867_0016 IMA
The planet Jupiter,1979. Full view of the planet Jupiter from 32 million kilometres, taken from Voyager 1. The Great Red Spot on Jupiter, a storm that has been raging for hundreds of years, is clearly visible. Two Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977 to explore the planets in the outer solar system. Voyager 1 flew past Jupiter at 278,000 kilometres in March 1979 before flying on to Saturn.
EN_01346867_0017 IMA
The planet Jupiter, 1979. Taken from Voyager 1 at 20 million kilometres this pictures shows the Great Red Spot, a storm that has been raging for hundreds of years, and two of Jupiter's moons - Io over the Red Spot and Europa. Two Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977 to explore the planets in the outer solar system. Voyager 1 flew past Jupiter at 278,000 kilometres in March 1979 before flying on to Saturn.
EN_01346867_0018 IMA
Four moons of Jupiter. Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, 1979. Four separate pictures of these moons taken from Voyager 1. Two Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977 to explore the planets in the outer solar system. Voyager 1 flew past Jupiter at 278,000 kilometres in March 1979 before flying on to Saturn.
EN_01346867_0019 IMA
Jupiter and Io, one of its moons, 1979. This picture was taken by Voyager 1 from a distance of 20 million kilometres. Two Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977 to explore the planets in the outer solar system. Voyager 1 flew past Jupiter at 278,000 kilometres in March 1979 before flying on to Saturn.
EN_01346867_0020 IMA
Full view of Io, one of the moons of Jupiter, 1979. Taken from the Voyager 1, this moon was named the pizza moon because of its mottled appearance. Io is highly volcanic and this picture was taken from a distance of 862,000 kilometres. Two Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977 to explore the planets in the outer solar system. Both flew past Jupiter in 1979 before flying on to Saturn.
EN_01346867_0021 IMA
Nearly full view of Io, one of the moons of Jupiter, 1979. Taken from Voyager this moon was named the pizza moon because of its mottled appearance. Io is highly volcanic and this picture shows several volcanic areas. This picture was taken by one of the two Voyager spacecraft that were launched in 1977 to explore the planets in the outer solar system. Both flew past Jupiter in 1979 before flying on to Saturn.
EN_01346867_0022 IMA
Four moons of Jupiter, Io, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto, 1979. Four separate pictures of these moons sometimes known as the Galilean moons taken from Voyager 1. Two Voyager spacecraft were launched in 1977 to explore the planets in the outer solar system. Voyager 1 flew past Jupiter at 278,000 kilometres in March 1979 before flying on to Saturn.
EN_01346867_0023 IMA
Front side of the moon, 22 July 1969. This picture was taken by the Apollo 11 astronauts on their way back to earth after their historic moon landing mission. The Apollo 11 Lunar Module, code named Eagle, with astronauts Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin on board landed in the Sea of Tranquillity on 20 July 1969.
EN_01346867_0024 IMA
Geological map of the moon, 1967. This map is based largely on photographs taken by the US Lunar Orbiter 4 spacecraft. Launched on 4 May 1967, Lunar Orbiter 4 was the fourth in a series of five spacecraft designed to assist in the selection of Apollo manned moon landing sites in the equatorial region from 43 degrees east to 56 degrees west.
EN_01346867_0025 IMA
The earth from space, 1968. This picture was probably taken by the Apollo 8 astronauts during the first lunar orbital mission over Christmas 1968. Many such pictures of the earth, a blue and white planet against the black background of space, were taken on the various Apollo missions.
EN_01346867_0026 IMA
False colour image of a solar flare from Skylab, 1973. Skylab, America's first space station launched on 14 May 1973, carried many scientific experiments. The biggest was the Apollo Telescope Mount which contained eight instruments to study the sun at various wavelengths. Skylab was visited by three 3 man crews between May 1973 and February 1974, the last of which set a new space endurance record of 84 days.
EN_01346867_0027 IMA
Large solar prominence in extreme ultraviolet light, 1973. This picture taken by Skylab 4 on 19 Dec 1973, shows one of the most spectacular solar flares ever recorded. Skylab, America's first space station launched on 14 May 1973, carried many scientific experiments. The biggest was the Apollo Telescope Mount which contained eight instruments to study the sun at various wavelengths. Skylab was visited by three 3 man crews between May 1973 and February 1974, the last of which set a new space endurance record of 84 days.
EN_01346867_0028 IMA
False colour photograph of the sun and the moon, c1970s. Taken from the Skylab space station. Skylab was launched on 14 May 1973 and was America's first manned orbiting space station. Visiting crews of three astronauts, could perform dozens of tests on each other to find out how well the human body copes with space travel. Three crews visited Skylab during its working life. The last mission was in February 1974, but Skylab remained in orbit until 1979.
EN_01346867_0029 IMA
X-ray image of sun, Skylab, 1970s. This image shows a coronal hole. Skylab was launched on 14 May 1973 and was America's first manned orbiting space station. Visiting crews of three astronauts, could perform dozens of tests on each other to find out how well the human body copes with space travel. Three crews visited Skylab during its working life. The last mission was in February 1974, but Skylab remained in orbit until 1979.
EN_01346867_0030 IMA
Polishing the mirror of the Hubble Telescope, 1980s. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST), was designed to see seven times further into space than had been possible before, without the distortion caused by the earth's atmosphere. HST is a reflecting telescope and its main mirror has a diameter of 2 1/2 meter. Work began in 1977 and HST was finally launched by Space Shuttle Discovery on 24 April 1990. Problems with its giant mirror meant that it did not initially work as well as expected. Corrective optics were installed in 1993, greatly improving the telescope's performance, enabling it to view the Universe in unprecedented detail.
EN_01346867_0031 IMA
Testing the Hubble Space Telescope , 1980s. The telescope is shown being installed in an acoustic test cell. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST), was designed to see seven times further into space than had been possible before, without the distortion caused by the earth's atmosphere. HST is a reflecting telescope and its main mirror has a diameter of 2 1/2 meters. Work began in 1977 and HST was finally launched by Space Shuttle Discovery on 24 April 1990. Problems with its giant mirror meant that it did not initially work as well as expected. Corrective optics were installed in 1993, greatly improving the telescope's performance, enabling it to view the Universe in unprecedented detail.
EN_01346867_0032 IMA
Hubble Space Telescope in orbit, 1980s. Artist's impression of the Hubble Telescope in orbit over the earth. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST), was designed to see seven times further into space than had been possible before, without the distortion caused by the earth's atmosphere. HST is a reflecting telescope and its main mirror has a diameter of 2 1/2 meters. Work began in 1977 and HST was finally launched by Space Shuttle Discovery on 24 April 1990. Problems with its giant mirror meant that it did not initially work as well as expected. Corrective optics were installed in 1993, greatly improving the telescope's performance, enabling it to view the Universe in unprecedented detail.
EN_01346867_0033 IMA
Drawing of Hubble Telescope, 1980s. Artist's impression of the exchange of information via Hubble, Tracking and Data Relay Satellites (TRDS) and ground stations. Hubble Space Telescope (HST), was designed to see seven times further into space than had been possible before, without the distortion caused by the earth's atmosphere. HST is a reflecting telescope and its main mirror has a diameter of 2 1/2 meters. Work began in 1977 and HST was finally launched by Space Shuttle Discovery on 24 April 1990. Problems with its giant mirror meant that it did not initially work as well as expected. Corrective optics were installed in 1993, greatly improving the telescope's performance, enabling it to view the Universe in unprecedented detail.
EN_01346867_0034 IMA
Deployment of the Hubble Space Telescope, 1990. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was put into orbit from the Space Shuttle Discovery, mission STS-31 on 24 April 1990. HST is shown, still in the grasp of the shuttle's robot arm, with the earth in the background, during the deployment of the solar panels and antennae. HST was designed to see seven times further into space than had been possible before, without the distortion caused by the earth's atmosphere. Problems with its giant mirror meant that it did not initially work as well as expected. Corrective optics were installed in 1993, greatly improving the telescope's performance, enabling it to view the Universe in unprecedented detail.
EN_01346867_0035 IMA
Deployment of the Hubble Space Telescope, 1990. The Hubble Space Telescope (HST) was put into orbit from the Space Shuttle Discovery, mission STS-31 on 24 April 1990. HST, still in the grip of the shuttle's robot arm, is backdropped against Cuba and the Bahamas. HST was designed to see seven times further into space than had been possible before, without the distortion caused by the earth's atmosphere. Problems with its giant mirror meant that it did not initially work as well as expected. Corrective optics were installed in 1993, greatly improving the telescope's performance, enabling it to view the Universe in unprecedented detail.
EN_01346867_0036 IMA
Apollo 9 astronauts, 1968. Russell Schweickart, Lunar Module pilot, David Scott, Command Module pilot and James McDivitt, Commander, are dressed in spacesuits during a ground-based training exercise. Apollo 9, launched on 3 March 1969, carried the first complete Apollo spacecraft into earth orbit. The first docking of the Command and Service Module with the Lunar Module was carried out on this mission.
EN_01346867_0037 IMA
Apollo 9 Saturn V rocket, 1969. This rocket, shown here on its launch pad at the Kennedy Space Centre, Cape canaveral, Florida, USA, launched Apollo 9 on 3 March 1969, carrying astronauts James McDivitt, David Scott and Russell Schweickart, into earth orbit where they tested the full Apollo moon craft for the first time. The Saturn V was the largest rocket ever built and was used on all Apollo missions to the moon.
EN_01346867_0038 IMA
Launch of the Apollo 17 mission, 1972. Apollo 17 was the last Apollo moon landing mission and the only one to be launched at night. This Saturn V rocket carrying astronauts, Eugene Cernan (Commander), Ronald Evans (Command Module pilot) and Harrison Schmitt (Lunar Module pilot), lifted off from the Kennedy Space Centre, Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA, on 7 December 1972. Schmitt, the 12th man to walk on the moon, was also the first geologist to set foot on the lunar surface.
EN_01346867_0039 IMA
Hasselblad Lunar Surface Camera, 1969. This camera, a modified Hasselblad SWC, was used on the Apollo moon landing missions.
EN_01346867_0040 IMA
The Apollo 10 Command Module (Capsule), 26 May 1969. The capsule being winched aboard the prime recovery vessel USS Princeton at the end of its mission in May 1969. The Apollo capsule is the only part of the Apollo spacecraft that returns to earth. Apollo 10, carrying astronauts Thomas Stafford, John Young and Eugene Cernan, was launched on 18 May 1969 on a lunar orbital mission, the dress rehearsal for the Apollo 11 landing mission.
EN_01346867_0041 IMA
Armstrong and Aldrin unfurl the US flag on the moon, 1969. Apollo 11, the first manned lunar landing mission, was launched on 16 July 1969 and Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin became the first and second men to walk on the moon on 20 July 1969. The third member of the crew, Michael Collins, remained in lunar orbit.
EN_01346867_0042 IMA
Apollo 16 astronaut Thomas Mattingly in spacesuit, 1971, pictured with the mission badge. Mattingly flew as the Command and Service Module pilot with astronauts, David Scott and John Young, on the Apollo 16 mission to the moon in April 1972. Mattingly remained in lunar orbit in his Command and Service Module while Young and Scott descended to become the 9th and 10th men to walk on the moon. Mattingly later flew on Space Shuttle missions 4 and 15.
EN_01346867_0043 IMA
Astronaut on EVA from the Space Shuttle Atlantis, 1985. Astronaut Woody Spring is shown during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) from Shuttle Atlantis attached to the robot arm, Remote Manipulator System (RMS), moving a space structure. This is one of the experiments that studied space construction techniques in preparation for the building of the international space station at the beginning of the next century. Space Shuttle Mission 61-B was launched on 26 November 1985 and was the second flight of Atlantis.
EN_01346867_0044 IMA
The Mercury Seven astronauts, 1959. A group photo in spacesuits of the seven test pilots chosen in April 1959 to participate in Project Mercury, NASA's manned space project. The astronauts are: (front row, left to right) Walter Schirra, Donald Slayton, John Glenn, Scott Carpenter, (back row, left to right) Alan Shepard, Virgil Grissom and Gordon Cooper.
EN_01346867_0045 IMA
Space Shuttle Columbia on Earth, 1980s. Rear of Columbia, at Kennedy Space Centre, Cape Canaveral, Florida, USA, showing Space Shuttle Main Engines (SSME). The Shuttle has three main engines which are used during the early stages of the launch. The Space Shuttle, the world's first partially reusable launch vehicle, first flew on 12 April 1981 and has been used for all America's manned space missions ever since.
EN_01346867_0046 IMA
Space Shuttle Orbiter mounted on top of a Boeing 747 carrier aircraft, 1977. The Shuttle Orbiter is often transported this way from landing site to launch site. Here it is being flown prior to early landing tests of the Orbiter, during which it was released from the 747 aircraft and glided into land as it would on return from space. The first landing test took place on 12 August 1977.
EN_01346867_0047 IMA
Landsat image of Manhattan, New York, USA, at 30m spatial resolution, 1980s. Seven Landsats have been launched between 1972 and 1999 to study the Earth's surface in various spectral bands from the visible to the infra-red. Landsat 7 can now achieve a panchromatic resolution of 15m.
EN_01346867_0048 IMA
Composite Landsat false colour image of Greater London, 1979. This image was processed by the Space Department at the Royal Aircraft Establishment, Farnborough, from Landsat pictures received in May 1979. The River Thames and the Serpentine can clearly be seen. Parks and other green spaces show up as bright red. Five Landsats were launched between 1972 and 1984 to study the earth's surface in various spectral bands from the visible to the infrared with a resolution of about 30 metres.
EN_01346867_0049 IMA
Apollo 15 astronaut James Irwin, with the Lunar Rover with Mount Hadley in the background, August 1971. The Lunar Rover, which enabled the Apollo astronauts to travel further across the moon, was first used on Apollo 15. Apollo 15, the fourth successful lunar landing mission, was launched on 26 July 1971. It carried astronauts David Scott, Irwin and Alfred Worden. Worden remained in lunar orbit in the Apollo Command and Service Module while the other two astronauts descended to the moon.
EN_01346867_0050 IMA
Cryostat for COBE satellite, 1989, USA. The cryostat uses helium to maintain the extremely low temperatures that allow the satellite to function. The Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE), is a NASA satellite devoted to the study of the radiation left over from the Big Bang which formed the Universe. COBE was launched on 18 November 1989. In 1992 the spacecraft returned data showing minute temperature fluctuations of the early universe - the primeval seeding for the subsequent collapse of matter into nebulae and stars.
EN_01346867_0051 IMA
Space Shuttle astronauts on EVA, 1980s. Two astronauts are shown during Extra Vehicular Activity (EVA) in the open cargo bay of Shuttle. The Space Shuttle, the world's first partially reusable launch vehicle, first flew on 12 April 1981 and has been used for all America's manned space missions ever since.
EN_01346867_0052 IMA
Astronaut on Shuttle mission 41-C, 1984. Shuttle astronaut with Solar Maximum Satellite in the hold of the Space Shuttle Challenger. During Shuttle mission 41-C, launched on 6 April 1984, astronauts George Nelson and James van Hoften captured the Solar Maximum Satellite that had failed in orbit four years before, took it back to Challenger where they repaired and released it again. This was the first repair of a satellite in space. The astronauts also flight-tested Manned Manoeuvering Units (MMUs) and operated the Cinema 360 and IMAX Camera Systems.
EN_01346867_0053 IMA
A universal message of friendship, 1977. This message was printed on a plaque attached to Voyagers I and II as they travelled through the solar system in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
EN_01346867_0054 IMA
Volcanic eruption on Jupiter's moon, lo, 1979. The innermost of Jupiter's four Galilean moons, Io is the most volcanically active body in the Solar System. Photographed by Voyager II.
EN_01346867_0055 IMA
Comet Shoemaker-Levy colliding with Jupiter, 20 July 1994. Between 16 and 22 July 1994, some 20 fragments of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 struck the atmosphere of Jupiter, creating disturbances such as the dark smudges visible on the upper part of the planet in this photograph. The largest impact released energy equivalent to an estimated 6 million megatons of TNT and left a mark in the Jovian atmosphere larger than the diameter of the Earth. Astronomers believe that Jupiter plays a vital role in intercepting cosmic debris that might otherwise have reached the inner solar system, enabling the unbroken development of life on Earth to have occurred.
EN_01346867_0056 IMA
Comet Shoemaker-Levy colliding with Jupiter, 20 July 1994. Between 16 and 22 July 1994, some 20 fragments of Comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 struck the atmosphere of Jupiter, creating disturbances which remained visible to astronomers for several days. The largest impact released energy equivalent to an estimated 6 million megatons of TNT and left a mark in the Jovian atmosphere larger than the diameter of the Earth. Astronomers believe that Jupiter plays a vital role in intercepting cosmic debris that might otherwise have reached the inner solar system, enabling the unbroken development of life on Earth to have occurred. Impact with Jupiter 20 July 1994. Photograph taken from Cape Town, South Africa.
EN_01346867_0057 IMA
Remnant of Supernova 1987A. Photographed by the Hubble Space Telescope, Wide Field Planetary Camera 2. Supernovae are massive stellar explosions which throw the outer layers of a star off into space. The quantity of energy released by a supernova can be equivalent to the energy output of the Sun over its entire lifetime. They briefly become what appears to observers as a bright new star, hence the name. Supernova 1987A was first observed within hours of exploding and offered astronomers their first opportunity to test theories of supernova formation against observational evidence. It occurred in the Large Magellanic Cloud, a dwarf galaxy outside the Milky Way, and was caused by the explosion of a blue supergiant star some 20 times the mass of the Sun.
EN_01346867_0058 IMA
ENIAC computer, c1944. The first all-electronic computer designed to be Turing-complete, ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer) was designed by J Presper Eckert and John William Mauchly of the University of Pennsylvania. It was developed and built for the US Army to calculate ballistic firing tables. ENIAC was enormous, weighing 30 tons and consuming 160 kilowatts of power.
EN_01346867_0059 IMA
Full sky microwave maps, 1990. All-sky microwave images at 3 frequencies constructed from preliminary data from the DMR (Different Microwave Radiometers) instrument on NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer (COBE). Cosmic background radiation is the echo of the formation of the Universe in the Big Bang.
EN_01346867_0060 IMA
Microwave map of whole sky, c1990s. A map produced from one year's data from NASA's COBE (Cosmic Background Explorer) satellite. Cosmic background radiation is the echo of the formation of the Universe in the Big Bang.
EN_01346867_0061 IMA
Sunspots and solar prominences, 1973. Image from Skylab's solar telescope. Sunspots are relatively cool areas on the Sun's surface, the photosphere. Their temperature is about 3800 degrees Kelvin, as opposed to around 5800 degrees on the rest of the photosphere, and they can measure as much as 50,000 kilometres across. The number of sunspots is greatest at the point in the cycle of solar activity known as the 'solar maximum', which occurs roughly every 11 years. They form when magnetic field lines below the surface become twisted and protrude through the photosphere. Sunspots are closely associated with the occurrence of solar flares, or prominences, massive eruptions of ionized hydrogen gas, often larger than the Earth, which arch away from the surface of the Sun. Some violent flares called Coronal Mass Ejections interact with the Earth's magnetic field and can disrupt radio communications and produce spectacular aurora displays.
EN_01346867_0062 IMA
Solar eruption. Solar flares, or prominences, are massive eruptions of ionized hydrogen gas, often larger than the Earth, which arch away from the surface of the Sun. Some violent flares called Coronal Mass Ejections interact with the Earth's magnetic field and can disrupt radio communications and produce spectacular aurora displays.
EN_01346867_0063 IMA
False colour image of Antarctic ozone hole, 30 November 1992. The ozone layer plays a vital role in protecting life on Earth from harmful ultraviolet radiation. Studies begun in the 1970s showed that the ozone layer was thinning. The phenomenon was particularly evident over the poles, where the layer was even disappearing on a seasonal basis. The occurence was linked with the presence in the atmosphere of a group of man-made chemicals which destroy ozone, known as CFCs (chloroflurocarbons), used in refrigerators and aerosols.
EN_01346867_0064 IMA
Composite photograph of London taken by Landsat 2, 29 July 1975. Satellite photograph taken from an altitude of 905 km (560 miles). The green, red and infrared wavelengths were recorded separately, then combined to produce the composite image.
EN_01346867_0065 IMA
Infrared photograph of the confluence of the Missouri and Kansas rivers, USA, 19 July 1993. The photograph was taken from NASA's ER-2 aircraft during a period of heavy flooding, as can be seen on the right of the picture.
EN_01346867_0066 IMA
Aurora Australis, April 1994. The curtain form of the Aurora Australis viewed from the Space Shuttle Endeavour, part of which can be seen in top right foreground. Aurorae are caused by the interaction of the particles in the solar wind with the Earth's magnetic field. The phenomenon is most visible in polar regions but in times of intense solar activity can be seen at lower latitudes as well.
EN_01346867_0067 IMA
Aurora Borealis (Northern Lights) viewed from space. Aurorae are caused by the interaction of the particles in the solar wind with the Earth's magnetic field. The phenomenon is most visible in polar regions but in times of intense solar activity can be seen at lower latitudes as well.
EN_01346867_0068 IMA
Launch of Space Shuttle Columbia from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA, 4 April 1997. The Space Shuttle, the world's first partially reusable launch vehicle, first flew on 12th April 1981 and has been used for all America's manned space missions ever since. Columbia was the first of the Shuttle fleet to fly, and successfully completed 28 missions before being lost, together with its crew of seven, on re-entry over Texas on 1st February 2003.
EN_01346867_0069 IMA
Launch of Space Shuttle Challenger from Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA, 1985. The Space Shuttle, the world's first partially reusable launch vehicle, first flew on 12th April 1981 and has been used for all America's manned space missions ever since. Challenger was lost, together with its crew of seven, when it exploded 73 seconds after lift-off on 28th January, 1986.
EN_01346867_0070 IMA
Eye of tropical storm 'Blanca' photographed between 17 and 24 June 1985.
EN_01231879_1131 SIP
Feb. 20, 1962 -- Project Mercury astronaut John H. Glenn Jr., enters the Friendship 7 spacecraft during the last part of the countdown on Feb. 20, 1962. At 9:47 a.m. EST, the Atlas launch vehicle lifted the spacecraft into orbit for a three-orbit mission lasting four hours, 55 minutes and 23 seconds. Glenn and his spacecraft were recovered by the destroyer Noa just 21 minutes after landing in the Atlantic near Grand Turk Island, to successfully complete the nation's first manned orbital flight. Photo credit: NASA Please note: Fees charged by the agency are for the agency's services only, and do not, nor are they intended to, convey to the user any ownership of Copyright or License in the material. The agency does not claim any ownership including but not limited to Copyright or License in the attached material. By publishing this material you expressly agree to indemnify and to hold the agency and its directors, shareholders and employees harmless from any loss, claims, damages, demands, expenses (including legal fees), or any causes of action or allegation against the agency arising out of or connected in any way with publication of the material.
*** Editorial Use Only ***
EN_01231879_1138 SIP
January 1962 -- Project Mercury Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr., prime pilot for the MA-6 mission, takes a work-out in the procedures trainer in preparation for the flight. Photo credit: NASA Please note: Fees charged by the agency are for the agency's services only, and do not, nor are they intended to, convey to the user any ownership of Copyright or License in the material. The agency does not claim any ownership including but not limited to Copyright or License in the attached material. By publishing this material you expressly agree to indemnify and to hold the agency and its directors, shareholders and employees harmless from any loss, claims, damages, demands, expenses (including legal fees), or any causes of action or allegation against the agency arising out of or connected in any way with publication of the material.
*** Editorial Use Only ***
EN_01231879_1140 SIP
1961 -- The first three Americans in space, Mercury astronauts, from the left, John H. Glenn Jr., Virgil I. (Gus) Grissom and Alan B. Shepard Jr. standing by Redstone rocket in their spacesuits. Photo credit: NASA Please note: Fees charged by the agency are for the agency's services only, and do not, nor are they intended to, convey to the user any ownership of Copyright or License in the material. The agency does not claim any ownership including but not limited to Copyright or License in the attached material. By publishing this material you expressly agree to indemnify and to hold the agency and its directors, shareholders and employees harmless from any loss, claims, damages, demands, expenses (including legal fees), or any causes of action or allegation against the agency arising out of or connected in any way with publication of the material.
*** Editorial Use Only ***
EN_01231879_1146 SIP
February 1962 -- Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr., Mercury-Atlas 6 pilot. Photo credit: NASA Please note: Fees charged by the agency are for the agency's services only, and do not, nor are they intended to, convey to the user any ownership of Copyright or License in the material. The agency does not claim any ownership including but not limited to Copyright or License in the attached material. By publishing this material you expressly agree to indemnify and to hold the agency and its directors, shareholders and employees harmless from any loss, claims, damages, demands, expenses (including legal fees), or any causes of action or allegation against the agency arising out of or connected in any way with publication of the material.
*** Editorial Use Only ***
EN_01231879_1149 SIP
January 1962 -- Project Mercury Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr., prime pilot for the MA-6 mission. Photo credit: NASA Please note: Fees charged by the agency are for the agency's services only, and do not, nor are they intended to, convey to the user any ownership of Copyright or License in the material. The agency does not claim any ownership including but not limited to Copyright or License in the attached material. By publishing this material you expressly agree to indemnify and to hold the agency and its directors, shareholders and employees harmless from any loss, claims, damages, demands, expenses (including legal fees), or any causes of action or allegation against the agency arising out of or connected in any way with publication of the material.
*** Editorial Use Only ***
EN_01231879_1151 SIP
1962 -- Running along the beach at Cape Canaveral, Florida, astronaut John H. Glenn Jr., pilot of the Mercury-Atlas 6 mission, participates in a strict physical training program, as he exemplifies by frequent running. Photo credit: NASA Please note: Fees charged by the agency are for the agency's services only, and do not, nor are they intended to, convey to the user any ownership of Copyright or License in the material. The agency does not claim any ownership including but not limited to Copyright or License in the attached material. By publishing this material you expressly agree to indemnify and to hold the agency and its directors, shareholders and employees harmless from any loss, claims, damages, demands, expenses (including legal fees), or any causes of action or allegation against the agency arising out of or connected in any way with publication of the material.
*** Editorial Use Only ***
EN_01231879_1152 SIP
Feb. 20, 1962 -- Astronaut John H. Glenn Jr. uses binoculars to view the Earth through the window of the Mercury-Atlas (MA-6) Friendship 7 capsule during the U.S.'s initial orbital flight. Photo credit: NASA Please note: Fees charged by the agency are for the agency's services only, and do not, nor are they intended to, convey to the user any ownership of Copyright or License in the material. The agency does not claim any ownership including but not limited to Copyright or License in the attached material. By publishing this material you expressly agree to indemnify and to hold the agency and its directors, shareholders and employees harmless from any loss, claims, damages, demands, expenses (including legal fees), or any causes of action or allegation against the agency arising out of or connected in any way with publication of the material.
*** Editorial Use Only ***
EN_01207826_0100 AP
Mrs. Jane Conrad, right, wife of Apollo 12 commander, Charles ?Pete? Conrad, chats with Astronaut James Lovell and his wife Marilyn, left, as they leave St. John?s Episcopal Church after worship service, Nov. 16, 1969, La Port, Tex. Lovell will be command pilot of Apollo 13 space flight. (AP Photo)
15547
EN_01207826_0096 AP
FILE - In this Aug. 13, 1969 file photo, amid ticker tape and American flags, Apollo 11 astronauts wave to welcoming New Yorkers during parade up lower Broadway on Wednesday, in New York. The spacemen, from left, are Michael Collins, Edwin Aldrin, Jr., and Neil A. Armstrong. (AP Photo/Eddie Adams, file)
AUG. 13, 1969 FILE PHOTO
EN_01207826_0098 AP
Wives of Apollo 11 astronauts wave to crowds during parade honoring the astronauts in Chicago on August 13, 1969. They are, left to right, Mrs. Neil A. Armstrong, Mrs. Michael Collins, and Mrs. Edwin Aldrin. (AP Photo)
16062
EN_01207826_0099 AP
A Chicago girl uses the mirror in her compact in an effort to see the ceremonies (background) honoring the crew of Apollo 11, August 13, 1969 at Chicago's Civic Center Plaza. (AP Photo/Larry Stoddard)
16090
EN_01207826_0095 AP
Son of Apollo 11 Astronaut Edwin E. Aldrin, who piloted the lunar module on to the moon's surface, get a first-hand look at instrumentation in the simulator of the command module which flew their father and two fellow astronauts to the moon. Michael Aldrin, 13, in foreground, and Andrew, 11, toured the news center at the Manned Space Center, at Houston on July 22, 1969 while their father's return flight to earth continued. (AP Photo)
15499
EN_01207826_0091 AP
US space project Apollo I equipment September 13, 1963. (AP Photo)
23404 HARDCOPY
EN_01207826_0090 AP
Suited in flight restraining gear an Ames test pilot prepares to enter the 3-man Apollo Spacecraft at Ames Research Center in California April 6, 1962. The preliminary Apollo mock-up is 13' wide and 12' high. (AP Photo)
23404 HARDCOPY
EN_01207826_0089 AP
FILE - In this Jan. 2, 1962 file picture, astronaut John Glenn climbs into the "Friendship 7" Mercury capsule at Cape Canaveral, Fla. First moonwalker Neil Armstrong, first American in orbit Glenn, Mission Control founder Chris Kraft, Apollo 13 commander Jim Lovell, first shuttle pilot Robert Crippen and others are pushing for a last minute reprieve for the about-to-be-retired space shuttle fleet. (AP Photo)
JAN. 2, 1962 FILE PICTURE
EN_01204006_2449 IMA
Cosmodrome (Space Flight Airfield) on April 12th 1961, Space pilot Yuri Gagarin takes the bus to the space ship in which he circled the earth. He returned to earth by parachute. 15th April 1961 Mono Print UnitedArchives1262394 Cosmodrome Space Flight AIRFIELD ON April 12th 1961 Space Pilot Yuri Gagarin Takes The Bus to The Space Ship in Which he circled The Earth he Returned to Earth by Parachute 15th April 1961 Mono Print UnitedArchives1262394
Pers?nlichkeits- und Markenrechte sowie Bestimmungen des Urheberrechts in Bezug auf ein abgebildetes Werk sind zu beachten.Kommerzielle Verwendung von Bildern mit Personen oder Eigentum nur bei Zusatz "model release" bzw. in Eigenverantwortung des Nutzers
Rocznice 2018 Na wyłączność