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January 20, 2009 Science Source (313)

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Gregor Mendel (1822 - 1884), Austrian monk and biologist. Mendel conducted experiments in a monestary in the 1860's with garden peas, working out the law of heredity based on "factors" (genes) that decide which characteristics are passed from parent to offspring. His work, documented in his monograph "Experiments with Plant Hybrids, remained unnoticed until 1900.
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Benjamin Franklin, inventor, statesman and Founding Father of the United States.
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A historical anatomical illustration of the brain with parts labeled according the medical knowledge of the time.
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The Battle of the Alamo, March 6th, 1836, in San Antonio, Texas. The battle was part of Mexico's attempt to reclaim the province of Texas from the United States.
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Johannes Kepler, German astronomer (1571-1630). Kepler devised the three fundamental laws of planetary motion. These laws were based on detailed observations of the planets made by Tycho Brahe and himself. Kepler's first law states that the planets orbit the Sun in elliptical paths, with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse. The second law states that the closer a planet comes to the Sun, the faster it moves. Kepler's third law states that the ratio of the cube of a planet's mean distance from the Sun to the square of its orbital period is a constant. Newton used these ideas to formulate his theory of gravity. Enhancement of black and white image 7p8543.
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Johannes Kepler, German astronomer (1571-1630). Kepler devised the three fundamental laws of planetary motion. These laws were based on detailed observations of the planets made by Tycho Brahe and himself. Kepler's first law states that the planets orbit the Sun in elliptical paths, with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse. The second law states that the closer a planet comes to the Sun, the faster it moves. Kepler's third law states that the ratio of the cube of a planet's mean distance from the Sun to the square of its orbital period is a constant. Newton used these ideas to formulate his theory of gravity. Enhancement of black and white image 7p8543.
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David Levy, the world-known comet discoverer and astronomy popularizer, at his home observatory near Tucson, where he discovered most of his comets.
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Dr. Mario Motta of Massachusetts, built his new 32-inch robotic telescope with a uniqe Relay optical system. The giant personal observatory, which is part of his house, will be used for discovering transiting exo-planets.
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Brian Marsden, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics' chief astronomer, stands next to the 15-inch Great Refractor, built in the 1840's.
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Dr. John Mather, leading astronomer of NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center received Nobel in Physics in 2006. Goddard officials appreciate his success by a raising a banner in the main entrance of the center.
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Max Planck (1858-1947), German physicist, reading at his desk. Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck pioneered the quantum theories that revolutionized classical physics. His 1900 paper, describing black body radiation, proposed that radiation must be emitted or received in energy packets (quanta), rather than continuously. Quantum theory grew in acceptance after its use in explaining the photoelectric effect (Einstein, 1905) and the electronic structure of atoms (Bohr, 1913). Planck received the 1918 Nobel Prize in Physics for his work. (Enhancement of SF1159)
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William Harvey (1568-1657), English physician. Harvey was the first person to accurately determine how the heart circulated blood throughout human and animal bodies and was also the first to posit the theory that humans and other mammals reproduced when an egg was fertilized by sperm. In 1607 he became a fellow of the Royal College of Physicians. (Enhancement of BE9308)
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An illustration depicting William Harvey (April 1, 1578 - June 3, 1657), the medical doctor credited with first describing the properties of the human circulatory system, seeing a patient. (Enhancement of BD9338)
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Depicted here are three great teachers of medicine: the Greek physician, Galen (130-200 AD), the Persian physician and philosopher, Avicenna (980-1037), and the Greek physician and father of medicine, Hippocrates (c. 460-370 BC). (Enhancement of BD9282)
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Democritus of Abdera (470-400 BC), Greek philosopher and the father of atomic theory. Democritus published works on ethics, physics, mathematics, cosmology and music. Very little has survived but his theories are known through commentaries on his work by later philosophers. In his atomic theory he stated that matter is made up of tiny indivisible particles called atoms. The properties of different substances were determined by the physical features of the atoms. For instance, atoms of water were smooth and round whilst atoms of fire were thorny. He believed that the motion of atoms was dictated by definite universal laws of nature and not by the will of the Gods. (Enhancement of BD8010)
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Archimedes of Syracuse. (Enhancement of BD5208)
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Hipparchus of Rhodes. (Enhancement of BD5199)
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A portrait of Claudius Ptolemy. (Enhancement of BD5195)
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Alchemy. Historical artwork taken from A very brief tract concerning the Philosophical Stone, Frankfurt, 1678. This title page shows many of the symbols associated with alchemy. Alchemy was the pseudo-scientific predecessor to chemistry, which among other ideas is best known for its practitioners' hunt for the Philosopher's Stone, which would impart eternal life and the ability to turn base metals into gold. (Enhancement of SC1742)
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Alchemy. Historical artwork, from The Book of Lambspring (1749 edition) of an alchemist roasting a salamander. In alchemy, the salamander signified the spiritual remnant of a dragon, the roasting was believed to impart spiritual powers to the salamander. Alchemy was the pseudoscientific predecessor of chemistry, which among other ideas is best known for its practitioner's trying to turn base metals into gold. (Enhancement of SC1741)
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Medievial alchemy. (Enhancement of 2W3552)
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Alchemy. Historical artwork from The Book of Lambspring (1749 edition) of a meeting between a deer and a unicorn in a wood. In alchemy, the deer signified the Sun and the unicorn represented the Moon. Alchemy was the pseudoscientific predecessor of chemistry, which among other ideas is best known for its practitioner's trying to turn base metals into gold. (Enhancement of SC1740)
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Invented by behaviorial psychologist B. F. Skinner to study rats, the box (here, photographed by Sam Falk) was later modified into a baby tender. This "Baby in a Box" experiment was designed to make infancy easier for both the mother and baby by providing a soundproof, climate controlled environment in which clothes were not necessary. Unlike the box for rats, this box was designed as a glass crib and not to modify behavior. His own daughter was raised in a "baby box" until the age of two.
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The notch in the shadow of an overhanging rock centers on the star of a prehistoric Hohokam rock art panel on the Summer Solstice, at the Sun-Struck Site in South Mountain Park, Phoenix, Arizona. At the same time, the right edge of the shadow also bisects concentric circles. Many other significant alignments occur at this Hohokam petroglyph site on both solstices, the equinox and cross-quarter days.
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Revision; Anatomical illustration from Anatomie methodique, ou Organographie humaine (Systematized anatomy, or human organography), published in 1829, by Jean-Baptiste SarlandiEre. Anatomie mEthodique consists of 17 leaves of text and 15 leaves of color lithographed plates depicting human anatomy based upon SarlandiEre's dissections. His intended audience ranged from physicians and surgeons and their students to students of painting and sculpture. The noted artist Louis Courtin (fl. 1809-1841) created the drawings and some of the lithography, though most of the plates attribute the lithographic work to Delaporte. In some copies, the illustrations are in black and white only. In 1831, the work was published in Latin, under the title, Anatomia methodica, and in 1835 and 1837 it was published in New York in English under the title Systematized anatomy
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Neurography; Anatomical illustration from Anatomie methodique, ou Organographie humaine (Systematized anatomy, or human organography), published in 1829, by Jean-Baptiste SarlandiEre. Anatomie mEthodique consists of 17 leaves of text and 15 leaves of color lithographed plates depicting human anatomy based upon SarlandiEre's dissections. His intended audience ranged from physicians and surgeons and their students to students of painting and sculpture. The noted artist Louis Courtin (fl. 1809-1841) created the drawings and some of the lithography, though most of the plates attribute the lithographic work to Delaporte. In some copies, the illustrations are in black and white only. In 1831, the work was published in Latin, under the title, Anatomia methodica, and in 1835 and 1837 it was published in New York in English under the title Systematized anatomy
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Anatomical illustration from Anatomie methodique, ou Organographie humaine (Systematized anatomy, or human organography), published in 1829, by Jean-Baptiste SarlandiEre. Anatomie mEthodique consists of 17 leaves of text and 15 leaves of color lithographed plates depicting human anatomy based upon SarlandiEre's dissections. His intended audience ranged from physicians and surgeons and their students to students of painting and sculpture. The noted artist Louis Courtin (fl. 1809-1841) created the drawings and some of the lithography, though most of the plates attribute the lithographic work to Delaporte. In some copies, the illustrations are in black and white only. In 1831, the work was published in Latin, under the title, Anatomia methodica, and in 1835 and 1837 it was published in New York in English under the title Systematized anatomy.
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Anatomical illustration from Anatomie methodique, ou Organographie humaine (Systematized anatomy, or human organography), published in 1829, by Jean-Baptiste SarlandiEre. Anatomie mEthodique consists of 17 leaves of text and 15 leaves of color lithographed plates depicting human anatomy based upon SarlandiEre's dissections. His intended audience ranged from physicians and surgeons and their students to students of painting and sculpture. The noted artist Louis Courtin (fl. 1809-1841) created the drawings and some of the lithography, though most of the plates attribute the lithographic work to Delaporte. In some copies, the illustrations are in black and white only. In 1831, the work was published in Latin, under the title, Anatomia methodica, and in 1835 and 1837 it was published in New York in English under the title Systematized anatomy.
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Myography; Anatomical illustration from Anatomie methodique, ou Organographie humaine (Systematized anatomy, or human organography), published in 1829, by Jean-Baptiste SarlandiEre. Anatomie mEthodique consists of 17 leaves of text and 15 leaves of color lithographed plates depicting human anatomy based upon SarlandiEre's dissections. His intended audience ranged from physicians and surgeons and their students to students of painting and sculpture. The noted artist Louis Courtin (fl. 1809-1841) created the drawings and some of the lithography, though most of the plates attribute the lithographic work to Delaporte. In some copies, the illustrations are in black and white only. In 1831, the work was published in Latin, under the title, Anatomia methodica, and in 1835 and 1837 it was published in New York in English under the title Systematized anatomy.
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Osteography; Anatomical illustration from Anatomie methodique, ou Organographie humaine (Systematized anatomy, or human organography), published in 1829, by Jean-Baptiste SarlandiEre. Anatomie mEthodique consists of 17 leaves of text and 15 leaves of color lithographed plates depicting human anatomy based upon SarlandiEre's dissections. His intended audience ranged from physicians and surgeons and their students to students of painting and sculpture. The noted artist Louis Courtin (fl. 1809-1841) created the drawings and some of the lithography, though most of the plates attribute the lithographic work to Delaporte. In some copies, the illustrations are in black and white only. In 1831, the work was published in Latin, under the title, Anatomia methodica, and in 1835 and 1837 it was published in New York in English under the title Systematized anatomy.
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Anatomical illustrations representing the circulatory system. 'Angeiographic' from Anatomie methodique, ou Organographie humaine (Systematized anatomy, or human organography), published in 1829, by Jean-Baptiste SarlandiEre. Anatomie mEthodique consists of 17 leaves of text and 15 leaves of color lithographed plates depicting human anatomy based upon SarlandiEre's dissections. His intended audience ranged from physicians and surgeons and their students to students of painting and sculpture. The noted artist Louis Courtin (fl. 1809-1841) created the drawings and some of the lithography, though most of the plates attribute the lithographic work to Delaporte. In some copies, the illustrations are in black and white only. In 1831, the work was published in Latin, under the title, Anatomia methodica, and in 1835 and 1837 it was published in New York in English under the title Systematized anatomy.
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Anatomical illustration from Anatomie methodique, ou Organographie humaine (Systematized anatomy, or human organography), published in 1829, by Jean-Baptiste SarlandiEre. Anatomie mEthodique consists of 17 leaves of text and 15 leaves of color lithographed plates depicting human anatomy based upon SarlandiEre's dissections. His intended audience ranged from physicians and surgeons and their students to students of painting and sculpture. The noted artist Louis Courtin (fl. 1809-1841) created the drawings and some of the lithography, though most of the plates attribute the lithographic work to Delaporte. In some copies, the illustrations are in black and white only. In 1831, the work was published in Latin, under the title, Anatomia methodica, and in 1835 and 1837 it was published in New York in English under the title Systematized anatomy.
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Anatomical illustration from Anatomie methodique, ou Organographie humaine (Systematized anatomy, or human organography), published in 1829, by Jean-Baptiste SarlandiEre. Anatomie mEthodique consists of 17 leaves of text and 15 leaves of color lithographed plates depicting human anatomy based upon SarlandiEre's dissections. His intended audience ranged from physicians and surgeons and their students to students of painting and sculpture. The noted artist Louis Courtin (fl. 1809-1841) created the drawings and some of the lithography, though most of the plates attribute the lithographic work to Delaporte. In some copies, the illustrations are in black and white only. In 1831, the work was published in Latin, under the title, Anatomia methodica, and in 1835 and 1837 it was published in New York in English under the title Systematized anatomy.
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Anatomical illustration from Anatomie methodique, ou Organographie humaine (Systematized anatomy, or human organography), published in 1829, by Jean-Baptiste SarlandiEre. Anatomie mEthodique consists of 17 leaves of text and 15 leaves of color lithographed plates depicting human anatomy based upon SarlandiEre's dissections. His intended audience ranged from physicians and surgeons and their students to students of painting and sculpture. The noted artist Louis Courtin (fl. 1809-1841) created the drawings and some of the lithography, though most of the plates attribute the lithographic work to Delaporte. In some copies, the illustrations are in black and white only. In 1831, the work was published in Latin, under the title, Anatomia methodica, and in 1835 and 1837 it was published in New York in English under the title Systematized anatomy.
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Illustration from the Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body with its applications to pathology and operative surgery. By Richard Quain, Published in 1844.
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Illustration from the Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body with its applications to pathology and operative surgery. By Richard Quain, Published in 1844.
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Illustration from the Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body with its applications to pathology and operative surgery. By Richard Quain, Published in 1844.
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Illustration from the Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body with its applications to pathology and operative surgery. By Richard Quain, Published in 1844.
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Illustration from the Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body with its applications to pathology and operative surgery. By Richard Quain, Published in 1844.
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Illustration from the Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body with its applications to pathology and operative surgery. By Richard Quain, Published in 1844.
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Illustration from the Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body with its applications to pathology and operative surgery. By Richard Quain, Published in 1844.
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Illustration from the Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body with its applications to pathology and operative surgery. By Richard Quain, Published in 1844.
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Illustration from the Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body with its applications to pathology and operative surgery. By Richard Quain, Published in 1844.
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Illustration from the Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body with its applications to pathology and operative surgery. By Richard Quain, Published in 1844.
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Illustration from the Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body with its applications to pathology and operative surgery. By Richard Quain, Published in 1844.
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Illustration from the Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body with its applications to pathology and operative surgery. By Richard Quain, Published in 1844.
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Illustration from the anatomy of the arteries of the human body with its applications to pathology and operative surgery. By Richard Quain, Published in 1844.
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Illustration from the Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body with its applications to pathology and operative surgery. By Richard Quain, Published in 1844.
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Illustration from the anatomy of the arteries of the human body with its applications to pathology and operative surgery. By Richard Quain, Published in 1844.
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Illustration from the Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body with its applications to pathology and operative surgery. By Richard Quain, Published in 1844.
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Illustration from the Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body with its applications to pathology and operative surgery. By Richard Quain, Published in 1844.
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Illustration of the internal organs from Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body with its applications to pathology and operative surgery. By Richard Quain, Published in 1844.
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Illustration from the Anatomy of the Arteries of the Human Body with its applications to pathology and operative surgery. By Richard Quain, Published in 1844.
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Anatomical illustration from Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty. This monumental work is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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Anatomical illustration from Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty. Anatomie Generaled is considered a monumental work and is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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Anatomical illustration from Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty. This illustration is a frontal view of the pelvis, hips, and upper legs. Anatomie Generaled is considered a monumental work and is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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Anatomical illustration from Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty. This monumental work is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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Three views of the human heart. Anatomical illustration from Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty. This monumental work is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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Muscles, veins, and bones of the human leg. Anatomical illustration from Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty. This monumental work is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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Anatomical illustration from Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty. This monumental work is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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Anatomical illustration from Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty. This monumental work is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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Anotomical Birth. Anatomical illustration from Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty. This monumental work is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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Internal organs of the female anatomy. Anatomical illustration from Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty. This monumental work is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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Internal organs of the male anatomy. Anatomical illustration from Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty. This monumental work is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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Anatomical illustration of leg muscles and veins. Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty; this monumental work is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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Frontal male anatomy, Anatomical illustration from Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty. This monumental work is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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Anatomical illustration from Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty. This monumental work is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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Anatomical illustration from Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty. This monumental work is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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Frontal female anatomy. Anatomical illustration from Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty. This monumental work is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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Anatomical illustration from Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty. This monumental work is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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Frontal male anatomy. Anatomical illustration from Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty. This monumental work is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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Anatomical illustration from Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty. This monumental work is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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'The Flayed Angel' illustration from Gautier d'Agoty's Suite de l'Essai d'anatomie en tableaux imprim??s (Paris: Gautier, 1745), which is a supplement to his Essai d'anatomie en tableaux imprim??s, published in Paris the same year. The image is one of Gautier's most famous. Gautier d'Agoty associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Fran??ois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. The monumental Anatomie g??n??rale des viscA?res is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752.
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Anatomical illustration from Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty. Anatomie Generaled is considered a monumental work and is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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Illustration of the frontal female organs. Anatomical illustration from Anatomie generale des visceres by Gautier d'Agoty. This monumental work is thought to have been printed in Paris in 1752. Gautier associated himself with surgeon Jacques-Francois-Marie Duverney (1661-1748) and together the two produced a number of large, colorful anatomical atlases, which were noted more for their style and sometimes their shocking appearance than their usefulness to physicians. After Duverney's death, Antoine Mertrud (d. 1767) also worked with the printer to create several other anatomical works. Jacques Gautier d'Agoty died in Paris in 1785.
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Artwork from Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's textbook, Isagogae breves, perlucidae ac uberrimae, in anatomiam humani corporis a communi medicorum academia usitatem (known in English as A Short Introduction to Anatomy), published 1523. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (ca. 1460-ca. 1530), also known as Jacobus Berengarius Carpensis, Jacopo Barigazzi, or simply Carpus devoted a great deal of his time to anatomy and prided himself on having dissected several hundred bodies. In matters of anatomy, Berengario was devoted to the texts and theories of Mondino dei Luzzi (d. 1326), also known as Mundinus, who relied on Arab physicians for most of his observations, supplemented by a few dissections. Carpus' first illustrated work was Commentaria cum amplissimis additionibus super anatomiam Mundini, a commentary on Mondino's Anatomia, published in Bologna in 1521. In 1522 and 1523, Berengario released his Isagogae breves, a compendium intended to replace Mondino's work, which it far outshined. Unlike the 1522 edition, the illustrations from the 1523 edition (featured here) have an extra four illustrations of the heart and two of the brain, with some variations in the woodcuts showing the muscles.
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Artwork from Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's textbook, Isagogae breves, perlucidae ac uberrimae, in anatomiam humani corporis a communi medicorum academia usitatem (known in English as A Short Introduction to Anatomy), published 1523. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (ca. 1460-ca. 1530), also known as Jacobus Berengarius Carpensis, Jacopo Barigazzi, or simply Carpus devoted a great deal of his time to anatomy and prided himself on having dissected several hundred bodies. In matters of anatomy, Berengario was devoted to the texts and theories of Mondino dei Luzzi (d. 1326), also known as Mundinus, who relied on Arab physicians for most of his observations, supplemented by a few dissections. Carpus' first illustrated work was Commentaria cum amplissimis additionibus super anatomiam Mundini, a commentary on Mondino's Anatomia, published in Bologna in 1521. In 1522 and 1523, Berengario released his Isagogae breves, a compendium intended to replace Mondino's work, which it far outshined. Unlike the 1522 edition, the illustrations from the 1523 edition (featured here) have an extra four illustrations of the heart and two of the brain, with some variations in the woodcuts showing the muscles.
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Artwork from Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's textbook, Isagogae breves, perlucidae ac uberrimae, in anatomiam humani corporis a communi medicorum academia usitatem (known in English as A Short Introduction to Anatomy), published 1523. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (ca. 1460-ca. 1530), also known as Jacobus Berengarius Carpensis, Jacopo Barigazzi, or simply Carpus devoted a great deal of his time to anatomy and prided himself on having dissected several hundred bodies. In matters of anatomy, Berengario was devoted to the texts and theories of Mondino dei Luzzi (d. 1326), also known as Mundinus, who relied on Arab physicians for most of his observations, supplemented by a few dissections. Carpus' first illustrated work was Commentaria cum amplissimis additionibus super anatomiam Mundini, a commentary on Mondino's Anatomia, published in Bologna in 1521. In 1522 and 1523, Berengario released his Isagogae breves, a compendium intended to replace Mondino's work, which it far outshined. Unlike the 1522 edition, the illustrations from the 1523 edition (featured here) have an extra four illustrations of the heart and two of the brain, with some variations in the woodcuts showing the muscles.
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Artwork from Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's textbook, Isagogae breves, perlucidae ac uberrimae, in anatomiam humani corporis a communi medicorum academia usitatem (known in English as A Short Introduction to Anatomy), published 1523. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (ca. 1460-ca. 1530), also known as Jacobus Berengarius Carpensis, Jacopo Barigazzi, or simply Carpus devoted a great deal of his time to anatomy and prided himself on having dissected several hundred bodies. In matters of anatomy, Berengario was devoted to the texts and theories of Mondino dei Luzzi (d. 1326), also known as Mundinus, who relied on Arab physicians for most of his observations, supplemented by a few dissections. Carpus' first illustrated work was Commentaria cum amplissimis additionibus super anatomiam Mundini, a commentary on Mondino's Anatomia, published in Bologna in 1521. In 1522 and 1523, Berengario released his Isagogae breves, a compendium intended to replace Mondino's work, which it far outshined. Unlike the 1522 edition, the illustrations from the 1523 edition (featured here) have an extra four illustrations of the heart and two of the brain, with some variations in the woodcuts showing the muscles.
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Artwork from Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's textbook, Isagogae breves, perlucidae ac uberrimae, in anatomiam humani corporis a communi medicorum academia usitatem (known in English as A Short Introduction to Anatomy), published 1523. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (ca. 1460-ca. 1530), also known as Jacobus Berengarius Carpensis, Jacopo Barigazzi, or simply Carpus devoted a great deal of his time to anatomy and prided himself on having dissected several hundred bodies. In matters of anatomy, Berengario was devoted to the texts and theories of Mondino dei Luzzi (d. 1326), also known as Mundinus, who relied on Arab physicians for most of his observations, supplemented by a few dissections. Carpus' first illustrated work was Commentaria cum amplissimis additionibus super anatomiam Mundini, a commentary on Mondino's Anatomia, published in Bologna in 1521. In 1522 and 1523, Berengario released his Isagogae breves, a compendium intended to replace Mondino's work, which it far outshined. Unlike the 1522 edition, the illustrations from the 1523 edition (featured here) have an extra four illustrations of the heart and two of the brain, with some variations in the woodcuts showing the muscles.
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Artwork from Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's textbook, Isagogae breves, perlucidae ac uberrimae, in anatomiam humani corporis a communi medicorum academia usitatem (known in English as A Short Introduction to Anatomy), published 1523. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (ca. 1460-ca. 1530), also known as Jacobus Berengarius Carpensis, Jacopo Barigazzi, or simply Carpus devoted a great deal of his time to anatomy and prided himself on having dissected several hundred bodies. In matters of anatomy, Berengario was devoted to the texts and theories of Mondino dei Luzzi (d. 1326), also known as Mundinus, who relied on Arab physicians for most of his observations, supplemented by a few dissections. Carpus' first illustrated work was Commentaria cum amplissimis additionibus super anatomiam Mundini, a commentary on Mondino's Anatomia, published in Bologna in 1521. In 1522 and 1523, Berengario released his Isagogae breves, a compendium intended to replace Mondino's work, which it far outshined. Unlike the 1522 edition, the illustrations from the 1523 edition (featured here) have an extra four illustrations of the heart and two of the brain, with some variations in the woodcuts showing the muscles.
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Artwork of the arteries of the human arm from Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's textbook, Isagogae breves, perlucidae ac uberrimae, in anatomiam humani corporis a communi medicorum academia usitatem (known in English as A Short Introduction to Anatomy), published 1523. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (ca. 1460-ca. 1530), also known as Jacobus Berengarius Carpensis, Jacopo Barigazzi, or simply Carpus devoted a great deal of his time to anatomy and prided himself on having dissected several hundred bodies. In matters of anatomy, Berengario was devoted to the texts and theories of Mondino dei Luzzi (d. 1326), also known as Mundinus, who relied on Arab physicians for most of his observations, supplemented by a few dissections. Carpus' first illustrated work was Commentaria cum amplissimis additionibus super anatomiam Mundini, a commentary on Mondino's Anatomia, published in Bologna in 1521. In 1522 and 1523, Berengario released his Isagogae breves, a compendium intended to replace Mondino's work, which it far outshined. Unlike the 1522 edition, the illustrations from the 1523 edition (featured here) have an extra four illustrations of the heart and two of the brain, with some variations in the woodcuts showing the muscles.
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Artwork from Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's textbook, Isagogae breves, perlucidae ac uberrimae, in anatomiam humani corporis a communi medicorum academia usitatem (known in English as A Short Introduction to Anatomy), published 1523. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (ca. 1460-ca. 1530), also known as Jacobus Berengarius Carpensis, Jacopo Barigazzi, or simply Carpus devoted a great deal of his time to anatomy and prided himself on having dissected several hundred bodies. In matters of anatomy, Berengario was devoted to the texts and theories of Mondino dei Luzzi (d. 1326), also known as Mundinus, who relied on Arab physicians for most of his observations, supplemented by a few dissections. Carpus' first illustrated work was Commentaria cum amplissimis additionibus super anatomiam Mundini, a commentary on Mondino's Anatomia, published in Bologna in 1521. In 1522 and 1523, Berengario released his Isagogae breves, a compendium intended to replace Mondino's work, which it far outshined. Unlike the 1522 edition, the illustrations from the 1523 edition (featured here) have an extra four illustrations of the heart and two of the brain, with some variations in the woodcuts showing the muscles.
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Ventris Medii. Artwork from Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's textbook, Isagogae breves, perlucidae ac uberrimae, in anatomiam humani corporis a communi medicorum academia usitatem (known in English as A Short Introduction to Anatomy), published 1523. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (ca. 1460-ca. 1530), also known as Jacobus Berengarius Carpensis, Jacopo Barigazzi, or simply Carpus devoted a great deal of his time to anatomy and prided himself on having dissected several hundred bodies. In matters of anatomy, Berengario was devoted to the texts and theories of Mondino dei Luzzi (d. 1326), also known as Mundinus, who relied on Arab physicians for most of his observations, supplemented by a few dissections. Carpus' first illustrated work was Commentaria cum amplissimis additionibus super anatomiam Mundini, a commentary on Mondino's Anatomia, published in Bologna in 1521. In 1522 and 1523, Berengario released his Isagogae breves, a compendium intended to replace Mondino's work, which it far outshined. Unlike the 1522 edition, the illustrations from the 1523 edition (featured here) have an extra four illustrations of the heart and two of the brain, with some variations in the woodcuts showing the muscles.
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Artwork from Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's textbook, Isagogae breves, perlucidae ac uberrimae, in anatomiam humani corporis a communi medicorum academia usitatem (known in English as A Short Introduction to Anatomy), published 1523. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (ca. 1460-ca. 1530), also known as Jacobus Berengarius Carpensis, Jacopo Barigazzi, or simply Carpus devoted a great deal of his time to anatomy and prided himself on having dissected several hundred bodies. In matters of anatomy, Berengario was devoted to the texts and theories of Mondino dei Luzzi (d. 1326), also known as Mundinus, who relied on Arab physicians for most of his observations, supplemented by a few dissections. Carpus' first illustrated work was Commentaria cum amplissimis additionibus super anatomiam Mundini, a commentary on Mondino's Anatomia, published in Bologna in 1521. In 1522 and 1523, Berengario released his Isagogae breves, a compendium intended to replace Mondino's work, which it far outshined. Unlike the 1522 edition, the illustrations from the 1523 edition (featured here) have an extra four illustrations of the heart and two of the brain, with some variations in the woodcuts showing the muscles.
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Artwork from Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's textbook, Isagogae breves, perlucidae ac uberrimae, in anatomiam humani corporis a communi medicorum academia usitatem (known in English as A Short Introduction to Anatomy), published 1523. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (ca. 1460-ca. 1530), also known as Jacobus Berengarius Carpensis, Jacopo Barigazzi, or simply Carpus devoted a great deal of his time to anatomy and prided himself on having dissected several hundred bodies. In matters of anatomy, Berengario was devoted to the texts and theories of Mondino dei Luzzi (d. 1326), also known as Mundinus, who relied on Arab physicians for most of his observations, supplemented by a few dissections. Carpus' first illustrated work was Commentaria cum amplissimis additionibus super anatomiam Mundini, a commentary on Mondino's Anatomia, published in Bologna in 1521. In 1522 and 1523, Berengario released his Isagogae breves, a compendium intended to replace Mondino's work, which it far outshined. Unlike the 1522 edition, the illustrations from the 1523 edition (featured here) have an extra four illustrations of the heart and two of the brain, with some variations in the woodcuts showing the muscles.
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Ventris Medii. Artwork from Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's textbook, Isagogae breves, perlucidae ac uberrimae, in anatomiam humani corporis a communi medicorum academia usitatem (known in English as A Short Introduction to Anatomy), published 1523. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (ca. 1460-ca. 1530), also known as Jacobus Berengarius Carpensis, Jacopo Barigazzi, or simply Carpus devoted a great deal of his time to anatomy and prided himself on having dissected several hundred bodies. In matters of anatomy, Berengario was devoted to the texts and theories of Mondino dei Luzzi (d. 1326), also known as Mundinus, who relied on Arab physicians for most of his observations, supplemented by a few dissections. Carpus' first illustrated work was Commentaria cum amplissimis additionibus super anatomiam Mundini, a commentary on Mondino's Anatomia, published in Bologna in 1521. In 1522 and 1523, Berengario released his Isagogae breves, a compendium intended to replace Mondino's work, which it far outshined. Unlike the 1522 edition, the illustrations from the 1523 edition (featured here) have an extra four illustrations of the heart and two of the brain, with some variations in the woodcuts showing the muscles.
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Artwork from Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's textbook, Isagogae breves, perlucidae ac uberrimae, in anatomiam humani corporis a communi medicorum academia usitatem (known in English as A Short Introduction to Anatomy), published 1523. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (ca. 1460-ca. 1530), also known as Jacobus Berengarius Carpensis, Jacopo Barigazzi, or simply Carpus devoted a great deal of his time to anatomy and prided himself on having dissected several hundred bodies. In matters of anatomy, Berengario was devoted to the texts and theories of Mondino dei Luzzi (d. 1326), also known as Mundinus, who relied on Arab physicians for most of his observations, supplemented by a few dissections. Carpus' first illustrated work was Commentaria cum amplissimis additionibus super anatomiam Mundini, a commentary on Mondino's Anatomia, published in Bologna in 1521. In 1522 and 1523, Berengario released his Isagogae breves, a compendium intended to replace Mondino's work, which it far outshined. Unlike the 1522 edition, the illustrations from the 1523 edition (featured here) have an extra four illustrations of the heart and two of the brain, with some variations in the woodcuts showing the muscles.
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Ventris Inferioris. Artwork from Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's textbook, Isagogae breves, perlucidae ac uberrimae, in anatomiam humani corporis a communi medicorum academia usitatem (known in English as A Short Introduction to Anatomy), published 1523. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (ca. 1460-ca. 1530), also known as Jacobus Berengarius Carpensis, Jacopo Barigazzi, or simply Carpus devoted a great deal of his time to anatomy and prided himself on having dissected several hundred bodies. In matters of anatomy, Berengario was devoted to the texts and theories of Mondino dei Luzzi (d. 1326), also known as Mundinus, who relied on Arab physicians for most of his observations, supplemented by a few dissections. Carpus' first illustrated work was Commentaria cum amplissimis additionibus super anatomiam Mundini, a commentary on Mondino's Anatomia, published in Bologna in 1521. In 1522 and 1523, Berengario released his Isagogae breves, a compendium intended to replace Mondino's work, which it far outshined. Unlike the 1522 edition, the illustrations from the 1523 edition (featured here) have an extra four illustrations of the heart and two of the brain, with some variations in the woodcuts showing the muscles.
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Ventris Inferioris. Artwork from Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's textbook, Isagogae breves, perlucidae ac uberrimae, in anatomiam humani corporis a communi medicorum academia usitatem (known in English as A Short Introduction to Anatomy), published 1523. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (ca. 1460-ca. 1530), also known as Jacobus Berengarius Carpensis, Jacopo Barigazzi, or simply Carpus devoted a great deal of his time to anatomy and prided himself on having dissected several hundred bodies. In matters of anatomy, Berengario was devoted to the texts and theories of Mondino dei Luzzi (d. 1326), also known as Mundinus, who relied on Arab physicians for most of his observations, supplemented by a few dissections. Carpus' first illustrated work was Commentaria cum amplissimis additionibus super anatomiam Mundini, a commentary on Mondino's Anatomia, published in Bologna in 1521. In 1522 and 1523, Berengario released his Isagogae breves, a compendium intended to replace Mondino's work, which it far outshined. Unlike the 1522 edition, the illustrations from the 1523 edition (featured here) have an extra four illustrations of the heart and two of the brain, with some variations in the woodcuts showing the muscles.
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Artwork from Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's textbook, Isagogae breves, perlucidae ac uberrimae, in anatomiam humani corporis a communi medicorum academia usitatem (known in English as A Short Introduction to Anatomy), published 1523. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (ca. 1460-ca. 1530), also known as Jacobus Berengarius Carpensis, Jacopo Barigazzi, or simply Carpus devoted a great deal of his time to anatomy and prided himself on having dissected several hundred bodies. In matters of anatomy, Berengario was devoted to the texts and theories of Mondino dei Luzzi (d. 1326), also known as Mundinus, who relied on Arab physicians for most of his observations, supplemented by a few dissections. Carpus' first illustrated work was Commentaria cum amplissimis additionibus super anatomiam Mundini, a commentary on Mondino's Anatomia, published in Bologna in 1521. In 1522 and 1523, Berengario released his Isagogae breves, a compendium intended to replace Mondino's work, which it far outshined. Unlike the 1522 edition, the illustrations from the 1523 edition (featured here) have an extra four illustrations of the heart and two of the brain, with some variations in the woodcuts showing the muscles.
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Artwork from Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's textbook, Isagogae breves, perlucidae ac uberrimae, in anatomiam humani corporis a communi medicorum academia usitatem (known in English as A Short Introduction to Anatomy), published 1523. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (ca. 1460-ca. 1530), also known as Jacobus Berengarius Carpensis, Jacopo Barigazzi, or simply Carpus devoted a great deal of his time to anatomy and prided himself on having dissected several hundred bodies. In matters of anatomy, Berengario was devoted to the texts and theories of Mondino dei Luzzi (d. 1326), also known as Mundinus, who relied on Arab physicians for most of his observations, supplemented by a few dissections. Carpus' first illustrated work was Commentaria cum amplissimis additionibus super anatomiam Mundini, a commentary on Mondino's Anatomia, published in Bologna in 1521. In 1522 and 1523, Berengario released his Isagogae breves, a compendium intended to replace Mondino's work, which it far outshined. Unlike the 1522 edition, the illustrations from the 1523 edition (featured here) have an extra four illustrations of the heart and two of the brain, with some variations in the woodcuts showing the muscles.
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Extremorvm. Artwork from Jacopo Berengario da Carpi's textbook, Isagogae breves, perlucidae ac uberrimae, in anatomiam humani corporis a communi medicorum academia usitatem (known in English as A Short Introduction to Anatomy), published 1523. Jacopo Berengario da Carpi (ca. 1460-ca. 1530), also known as Jacobus Berengarius Carpensis, Jacopo Barigazzi, or simply Carpus devoted a great deal of his time to anatomy and prided himself on having dissected several hundred bodies. In matters of anatomy, Berengario was devoted to the texts and theories of Mondino dei Luzzi (d. 1326), also known as Mundinus, who relied on Arab physicians for most of his observations, supplemented by a few dissections. Carpus' first illustrated work was Commentaria cum amplissimis additionibus super anatomiam Mundini, a commentary on Mondino's Anatomia, published in Bologna in 1521. In 1522 and 1523, Berengario released his Isagogae breves, a compendium intended to replace Mondino's work, which it far outshined. Unlike the 1522 edition, the illustrations from the 1523 edition (featured here) have an extra four illustrations of the heart and two of the brain, with some variations in the woodcuts showing the muscles.
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Since prehistoric times, plants have been used to treat ailments and illness. This illustration is from the 1552 book 'Destillierbuch der rechten Kunst,' by Hieronymus Brunschwig. It catalogues pages of helpful information on plants and their useful properties.
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16th century Swiss alchemist, physician, astrologer and occultist, Paracelsus. Best known as a medical radical, Paracelsus attacked what he saw as outdated Classical medicine. Paracelsus was also fascinated with alchemy, a medieval pseudo-science and philosophy focused on the transmutation of base metals into gold, a universal cure for disease, and a means of indefinitely prolonging life. The Swiss alchemist is usually depicted with his sword, which many believed stored the elixir of life in the pommel. This illustration is from the 1598 text 'Aurei velleris oder der Guldin Schatz und Kunstkammer.'
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This historical illustration, (1512), by surgeon Hieronymus Brunschwig depicts an alchemist's workshop. It is entitled 'Liber de arte Distillandi de Compositis.' Potion-making required knowledge of chemistry, instruments, and a wide variety of ingredients and was fundamental to the practice of alchemy. Alchemists concentrated the power of their ingredients by distilling their solutions with complicated apparatus including alembics, retorts, and cauldrons.
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The 16th century alchemist Agrippa was also an astrologer and writer. He authored one of the most influential books on the occult, 'De occulta philosophia libri tres' is a study of elemental, celestial, and intellectual magic. The book discusses the four classical elements, (earth, air, fire, and water), astrology, numbers, angels, gods, mystical names and virtues, and how they relate to medicine and alchemy.
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Apollo 13 crew. The crew of the ill-fated Apollo 13 mission wave to the media on board the recovery ship, USS Iwo Jima. The crew members are (left to right): Fred Haise, James Lovell and Jack Swigert. Apollo 13 was launched on 11 April 1970, and was planned to be the third manned landing on the Moon. Two days into the flight, about 300,000 km from Earth, an explosion in an oxygen tank crippled the spacecraft. The three astronauts used the Lunar Module as a life raft, only returning to the Command Module just before reentry to Earth. Apollo 13 splashed down in the Pacific Ocean on 17 April 1970.
. This image may not be used for commercial purposes such as advertising, or in such a way as to imply endorsement of any product or service. Users must cite the author or source of the content upon publication.
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USGS Geologist David Johnston was swept away by the catastrophic eruption of Mount St. Helens on the morning of May 18, 1980. As one of the first members of the U.S.Geological Survey monitoring team to arrive at Mount St. Helens and the scientist in charge of volcanic-gas studies, Johnston spent long hours working on and close to the mountain. Ironically, he was caught at an observation post that was considered relatively safe. He was among 57 killed by the eruption. He is pictured here at Coldwater II, at 1900 hours. Coldwater II would eventually be re-named "Johnston Ridge" in honor of Dave.
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Thomas Huxley. Engraving of English biologist Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895), in 1874. He studied medicine and surgery, and joined the Royal Navy where he did important work on plankton. Huxley's name, however, was made as a popularizer of science, notably Darwin's theory of evolution. In 1860 Huxley presented Darwin's theory at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science at Oxford, where he faced his opponent Bishop Samuel Wilberforce. Huxley won the day. His study of primates established man as one of them, and turned evolution into a debate of science rather than emotion. Huxley invented the word 'agnostic' to describe his religious beliefs. Colorized version of SC7989.
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Bust of Hippocrates (460-370 BC), Greek physician considered to be the father of medicine. His influence survives in the Hippocratic oath (a code of medical ethics) taken by medical students on completion of their training. Little is known about Hippocrates. He founded a medical school on the Aegean island of Cos, where his ideas on medical conduct & practice were implemented. He advocated a rational approach to medicine, believing that disease was caused by physical phenomenon & not by the interference of the gods. Engraving by P. Pontius after P.P. Rubens. Colorized version of 8C7602.
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Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859), German naturalist and explorer who traveled to Central and South America, Russia and Siberia. He discovered the connection between the Amazon and Orinoco river systems, and made significant contributions to the study of oceanic currents, geology and biogeography. The Humboldt Current off the west coast of South America was named after him. Colorized version of BE9326.
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Galen, the ancient Greek physician and writer, who lived from around 129 to around 200 A.D. His teachings on anatomy were central to European medicine for over a thousand years. Colorized version of BE9317.
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An illustration of Robert Bunsen (March 31, 1811 - August 16, 1899), the German chemist who perfected the burner that was invented by Michael Faraday and worked on emission spectroscopy of heated elements. He discovered the elements cesium and rubidium with his spectroscope. He is considered the founder of modern gas analytical methods. Colorized version of BD9325.
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An illustration of Robert Bunsen (March 31, 1811 - August 16, 1899), the German chemist who perfected the bunsen burner that was invented by Michael Faraday and worked on emission spectroscopy of heated elements. He discovered the elements cesium and rubidium with his spectroscope. He is considered the founder of modern gas analytical methods. Colorized version of BD9324.
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Girolamo Fracastoro (1478-1553), the Italian logician and physician who proposed an early theory of the germ origin of disease. Having been Lecturer in Logic at Padua and then a practicing physician in Verona, Fracastoro spent his retirement in research. His major medical book, On Contagion and Contagious Diseases (1546), gave the first logical explanation of the long-known facts that some diseases can be passed from person to person, or passed by infected articles. He proposed that infection is due to minute self-multiplying bodies. Although his ideas were not widely adopted at the time they were eventually vindicated by the work of Pasteur and others. Colorized version of BD4656.
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Illustration of the discovery of Archimedes' principle of hydrostatics. The principle states that a body immersed in a fluid will displace a volume of the fluid equal to the weight of the body. It is said that Archimedes discovered the principle when he stepped into a bath and the water overflowed. (Woodcut, 1582.) Colorized version of BD4611.
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Ivan Petrovich Pavlov (1849-1936), Russian physiologist and experimental psychologist wo received the 1904 Nobel Prize for his work on the physiology of the digestive glands. As director of Physiology at Leningrad's Institute for Experimental medicine, Pavlov experimented on nervous stimulation of gastric secretions. His work revealed the conditioned reflex, which was later seen as supporting Behaviorism. His work also showed that specific areas in the cerebral cortex were concerned with specific reflexes. A mechanistic theory of human behavior came into vogue as a result of his findings. Colorized version of AZ886A.
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Epidemics: The Plague of 1665.
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Newton analyzing the Ray of light. Colorized version of 9L6458.
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A wood engraving of Aristotle (384-322 BC), the ancient Greek philosopher who wrote on everything from poetry to physics, rhetoric, logic, zoology, biology and government. His many works include 'Nicomachean Ethics' and 'Poetics.' Colorized version of 9A8252.
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Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727), English physicist, mathematician and alchemist. As a mathematician he discovered the binomial theorem and developed differential and integral calculus. As a physicist he devised laws of motion, formulated the general theory of gravitation and wrote on optics. As an astronomer he invented the reflecting telescope. Newton wrote extensively on alchemy and tried in vain to discover a 'philosopher's stone' which would convert common metals into gold. Newton calculated the year of biblical Creation as being 3500 BC and wrote extensively on the biblical prophesies of Daniel and the Apocalypse. Colorized version of 9A8196.
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Sir Isaac Newton, President of the Royal Society and an English mathematician, philosopher, and scientist. Colorized version of 9A8188.
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Dutch physicist and astronomer Christiaan Huygens (1629-93), the inventor of the pendulum clock. The idea of using a pendulum to measure time had been proposed by Galileo (1564-1642) but he had not found how to keep one swinging. On Christmas Day 1656 Huygens designed a table clock that kept the pendulum swinging by means of a spring. He later made further advances in time-keeping. Huygens moved to France to work for Louis XIV during 1666-81 and published the results of his clock research in Horologium Oscillatorium (1673). Huygens also made advances in optics, astronomy, such as discovering the rings of Saturn, and mathematics. Colorized version of 9A8177.
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Johann Kepler (1571-1630), German astronomer. Kepler formulated the three fundamental laws of planetary motion based on the detailed observations of the planets made by Tycho Brahe. The first of these laws concerned the orbits of planets, which Kepler showed to be elliptical and not circular as previous held. Colorized version of 9A8154.
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Louis Pasteur (1822-1895), French scientist after whom pasteurization is named. Colorized version of 9A8153.
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Thomas Hunt Morgan (1866-1945). Recipient of the 1933 Nobel Laureate in Medicine for his discoveries of the role played by the chromosome in heredity. Morgan received his Ph. D. in 1890 at Johns Hopkins University. The work which received the prize was completed over a 17-year period at Columbia University by Morgan and his students, commencing in 1910 with his discovery of the white-eyed mutation in the fruit fly, Drosophila. This led to the discovery of sex-linked inheritance, allowing chromosomes to be identified as the carriers of the hereditary material. Colorized version of 9A8125.
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Alexander Von Humboldt (1769-1859), a German naturalist, was renowned for exploring Latin America and laying the ground work for physical geography and meteorology. Colorized version of 8C7602.
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Marie Curie (1867-1934, nee Marya Sklodowska), Polish-French physicist, in her laboratory. With her husband Pierre, she isolated the radioactive elements polonium and radium in 1898. Marie won the 1911 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for this work. She had previously been awarded the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics (with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel) for her work on radioactivity. After the death of Pierre in 1906, she became assistant professor at the Sorbonne, Paris, and then full professor in 1908. She died of leukemia, almost certainly caused by her work with radioactive materials. Photograph published in Germany.
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Marie Curie (1867-1934, nee Marya Sklodowska), Polish-French physicist, in her laboratory. With her husband Pierre, she isolated the radioactive elements polonium and radium in 1898. Marie won the 1911 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for this work. She had previously been awarded the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics (with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel) for her work on radioactivity. After the death of Pierre in 1906, she became assistant professor at the Sorbonne, Paris, and then full professor in 1908. She died of leukemia, almost certainly caused by her work with radioactive materials. Photograph published in Germany.
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Marie Curie (1867-1934, nee Marya Sklodowska), Polish-French physicist, in her laboratory. With her husband Pierre, she isolated the radioactive elements polonium and radium in 1898. Marie won the 1911 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for this work. She had previously been awarded the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics (with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel) for her work on radioactivity. After the death of Pierre in 1906, she became assistant professor at the Sorbonne, Paris, and then full professor in 1908. She died of leukemia, almost certainly caused by her work with radioactive materials.
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Marie Curie (1867-1934, nee Marya Sklodowska), Polish-French physicist, in her laboratory. With her husband Pierre, she isolated the radioactive elements polonium and radium in 1898. Marie won the 1911 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for this work. She had previously been awarded the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics (with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel) for her work on radioactivity. After the death of Pierre in 1906, she became assistant professor at the Sorbonne, Paris, and then full professor in 1908. She died of leukemia, almost certainly caused by her work with radioactive materials.
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Marie Curie (1867-1934, nee Marya Sklodowska), Polish-French physicist. With her husband Pierre, she isolated the radioactive elements polonium and radium in 1898. Marie won the 1911 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for this work. She had previously been awarded the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics (with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel) for her work on radioactivity. She held the chair of physics at the Sevres Higher Normal School for Girls, working there from 1900 to 1906. Following the death of Pierre in 1906, she became assistant professor at the Sorbonne, Paris, and then full professor in 1908. Photograph by Eugene Pirou, Parisian photographer who was active at the end of the 19th century.
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Marie Curie (1867-1934, nee Marya Sklodowska), Polish-French physicist. With her husband Pierre, she isolated the radioactive elements polonium and radium in 1898. Marie won the 1911 Nobel Prize for Chemistry for this work. She had previously been awarded the 1903 Nobel Prize for Physics (with Pierre Curie and Henri Becquerel) for her work on radioactivity. She held the chair of physics at the Sevres Higher Normal School for Girls, working there from 1900 to 1906. Following the death of Pierre in 1906, she became assistant professor at the Sorbonne, Paris, and then full professor in 1908. Photograph by Eugene Pirou, Parisian photographer who was active at the end of the 19th century.
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Mary E. Britton (1855-1925), US medical pioneer. Britton graduated from the American Missionary College in Chicago, USA, and worked as a doctor from her home in Lexington, Kentucky, USA, in her specialities of hydrotherapy and electrotherapy. She was officially granted a license to practice medicine in 1902. Britton was the first licensed female doctor in Kentucky, and one of the first African-American doctors. She was active in campaigning for more rights for African-Americans and women. She retired in 1923. Artwork published c.1893 in Noted Negro Women: their triumphs and activities.
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Mary E. Britton (1855-1925), US medical pioneer. Britton graduated from the American Missionary College in Chicago, USA, and worked as a doctor from her home in Lexington, Kentucky, USA, in her specialities of hydrotherapy and electrotherapy. She was officially granted a license to practice medicine in 1902. Britton was the first licensed female doctor in Kentucky, and one of the first African-American doctors. She was active in campaigning for more rights for African-Americans and women. She retired in 1923. Artwork published c.1893 in Noted Negro Women: their triumphs and activities.
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Maria Gaetana Agnesi (1718-1799), Italian scholar and mathematician. Agnesi was one of 24 children born to a mathematics professor in Bologna. She was a prodigy, speaking at least six languages by age 11. Later interests included subjects such as geometry and ballistics. Encouraged by her father, she spoke at public debates. However, an illness that caused convulsions and headaches curtailed these public appearances, and she became more reclusive. She devoted herself to mathematics and, in 1748, published a widely praised book on analytical mathematics. In 1750, she was appointed professor of mathematics and philosophy at Bologna University.
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Maria Gaetana Agnesi (1718-1799), Italian scholar and mathematician. Agnesi was one of 24 children born to a mathematics professor in Bologna. She was a prodigy, speaking at least six languages by age 11. Later interests included subjects such as geometry and ballistics. Encouraged by her father, she spoke at public debates. However, an illness that caused convulsions and headaches curtailed these public appearances, and she became more reclusive. She devoted herself to mathematics and, in 1748, published a widely praised book on analytical mathematics. In 1750, she was appointed professor of mathematics and philosophy at Bologna University.

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