poniedziałek, 21 stycznia 2019
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Zoologia (90)

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! EN_90238367_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Spiny lobster sound production. Artwork of how the spiny lobster (family Palinuridae) produces sound. A plectrum at the base (coloured) of each antenna can be rubbed over a ridge (the file) underneath the eyes. This is shown with the green arrows and results in a rasping sound, produced the same way that a bow is used to play a violin. It is thought that the sound is used to scare away predators while the lobster is moulting and defenceless.
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! EN_90238367_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Spiny lobster sound production. Artwork of how the spiny lobster (family Palinuridae) produces sound. A plectrum (upper left, brown) at the base of an antenna can be rubbed (green arrows) over a ridge (the file, red) underneath the eyes. A schematic diagram (lower right) shows the similarity to the method used to produce sound with a violin. It is thought that the resulting rasping sound defends the lobster from predators while it is moulting.
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! EN_90240469_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Tokay gecko. Artwork of a tokay gecko (Gekko gecko). This small reptile is found throughout the Indian subcontinent and South-East Asia. It is one of the largest of the geckoes, growing to a length of around 35 centimetres. This nocturnal reptile is a solitary insectivorous predator. Like other geckoes, the prominent toes of its feet have fine hairs on them, allowing it to climb and cling to vertical walls and overhanging surfaces.
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! EN_90193554_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Animal cell. Cutaway illustration of a typical animal cell showing various internal structures. The nucleus (large round, lower centre) contains genetic material and the nucleolus (brown). This is surrounded by a system of membranes (purple) known as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Ribosomes (pink dots), involved in protein synthesis, are associated with the ER (rough ER) and occur free in the cell cytoplasm (pale blue). Mitochondria (pink, oval) produce energy. The membranes of the Golgi apparatus (brown, upper centre) produce secretory granules (round, brown). Cell vacuoles (yellow and green) and centrioles (orange, at centre left) are also illustrated.
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! EN_90199466_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY ***ALL MORAL RIGHTS ASSERTED. ALTERATION, CROPPING OR ANY DEROGATORY TREATMENT FORBIDDEN *** Animal cell. Illustration of an animal cell revealing various internal structures. The nucleus (dark pink, at centre) contains genetic material and the nucleolus (purple, at centre). This is surrounded by a system of pink membranes known as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The nucleolus and ER play roles in protein synthesis. Proteins are stored in the brown golgi apparatus and transported through the cell by the various vesicles. Yellow mitochondria supply the cellular energy and the tube-like microtubules and centrioles assist with cellular movement.
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! EN_90231279_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Mole burrow. Cutaway illustration of the system of tunnels made by a single mole under a grass lawn. Moles (family: Talpidae) live out their solitary lives almost entirely underground, feeding on worms and insects that drop into the tunnels. Only a fraction of each day is spent digging as most of the animal's waking time is taken up satisfying a voracious appetite - moles eat around half their body weight in worms every day. During the peak digging season in winter an individual can dig 20 metres of tunnel in a day, the waste earth being shoved back by powerful forelimbs and dumped on the surface as molehills. An acute sense of smell makes up for the mole's very poor eyesight.
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! EN_90231480_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Malaria mosquito. Illustration showing a mosquito on human skin, sucking blood. It has inserted its modified proboscis (red) into a superficial blood vessel. Mosquitoes transmit diseases such as malaria, viral encephalitis, yellow fever, and filariasis. Malaria is a major health problem in Africa, Asia, India & South America. Malaria causes a severe fever & can lead to sometimes fatal complications affecting the liver, brain & blood. Preventative measures against mosquitoes are important, as the malaria parasites are developing resistance to anti-malarial drugs. Measures include using mosquito nets, protective clothing, insecticides & release of sterile males.
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! EN_90229482_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Lyme disease tick. Computer graphic illustration of the tick Ixodes ricinus, principal vector of Lyme disease in Europe. The head (above centre) contains a pair of palps, between which are barbed blood-sucking mouthparts. This tick is common in Europe and attacks humans, domestic and wild animals. Ixodes ricinus carries the spirochaete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, cause of both Lyme disease and a closely-related disease known as erythema migrans. Both diseases cause skin lesions, neurological and cardiac abnormalities and recurrent arthritis. In North America Lyme disease is transmitted by the related ticks I. dammini and I. pacificus.
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! EN_90227044_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Illustration depicting the itch mite, Sarcoptes scabei, a parasite which attacks human skin, causing scabies. Scabies is typified by severe itching (particularly at night), red papules and often secondary infection. The female mite tunnels in the skin to lay her eggs and the newly-hatched mites are passed easily from person to person by contact. The intense iching is caused by an allergic reaction to the mite's saliva or faecal material. Commonly infected areas are the groin, penis, nipples and the skin between the fingers. treatment is with hexachlorophane or benzyl benzoate creams, which kill the mites.
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! EN_90244392_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Illustration showing the three types of human louse. At top right is the crab or pubic louse Phthirus pubis, on the left the body or clothes louse Pediculus humanus corporis and at bottom right the head louse Pediculus humanis capitis. They are all blood-sucking lice which live only on man. The crab louse lives in the pubic hair but can also colonise the armpit hair, beard, eyelashes & eyebrows. Body and head lice are both sub-species of P. humanus. The head louse lives in the hair of the head & the body louse inhabits clothing, only moving onto the skin to eat. The head and crab lice glue their eggs (nits) to hairs whereas the body louse uses the seams in clothing.
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