poniedziałek, 11 grudnia 2017
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Zoologia (86)

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! EN_90223862_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Fourteen-spot ladybird colouration. Artwork of the wingcases of several fourteen-spot ladybirds (Propylea 14-punctata) illustrating the variation in colouration patterns between individuals. These individuals were all collected from the same nettle plant. Both the adults and larvae are predatory, feeding on aphids.
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! EN_90232098_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Nettle gall midge (Dasineura urticae), artwork. Top view of a female with closed wings. The nettle gall midge has one pair of wings which are covered in many hairs. To stabilise it in flight it has knob shaped organs known as halteres, seen on either side of the abdomen. Located at the rear of the abdomen is a prominent ovipositor. The ovipositor can extend to the length of the abdomen and is used to lay her eggs between hairs and veins on the surface of stinging nettle leaves (Urtica dioica).
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! EN_90232098_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Nettle gall midge (Dasineura urticae), anatomical artwork. At top is a male specimen (only three legs shown). The nettle gall midge has one pair of wings which are covered in many hairs. To stabilise it in flight it has knob shaped organs known as halteres, (one visible), located posterior to the base of the wings. Located at the rear of the abdomen is a pair of 'claspers', which are used to latch on to the female's genitalia during mating. At right is an enlarged frontal view of the head, showing the fused compound eyes, maxillary palps (lower) and antennae (upper). At bottom left is an enlarged view of the terminal portion of a foot, showing four pads surrounded by hairs, which are used for suction and the two claws, used for grip.
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! EN_90238535_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Springtail (Sminthurus sp.), artwork. This primitive wingless herbivore is approximately 2mm long. It has a hinged appendage on its abdomen called a furcula which enables it to move about a hundred times its body length in one leap. To move, the furcula (far right) is bent forward and held in place. When released, the springing action propells the animal through the air. Springtails belong to the order Collembola, rather than Insecta, having simple eyes and few abdominal segments. This specimen was found on a stinging nettle (Urtica dioica).
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! EN_90254262_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Cuts of beef. Computer artwork illustrating primal and subprimal cuts of beef. Primal cuts (shown with a black dotted line) are large areas of muscle sold to wholesale meat retailers. These are then divided and sold to the consumer as smaller cuts, known as subprimal cuts. the subprimal cuts are shown with a white dotted line.
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! EN_90254262_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Cuts of beef. Computer artwork illustrating primal and subprimal cuts of beef and their names. Primal cuts (shown with black dotted lines), are large areas of muscle sold to wholesale meat retailers. These are then divided and sold to the consumer as smaller cuts, known as subprimal cuts (shown with white dotted lines).
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! EN_90254262_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Cuts of beef. Computer artwork illustrating primal cuts of beef and their names. Primal cuts (shown with black dotted lines), are large areas of muscle sold to wholesale meat retailers. These are then divided and sold to the consumer as smaller cuts, known as subprimal cuts.
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! EN_90243534_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Worldwide bird migration routes superimposed on a satellite map of the world. Many birds migrate on a seasonal basis from one area to another. The most common pattern is for birds to breed in the northern hemisphere's temperate or Arctic regions, and then migrate to the tropics or the temperate region of the southern hemisphere, avoiding the winter of the northern hemisphere. The different routes (flyways) are coloured: Pacific Americas (white); Mississippi Americas (yellow); Atlantic Americas (red); East Atlantic (pink); Black Sea and Mediterranean (purple); East Africa and West Asia (blue); Central Asia (turquoise); East Asia and Australian (green). It is thought that diseases such as avian flu can be spread along bird migratory routes.
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! EN_90243534_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Worldwide bird migration routes superimposed on a satellite map of the world. Many birds migrate on a seasonal basis from one area to another. The most common pattern is for birds to breed in the northern hemisphere's temperate or Arctic regions, and then migrate to the tropics or the temperate region of the southern hemisphere, avoiding the winter of the northern hemisphere. The different routes (flyways) are coloured: Pacific Americas (white); Mississippi Americas (yellow); Atlantic Americas (red); East Atlantic (pink); Black Sea and Mediterranean (purple); East Africa and West Asia (blue); Central Asia (turquoise); East Asia and Australian (green). It is thought that diseases such as avian flu can be spread along bird migratory routes.
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! EN_90242629_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY White-headed woodpeckers. Historical chromolithograph artwork of a pair of white-headed woodpeckers (Picoides albolarvatus) in a ponderosa pine tree (Pinus ponderosa). White-headed woodpeckers are found in northwest USA and southwest Canada, mainly in Washington State and British Columbia. They are dependent on pine seeds for food during winter. Published in Gems of Nature and Art by R. Fawcett, in London, circa 1880.
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! EN_90187917_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY NOT FOR USE IN EDUCATIONAL POSTERS. Animal cell, cutaway artwork. The cell membrane (green) surrounds internal structures (organelles) that include the nucleus (purple), which contains the nucleolus (sphere, lower centre). The nucleus contains the DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) that controls protein synthesis on ribosomes (chains of small yellow spheres) in the rough ER (endoplasmic reticulum, membrane folds, above and at right of nucleus). The proteins are stored in the flattened membranes of the Golgi complex (above and at right of rough ER). Energy is generated by mitochondria (cylinders, one at bottom centre). Cells are the microscopic structural and functional units of all living organisms. See B060/063 for a plant cell.
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! EN_90236532_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Scarab beetle. Composite image of a scarab beetle (family Scarabaeidae), seen from above (right) and upside down. The modified forewings (elytra, striped, upper to lower right) form a tough casing that folds over the membranous hind wings (not seen) when the beetle is at rest. The second and third pairs of legs and the rear end of the abdomen (lower left) bear long bristles (brown), which may have a sensory function. The scarab beetle family is one of the largest families of insects. It contains two groups; the dung beetles, which bury their eggs in large balls of dung, and the chafers, which feed on plants.
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! EN_90236533_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Scarab beetles. Computer artwork of scarab beetles (family Scarabaeidae). The scarab beetle family is one of the largest families of insects. It contains two groups; the dung beetles, which bury their eggs in large balls of dung, and the chafers, which feed on plants.
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! EN_90230341_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Marine toad tongue action. Artwork sequence of the tongue action of a marine toad (Bufo marinus). The sequence runs from top to bottom. At rest (top), the toad's tongue (pink) lies folded backwards in its mouth. In the next image (centre) the toad flips its jaw down with tremendous force, flipping the tongue over (red arrow) and towards its larva prey (bottom). This whip-like action can propel the tongue downwards at nearly 3 metres a second.
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! EN_90236269_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Salamander tongue action. Artwork of a salamander extending its tongue to catch its insect prey. The internal anatomy of the tongue-extending mechanism is shown at top. The dark blue strips are cartilage attached to the front of the tongue (pink). Rings of muscle surround these strips of cartilage. They contract to eject the cartilage out of the salamander's mouth, carrying the tongue and the sticky tongue pad (in the salamander's mouth) with them. The pad will hold the insect (upper right). Retractor muscles attached to the pelvis (yellow) reel the tongue back into the salamander's mouth. The initial tongue extension occurs in just several thousandths of a second.
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! EN_90233614_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Penguin locomotion. Artwork illustrating the way that a penguin moves. The crayon outlines, which are seen on either side of this emperor penguin (Aptenodytes forsteri), represent the swaying walk or waddle of a penguin. This rocking action has been found to be a very efficient way to move on the short legs and large feet of a penguin. These are needed as adaptations to its cold climates and for swimming in the sea.
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! EN_90238367_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Spiny lobster sound production. Artwork of how the spiny lobster (family Palinuridae) produces sound. A plectrum at the base (coloured) of each antenna can be rubbed over a ridge (the file) underneath the eyes. This is shown with the green arrows and results in a rasping sound, produced the same way that a bow is used to play a violin. It is thought that the sound is used to scare away predators while the lobster is moulting and defenceless.
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! EN_90238367_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Spiny lobster sound production. Artwork of how the spiny lobster (family Palinuridae) produces sound. A plectrum (upper left, brown) at the base of an antenna can be rubbed (green arrows) over a ridge (the file, red) underneath the eyes. A schematic diagram (lower right) shows the similarity to the method used to produce sound with a violin. It is thought that the resulting rasping sound defends the lobster from predators while it is moulting.
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! EN_90240469_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Tokay gecko. Artwork of a tokay gecko (Gekko gecko). This small reptile is found throughout the Indian subcontinent and South-East Asia. It is one of the largest of the geckoes, growing to a length of around 35 centimetres. This nocturnal reptile is a solitary insectivorous predator. Like other geckoes, the prominent toes of its feet have fine hairs on them, allowing it to climb and cling to vertical walls and overhanging surfaces.
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! EN_90193554_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Animal cell. Cutaway illustration of a typical animal cell showing various internal structures. The nucleus (large round, lower centre) contains genetic material and the nucleolus (brown). This is surrounded by a system of membranes (purple) known as the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Ribosomes (pink dots), involved in protein synthesis, are associated with the ER (rough ER) and occur free in the cell cytoplasm (pale blue). Mitochondria (pink, oval) produce energy. The membranes of the Golgi apparatus (brown, upper centre) produce secretory granules (round, brown). Cell vacuoles (yellow and green) and centrioles (orange, at centre left) are also illustrated.
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