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Botanika (88)

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! EN_90279572_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Watercolour artwork illustrating sorghum. This crop is both heat and drought tolerant. It is grown as a food for both humans and animals. Most of the world's sorghum is harvested in the USA, where it was introduced by African slaves in the 17th century.
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! EN_90270004_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Nettle leaf gall, artwork. Three views of a leaf gall (red) on a stinging nettle leaf (Urtica dioica). The gall is caused by the parasitic larva of the nettle gall midge (Dasineura urticae). The larva is seen in the cross-section at bottom. The larva emits a chemical which stimulates growth and feeds on the juices and tissue produced inside the gall cavity. A slit in the top of the gall (red) provides an exit point.
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! EN_90270005_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Nettle leaf gall midge larva, artwork. Cross- section through a stinging nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) and leaf gall. The gall is inhabited by the parasitic larva of the nettle gall midge (Dasineura urticae). The larva emits a chemical which stimulates growth and feeds on the juices and tissue produced inside the gall cavity. A slit in the top of the gall (red) provides an exit point.
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! EN_90270006_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Nettle leaf galls, artwork. Four views of galls at the base of a stinging nettle leaf (Urtica dioica). These abnormal outgrowths are caused by the parasitic larvae of the nettle gall midge (Dasineura urticae). The larvae emit a chemical which stimulates growth and then they feed on the juices and tissue produced inside the gall cavity. A slit in the top of the gall provides an exit point. Each gall generally contains one larva. A gall may contain more than one larva (as shown in the cross-section, bottom right), indicating that the gall midge larva itself has become a victim of a endoparasitoid.
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! EN_90251380_0004 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Chlorophyll molecule. Computer artwork of a molecule of chlorophyll (C55.H72.Mg.N4.O5) superimposed on a leaf. The atoms, represented as rods and spheres, are colour-coded; carbon (orange), hydrogen (green), oxygen (red), nitrogen (blue) and magnesium (white). Chlorophyll is a pigment molecule in plants. It absorbs sunlight and uses its energy to synthesise carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water, a process called photosynthesis. Chlorophyll also gives plants their green colour. The central part of the molecule is the porphyrin ring surrounding the magnesium atom. It is the arrangement of electrons in this ring that allows chlorophyll to absorb solar energy.
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! EN_90273486_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Pollen grains and flower. Composite image of pollen grains and the reproductive structures of a flower. Pollen contains the male sex cells of a flowering plant.
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! EN_90267188_0010 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Magic mushrooms, (Psilocybe cubensis) computer enhanced image.
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! EN_90267188_0011 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Magic mushrooms, (Psilocybe cubensis) composite image.
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! EN_90273349_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Poisonous plants. Artwork of poisonous plants, with detail of flowers and berries. Clockwise from bottom left are, autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale), water hemlock (Cicuta virosa), herb Paris (Paris quadrifolia), fool's parsley (Aethusa cynapium), poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), cuckoo pint (Arum maculatum), Cypress spurge (Euphorbia cyparissias), lettuce opium (Lactuca virosa) and pasque flower (Pulsatilla pratensis).
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! EN_90250569_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Carnivorous plants. Artwork of carnivorous plants. Clockwise from bottom left are; round leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia), pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea and Nepenthes sp.), great sundew (Drosera longifolia), cobra lily (Darlingtonia californica), venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris), waterwheel (Aldrovanda vesiculosa) and bladderwort (Utricularia vulgaris)
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! EN_90273349_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Poisonous plants. Artwork of poisonous plants, with detail of flowers and berries. Clockwise from lower left are foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), spurge laurel (Daphne mezereum), green hellebore (Helleborus viridis), larkspur (Aconitum napellus), christmas rose (Helleborus niger), black nightshade (Solanum nigrum), deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) and thorn apple (Datura stramonium).
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! EN_90259185_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Fossilized pollen grains, computer artwork. Pollen grains are reproductive structures produced by flowers. It is rare, but not impossible, for soft structures to be fossilized. Fossils are where an organic object has left a shape in rock, usually formed from soft mud that preserved the shape of the original object. Flowering plants only evolved about 135 million years ago.
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! EN_90273520_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Pollen grains, computer artwork. Pollen grains are reproductive structures produced by flowers. They display a great variation in their size, shape and surface texture. The outer wall (exine) is often highly sculpted to aid in their dispersal on the wind and by pollinators such as insects. Flowers may collectively produce many hundreds of millions of pollen grains in a flowering season. The pollen grain surfaces are used by botanists to categorize and recognize plants. Each pollen grain contains a male gamete (reproductive cell) that is intended to fertilise an egg or ovule (female gamete), and initiate the formation of a seed for a new plant.
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! EN_90250821_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Cellulose production. Artwork of a sectioned plant cell wall, showing the production of strands of cellulose (brown, upper frame). These form much of the cell wall, providing the cell with a rigid and strengthened structure. The cellulose is produced by rosettes (three seen) in the plasma membrane of the cell (horizontal yellow layer). The action of the rosettes is directed by cortical microtubules (grey tubes) underneath the membrane. Cellulose production is mediated by the enzyme cellulose synthetase in the rosettes. 36 cellulose strands are produced by each rosette, and these aggregate to form microfibrils, which are shown cross-linked by
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! EN_90251383_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Chloroplast. Artwork of a chloroplast in close-up, in a sectioned plant cell. Chloroplasts are one of the features that distinguish a plant cell from an animal cell. They contain chlorophyll, a green pigment that is needed to use energy from sunlight during photosynthesis, when carbohydrates are made from carbon dioxide and water. It contains stacks (circular) of flattened membranes, called grana, that contain the chlorophyll. It is thought that, during cell evolution, chloroplasts originated as once-independent micro-organisms. The cell wall (yellow), the nucleus (pink), and two peroxisomes (blue spheres) are also seen. Peroxisomes contain enzymes that help oxidise harmful materials.
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! EN_90273111_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY NOT FOR USE IN EDUCATIONAL POSTERS Plant cell structure. Artwork of a sectioned plant cell. The features that distinguish a plant cell from an animal cell are the cell wall (yellow) and the chloroplasts (green ovals circling the cell). The large central vacuole (liquid and gas-filled space) also contrasts with the many small vacuoles of an animal cell. Chloroplasts contain a pigment, chlorophyll, which is used in photosynthesis. The nucleus (pink, centre left) has been cut open to show the nucleolus (sphere), and is found in plant and animal cells, as are the energy-producing mitochondria (orange ovals) and peroxisomes (blue spheres that contain enzymes to break down harmful materials). See G450/078 for an animal cell.
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! EN_90273115_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Plant cell membranes. Cutaway artwork of the membrane channels that connect all the cells in a plant. They are called plasmodesmata and are seen running vertically through the cell wall, which is sectioned in an L-shape. Chloroplasts (green) are seen in the lower cell, and folds of membranes are seen in the upper cell. The piece of membrane that runs along a plasmodesma is named a desmotubule. It is an extension of the folded membrane that is called the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and creates a single membrane system throughout a plant. This also allows plant viruses to spread. The chains of small yellow spheres on the ER are ribosomes where proteins are synthesised.
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! EN_90273483_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Pollination. Computer artwork of pollen grains (yellow spiky balls) on the pistil (red) of a flower. Pollen grains contain the male sex cells (gametes) of a flowering plant. The pistil is the flower's female reproductive parts. Once the pollen has landed on the pistil, the male gametes travel to the ovaries (not seen), where they fertilise the female gametes (ovules) to form the seeds that may grow into new plants.
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! EN_90282693_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Tree water transport. Artwork illustrating the movement of water through a tree (blue arrows). Water is taken up by the root hairs (bottom left) on the roots. It moves upwards through the tree, through the xylem tissue, the rigid woody tissue seen in the circle at lower left. Water is lost from the leaves by transpiration. This is the evaporation of water out of pores (stomata, top right) in the leaves. Trees can reduce their transpiration rate in dry air by closing their stomata. Mineral ions are transported in the water column, also called the transpiration stream.
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! EN_90246539_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Opium poppy. Illustration of a flowering opium poppy, Papaver somniferum. The flower (red) contains a yellow starfish-like stigma. When the petals fall the stigma and carpel (capsule), are left (as at upper centre). The carpel contains young seeds. It is from the sap of these unripe capsules that crude opium is harvested. Crude opium contains numerous alkaloids including morphine, heroin & codeine. It is used medicinally as a sedative and to relieve pain. However, opium is extensively used as a narcotic drug, forming dependency at an early stage.
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