niedziela, 22 października 2017
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Botanika (96)

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! EN_90273867_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Potato (Solanum tuberosum). Watercolour artwork illustrating a potato plant. The plant belongs to the Solanaceae or nightshade family and originates from the Andes region of South America. The purple and white flowers (top left) are pollinated by insects and form small green fruit which produce seeds. However, the plants are grown for their potatoes (bottom), the edible tubers of the plant. Potatoes form an important source of carbohydrates in many diets. The 'skin' of the potato is also a good source of dietary fibre, essential for efficient digestion.
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! EN_90276891_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Rye (Secale cereale). Watercolour artwork illustrating rye. Rye is a hardy cereal crop that is native to western Asia. It can grow up to 1.8 metres tall. Rye is mostly used as livestock food and in bread making, where it is mixed with wheat.
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! EN_90279690_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Soybean (Glycine max). Watercolour artwork illustrating a soybean plant including a flower and fruits. The ripening (green) and ripened (brown) pods of this plant contain soya beans, an excellent source of dietary fibre.
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! EN_90285176_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Wild rice (Zizania aquatica). Watercolour artwork illustrating wild rice, a tall marsh grass with edible grains. Despite its common name, wild rice is not closely related to the cultivated rice plant, Oryza satvia.
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! EN_90285718_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Yam (Dioscorea villosa). Watercolour artwork illustrating a yam. The tuber of the plant is edible but must be prepared and cooked thoroughly to remove toxins. Its consumption is common throughout West Africa. As it can be grown in harsh conditions and stored for several months, it is a valuable food source during times of food scarcity.
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! EN_90273547_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Pollen grains, computer artwork. The characteristic surface of pollen grains is used by botanists to recognise and classify plants. Each pollen grain contains a male gamete (reproductive cell) that is intended to fertilise an egg or ovule (female gamete), and initiate the formation of a seed for a new plant.
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! EN_90254722_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Damaged stinging nettle, artwork. Various views of a stinging nettle damaged by the weevil (Ceuthorhynchus pollinaris). At left are several enlarged views of sections of damaged stems and petioles (leaf stems). In spring, the female weevil makes holes in the stems with the mandibles located at the end of her rostrum. Her eggs are then laid inside the holes. Sections showing the eggs are at top left and centre left. The weevil also feeds on the leaves (centre right). At far right is an enlarged view of a larva inside the stem cavity.
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! EN_90274299_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum). Watercolour artwork illustrating stages of growth of proso millet. The stem at left is topped by spikelets of flowers, arranged on a raceme. The stem at right shows the development of grains. It is topped by ripening fruits, each containing one seed. Millet has been used as a food for both man and domestic animals since the Stone Age. It is an important crop in the tropics and warm temperate regions because it tolerates drought and grows well in poor soil. It takes only two to three months to produce its carbohydrate rich seed.
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! EN_90279572_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Sorghum (Sorghum bicolor). Watercolour artwork illustrating sorghum. This crop is both heat and drought tolerant. It is grown as a food for both humans and animals. Most of the world's sorghum is harvested in the USA, where it was introduced by African slaves in the 17th century.
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! EN_90270004_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Nettle leaf gall, artwork. Three views of a leaf gall (red) on a stinging nettle leaf (Urtica dioica). The gall is caused by the parasitic larva of the nettle gall midge (Dasineura urticae). The larva is seen in the cross-section at bottom. The larva emits a chemical which stimulates growth and feeds on the juices and tissue produced inside the gall cavity. A slit in the top of the gall (red) provides an exit point.
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! EN_90270005_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Nettle leaf gall midge larva, artwork. Cross- section through a stinging nettle leaf (Urtica dioica) and leaf gall. The gall is inhabited by the parasitic larva of the nettle gall midge (Dasineura urticae). The larva emits a chemical which stimulates growth and feeds on the juices and tissue produced inside the gall cavity. A slit in the top of the gall (red) provides an exit point.
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! EN_90270006_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Nettle leaf galls, artwork. Four views of galls at the base of a stinging nettle leaf (Urtica dioica). These abnormal outgrowths are caused by the parasitic larvae of the nettle gall midge (Dasineura urticae). The larvae emit a chemical which stimulates growth and then they feed on the juices and tissue produced inside the gall cavity. A slit in the top of the gall provides an exit point. Each gall generally contains one larva. A gall may contain more than one larva (as shown in the cross-section, bottom right), indicating that the gall midge larva itself has become a victim of a endoparasitoid.
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! EN_90251380_0004 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Chlorophyll molecule. Computer artwork of a molecule of chlorophyll (C55.H72.Mg.N4.O5) superimposed on a leaf. The atoms, represented as rods and spheres, are colour-coded; carbon (orange), hydrogen (green), oxygen (red), nitrogen (blue) and magnesium (white). Chlorophyll is a pigment molecule in plants. It absorbs sunlight and uses its energy to synthesise carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water, a process called photosynthesis. Chlorophyll also gives plants their green colour. The central part of the molecule is the porphyrin ring surrounding the magnesium atom. It is the arrangement of electrons in this ring that allows chlorophyll to absorb solar energy.
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! EN_90273486_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Pollen grains and flower. Composite image of pollen grains and the reproductive structures of a flower. Pollen contains the male sex cells of a flowering plant.
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! EN_90267188_0010 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Magic mushrooms, (Psilocybe cubensis) computer enhanced image.
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! EN_90267188_0011 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Magic mushrooms, (Psilocybe cubensis) composite image.
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! EN_90273349_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Poisonous plants. Artwork of poisonous plants, with detail of flowers and berries. Clockwise from bottom left are, autumn crocus (Colchicum autumnale), water hemlock (Cicuta virosa), herb Paris (Paris quadrifolia), fool's parsley (Aethusa cynapium), poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), cuckoo pint (Arum maculatum), Cypress spurge (Euphorbia cyparissias), lettuce opium (Lactuca virosa) and pasque flower (Pulsatilla pratensis).
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! EN_90250569_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Carnivorous plants. Artwork of carnivorous plants. Clockwise from bottom left are; round leaf sundew (Drosera rotundifolia), pitcher plants (Sarracenia purpurea and Nepenthes sp.), great sundew (Drosera longifolia), cobra lily (Darlingtonia californica), venus flytrap (Dionaea muscipula), butterwort (Pinguicula vulgaris), waterwheel (Aldrovanda vesiculosa) and bladderwort (Utricularia vulgaris)
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! EN_90273349_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Poisonous plants. Artwork of poisonous plants, with detail of flowers and berries. Clockwise from lower left are foxglove (Digitalis purpurea), spurge laurel (Daphne mezereum), green hellebore (Helleborus viridis), larkspur (Aconitum napellus), christmas rose (Helleborus niger), black nightshade (Solanum nigrum), deadly nightshade (Atropa belladonna), henbane (Hyoscyamus niger) and thorn apple (Datura stramonium).
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! EN_90259185_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Fossilized pollen grains, computer artwork. Pollen grains are reproductive structures produced by flowers. It is rare, but not impossible, for soft structures to be fossilized. Fossils are where an organic object has left a shape in rock, usually formed from soft mud that preserved the shape of the original object. Flowering plants only evolved about 135 million years ago.
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