niedziela, 17 grudnia 2017
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Botanika (96)

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! EN_90276613_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Rose. Linoleum block print of a rose flower (Rosa sp.).
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! EN_90185772_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Grapevine genome sequencing. Data from a gel electrophoresis experiment to sequence the Pinot Noir grape (Vitis sp.) genome. This technique is used to separate, in sequence, nucleotide bases from DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) fragments. DNA contains 4 bases; adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T). The DNA fragments are placed in a porous gel that has an electric current applied to it. The nucleotides move down the gel according to their size. After the process has run the bases appear as bands on the gel. The sequences of bases make up genes, which encode an organism's genetic information. Photographed at the Agricultural Institute of San Michelle all'Adige, Trento, Italy.
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! EN_90252368_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) with a potato plant, artwork. This beetle is a serious pest of commercial potato crops. The insect is about 10 mm long and native to the south-west of North America, although now they are also found across North America, Europe and Asia. Females lay eggs (yellow) on the underside of host leaves; after 4-15 days the eggs hatch into larvae (red) which feed on the leaves. The larvae progress through 4 growth stages (instars) before burrowing into the soil and forming a pupa (brown) with a hard protective coating. After a period of several weeks or several months, depending on conditions, the adult insect emerges and returns to the host plant to feed and mate.
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! EN_90253522_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) with cotton plant (Gossypium sp.). The boll weevil is the most destructive cotton pest in North America. The adult insects measure 3-8.5 mm long. The females lay eggs in cotton flower buds (green, bottom left). When the eggs hatch, the larvae feed on the bud or boll tissue for 7-14 days before forming a pupa inside the bud (left, top). The adult develops within the pupa (left, second from top) and emerges fully grown (left, third from top) after about 5 days to cut itself out of the bud or boll. The adults feed on cotton flower buds, pollen or bolls.
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! EN_90255130_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY African desert locust (Schistotecera gregaria) on Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), artwork. The desert locust is a significant agricultural pest in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. The life cycle (clockwise from lower left) begins with the female laying her eggs in the ground, below a foam plug. The eggs hatch into solitary green nymphs, which go through 5 growth stages (instars) before moulting into its solitary adult form. The offspring of this generation of locusts are much brighter in colour and form swarms of 'hoppers'. After 5 instars these moult into their adult form.
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! EN_90258569_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Flower pollen. Computer artwork of pollen grains from a flower. The outer wall (exine) of each pollen grain is highly sculpted to aid the dispersal of the pollen grains. A flowering plant produces many pollen grains which need to be dispersed. This dispersal may happen as the spiky exine sticks to a pollinator such as a bee. Each pollen grain contains a male gamete (reproductive cell) that is intended to fertilise the ovule or egg (female gamete) of another plant of that species, forming the seed for a new plant.
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! EN_90258569_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Flower pollen. Computer artwork of pollen grains from a flower. The outer wall (exine) of each pollen grain is highly sculpted to aid the dispersal of the pollen grains. A flowering plant produces many pollen grains which need to be dispersed. This dispersal may happen as the spiky exine sticks to a pollinator such as a bee. Each pollen grain contains a male gamete (reproductive cell) that is intended to fertilise the ovule or egg (female gamete) of another plant of that species, forming the seed for a new plant.
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! EN_90258569_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Flower pollen. Computer artwork of pollen grains from a flower. The outer wall (exine) of each pollen grain is highly sculpted to aid the dispersal of the pollen grains. A flowering plant produces many pollen grains which need to be dispersed. This dispersal may happen as the spiky exine sticks to a pollinator such as a bee. Each pollen grain contains a male gamete (reproductive cell) that is intended to fertilise the ovule or egg (female gamete) of another plant of that species, forming the seed for a new plant.
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! EN_90258569_0004 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Flower pollen. Computer artwork of pollen grains from a flower (seen in background). The outer wall (exine) of each pollen grain is highly sculpted to aid the dispersal of the pollen grains. A flowering plant produces many pollen grains which need to be dispersed. This dispersal may happen as the spiky exine sticks to a pollinator such as a bee. Each pollen grain contains a male gamete (reproductive cell) that is intended to fertilise the ovule or egg (female gamete) of another plant of that species, forming the seed for a new plant.
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! EN_90253731_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Creeping bellflower. Computer artwork of creeping bellflower plants (Campanula rapunculoides) showing their root systems in the soil. This plant is considered a weed due to its abilityto spread wuickly overa alrge area through its roots. The larger roots of this plant are edible.
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! EN_90253734_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Creeping buttercup. Computer artwork of creeping buttercup plants (Ranunculus repens) showing their root systems in the soil. This plant is considered a weed due to its ability to spread quickly over a large area through its roots.
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! EN_90254766_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Dandelion. Computer artwork of a dandelion plant (Taraxacum vulgare) showing its roots in the soil.
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! EN_90258032_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Field bindweed. Computer artwork of field bindweed plants (Convolvulus arvensis) showing their root systems in the soil. This plant is considered a weed due to its ability to spread quickly over a large area through its roots.
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! EN_90252675_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Common couch. Computer artwork of the common couch grass (Elytrigia repens) showing its roots and rhizomes in the soil. Rhizomes are underground stems that help the plant to spread.
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! EN_90253741_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Creeping thistle. Computer artwork of a creeping thistle plant (Cirsium arvense) showing its roots in the soil. Thistles are considered weeds due to their ability to spread quickly over a large area through their roots.
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! EN_90261507_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Ground-elder. Computer artwork of a ground-elder plant (Aegopodium podagraria), showing its root system in the soil. Ground-elder is considered a weed due to its ability to spread quickly over a large area through its roots.
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! EN_90280422_0005 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Stinging nettle. Computer artwork of a stinging nettle (Urtica dioica), showing its root system in the soil.
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! EN_90249131_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Bread wheat (Triticum aestivum). Watercolour artwork illustrating bread wheat. Bread wheat is one of the most widely cultivated cereal crops and has many different varieties and forms. It is mainly grown for human and animal consumption as it contains a high perecentage of carbohydrate, a considerable quantity of protein, some fats and some vitamins.
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! EN_90250644_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Cassava (Manihot esculenta). Watercolour artwork of a cassava plant. This perennial shrub is cultivated for its edible tubers which are a rich source of carbohydrate. Apart from this they have very little nutritional value, although the leaves of the plant are a rich source of protein. Like the potato, the cassava originates in South America where it is still a popular crop. It is also grown throughout Africa and Asia. Cassava is best eaten immediately after harvesting after which it is stored in water until cooking, to prevent the flavour from spoiling.
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! EN_90267327_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Maize (Zea mays). Watercolour artwork illustrating stages of growth of maize. The stem at the top is topped by spikelets of flowers, arranged on a raceme. Lower down are the ripening fruiting bodies called cobs, covered in individual yellow kernels, which are surrounded by leaf sheaths called husks. The fibrous structures at the tips of each cob are the female stigmas which are designed to catch pollen grains. Maize is one of the world's most important crops. It can be eaten as corn on the cob, sweetcorn or popcorn It can also be ground down to produce flour, distilled to make a whiskey and extracts can be used in the production of cooking oil and margarine. Maize is a good source of potassium and Vitamin A, and is high in fibre.
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