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Botanika (88)

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! EN_90251381_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Chlorophyll moleucle. Conceptual computer artwork of a chlorophyll molecule superimposed on a section of leaf. Different atoms are represented by coloured spheres enclosed in a cage-like structure (green: carbon and hydrogen, red: oxygen, blue: nitrogen). Chlorophyll is a pigment that is vital to photosynthesis. It absorbs sunlight and uses the energy to produce carbohydrates from carbon dioxide and water. It is stored in high concentrations in chloroplasts within plant cells and gives plants their green colour.
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! EN_90272685_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Photosynthesis, computer artwork. Photosynthesis is the process by which most plants (as well as algae and some bacteria) convert sunlight into chemical energy. This energy is used to produce carbohydrate, such as starch, which is stored and used for growth. The process occurs in the green parts of the plant (especially the leaves). It requires water (absorbed by the roots, bottom left) and carbon dioxide (absorbed by the leaves). A by-product is oxygen, which is released through the leaves. For a labelled version of this diagram, see image E100/0280.
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! EN_90272685_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Photosynthesis, computer artwork. Photosynthesis is the process by which most plants (as well as algae and some bacteria) convert sunlight into chemical energy. This energy is used to produce carbohydrate, such as starch, which is stored and used for growth. The process occurs in the green parts of the plant (especially the leaves). It requires water (absorbed by the roots) and carbon dioxide (absorbed by the leaves). A by-product is oxygen, which is released through the leaves. For a labelled version of this diagram, see image E100/0280.
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! EN_90272685_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Photosynthesis, computer artwork. Photosynthesis is the process by which most plants (as well as algae and some bacteria) convert sunlight into chemical energy. This energy is used to produce carbohydrate, such as starch, which is stored and used for growth. The process occurs in the green parts of the plant (especially the leaves). It requires water (absorbed by the roots) and carbon dioxide (absorbed by the leaves). A by-product is oxygen, which is released through the leaves.
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! EN_90273120_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Plant communities. Computer artwork showing the types of plants found at different altitudes. Seen here are tropical plants (Monstera sp.) at the lowest altitude, temperate trees (maple, Acer sp.) further up and alpine varieties at top, whose natural habitat is above the tree line. For this image without the labels, see image E500/0158.
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! EN_90246819_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Aspergillus fumigatus fungus in the lung, computer artwork. Aspergillus fumigatus is made up of fungal threads (hyphae, strands) with conidiophores (fruiting bodies, round clusters) at the tip. The conidiophores are made up of conidia (spores) that are dispersed on the wind. Inhalation of spores by people with a weakened respiratory system, such as asthmatics or those with cystic fibrosis, can result in an allergic reaction known as aspergillosis. A. fumigatus usually grows on decomposing organic matter.
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! EN_90246819_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Aspergillus fumigatus fungus, computer artwork. Aspergillus fumigatus is made up of fungal threads (hyphae, not seen) with conidiophores (fruiting bodies, lower left) at the tip. The conidiophores are made up of conidia (spores) that are dispersed on the wind, as shown here. Inhalation of spores by people with a weakened respiratory system, such as asthmatics or those with cystic fibrosis, can result in an allergic reaction known as aspergillosis. A. fumigatus usually grows on decomposing organic matter.
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! EN_90246819_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Aspergillus fumigatus fungus, computer artwork. Aspergillus fumigatus is made up of fungal threads (hyphae, stalk-like strands) with conidiophores (fruiting bodies, round clusters) at the tip. The conidiophores are made up of conidia (spores) that are dispersed on the wind. Inhalation of spores by people with a weakened respiratory system, such as asthmatics or those with cystic fibrosis, can result in an allergic reaction known as aspergillosis. A. fumigatus usually grows on decomposing organic matter.
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! EN_90272686_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Photosynthesis, illustration. Photosynthesis is the process by which most plants (and some other living organisms) convert energy from sunlight into chemical energy. This energy is used to produce carbohydrate, such as starch, which is stored and used for growth. The process occurs in the green parts of the plant (especially the leaves). It requires water (absorbed by the roots) and carbon dioxide (absorbed by the leaves). A by-product is oxygen, which is released by the leaves.
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! EN_90273547_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Pollen grains. Computer artwork of pollen grains from a flower. The outer wall (exine) of each pollen grain is highly sculpted to aid the dispersal of the pollen grains. A flowering plant produces many pollen grains which need to be dispersed. This dispersal may happen as the spiky exine sticks to a pollinator such as a bee. Each pollen grain contains a male gamete (reproductive cell) that is intended to fertilise the ovule or egg (female gamete) of another plant of that species, forming the seed for a new plant.
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! EN_90263036_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Hosta (Hosta sp.). Linoleum block print of a hosta plant in flower.
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! EN_90276613_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Rose. Linoleum block print of a rose flower (Rosa sp.).
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! EN_90276613_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Rose. Linoleum block print of a rose flower (Rosa sp.).
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! EN_90185772_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Grapevine genome sequencing. Data from a gel electrophoresis experiment to sequence the Pinot Noir grape (Vitis sp.) genome. This technique is used to separate, in sequence, nucleotide bases from DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) fragments. DNA contains 4 bases; adenine (A), cytosine (C), guanine (G) and thymine (T). The DNA fragments are placed in a porous gel that has an electric current applied to it. The nucleotides move down the gel according to their size. After the process has run the bases appear as bands on the gel. The sequences of bases make up genes, which encode an organism's genetic information. Photographed at the Agricultural Institute of San Michelle all'Adige, Trento, Italy.
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! EN_90252368_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Colorado potato beetle (Leptinotarsa decemlineata) with a potato plant, artwork. This beetle is a serious pest of commercial potato crops. The insect is about 10 mm long and native to the south-west of North America, although now they are also found across North America, Europe and Asia. Females lay eggs (yellow) on the underside of host leaves; after 4-15 days the eggs hatch into larvae (red) which feed on the leaves. The larvae progress through 4 growth stages (instars) before burrowing into the soil and forming a pupa (brown) with a hard protective coating. After a period of several weeks or several months, depending on conditions, the adult insect emerges and returns to the host plant to feed and mate.
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! EN_90253522_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Boll weevil (Anthonomus grandis) with cotton plant (Gossypium sp.). The boll weevil is the most destructive cotton pest in North America. The adult insects measure 3-8.5 mm long. The females lay eggs in cotton flower buds (green, bottom left). When the eggs hatch, the larvae feed on the bud or boll tissue for 7-14 days before forming a pupa inside the bud (left, top). The adult develops within the pupa (left, second from top) and emerges fully grown (left, third from top) after about 5 days to cut itself out of the bud or boll. The adults feed on cotton flower buds, pollen or bolls.
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! EN_90255130_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY African desert locust (Schistotecera gregaria) on Proso millet (Panicum miliaceum), artwork. The desert locust is a significant agricultural pest in Africa, the Middle East and Asia. The life cycle (clockwise from lower left) begins with the female laying her eggs in the ground, below a foam plug. The eggs hatch into solitary green nymphs, which go through 5 growth stages (instars) before moulting into its solitary adult form. The offspring of this generation of locusts are much brighter in colour and form swarms of 'hoppers'. After 5 instars these moult into their adult form.
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! EN_90258569_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Flower pollen. Computer artwork of pollen grains from a flower. The outer wall (exine) of each pollen grain is highly sculpted to aid the dispersal of the pollen grains. A flowering plant produces many pollen grains which need to be dispersed. This dispersal may happen as the spiky exine sticks to a pollinator such as a bee. Each pollen grain contains a male gamete (reproductive cell) that is intended to fertilise the ovule or egg (female gamete) of another plant of that species, forming the seed for a new plant.
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! EN_90258569_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Flower pollen. Computer artwork of pollen grains from a flower. The outer wall (exine) of each pollen grain is highly sculpted to aid the dispersal of the pollen grains. A flowering plant produces many pollen grains which need to be dispersed. This dispersal may happen as the spiky exine sticks to a pollinator such as a bee. Each pollen grain contains a male gamete (reproductive cell) that is intended to fertilise the ovule or egg (female gamete) of another plant of that species, forming the seed for a new plant.
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! EN_90258569_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Flower pollen. Computer artwork of pollen grains from a flower. The outer wall (exine) of each pollen grain is highly sculpted to aid the dispersal of the pollen grains. A flowering plant produces many pollen grains which need to be dispersed. This dispersal may happen as the spiky exine sticks to a pollinator such as a bee. Each pollen grain contains a male gamete (reproductive cell) that is intended to fertilise the ovule or egg (female gamete) of another plant of that species, forming the seed for a new plant.
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