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! EN_01354334_0506 SCI
John Locke (1632-1704), English philosopher. Locke's early years lecturing at Oxford University were followed by fifteen years in France, where he met most of Europe's leading scientists and thinkers. On his return, Locke's 'Essay Concerning Human Understanding' (1690) suggested that the mind at birth is a tabula rasa (blank slate) on which knowledge is imprinted by experience. Locke also argued that the proper basis of knowledge is experiment. He also published 'Two Treaties on Civil Government' (1690). This oil-on-canvas work is by Thomas Gibson (c.1680-1751).
! EN_01354334_0508 SCI
Henry Wentworth Dyke Acland (1815-1900), British physician, depicted in a satirical illustration as a sailor at the helm of a ship. Acland studied at Oxford, and was appointed a lecturer in anatomy there in 1845, being elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1847. Acland was Regius Professor of Medicine at Oxford from 1858 to 1894. He helped revive the Oxford medical school, and establish the Oxford University Museum (1861). His honours include Companion of the Order of the Bath (1883), Knight Commander (1884), and baronet (1890). Published in the 1870s, this cartoon is from the series 'Great Guns of Oxford' (LVIII).
! EN_01354334_0509 SCI
Thomas Henry Huxley (1825-1895), British biologist. Huxley studied medicine and surgery, and joined the Royal Navy where he worked on plankton. Huxley became best known as a popularizer of science, notably Darwin's theory of evolution. In 1860 Huxley presented Darwin's theory at a meeting of the British Association for the Advancement of Science at Oxford, where he faced his opponent Bishop Samuel Wilberforce. Huxley won the day. Huxley invented the word 'agnostic' to describe his religious beliefs. Photographed in 1860 at the meeting where Huxley presented Darwin's work. Huxley would come to be known as Darwin's Bulldog for his advocacy of Darwin's theory of evolution.
! EN_01354334_0510 SCI
Buckland lecturing at the Ashmolean Museum, 1822. British geologist William Buckland (1784-1856) is displaying some of the fossils he found in the UK. These included the skull of a cave hyena, and nautiloid and ammonite fossils. Buckland also studied the geological and fossil history of Kirkdale Cave, which he proved had been a hyena den. It was this work that saw him awarded the Royal Society's Copley Medal. Buckland was elected a Fellow of the Royal Society, and was Canon of Christ Church, and Professor of Geology and Mineralogy at the University of Oxford. Illustration from 'The life and correspondence of William Buckland' (1894).
! EN_01354334_0511 SCI
Editorial use only Marcus du Sautoy (born 1965), British mathematician. Du Sautoy studied at the University of Oxford where he obtained his doctorate and where he is a Fellow at New College. He is a Professor at the university's Mathematical Institute, and in 2008 was appointed as the university's Simonyi Professor for the Public Understanding of Science. His main research area is group theory. His awards include the Berwick Prize (2001) and the Faraday Prize (2009). He popularises mathematics with books and television programmes, and in 2010 was made an Officer of the Order of the British Empire (OBE). He is President of the Mathematical Association. Photographed in 2012.
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! EN_01354334_0512 SCI
Editorial use only Henry Snaith, British physicist. Snaith is a professor in the Department of Physics at the University of Oxford. His work on materials used in solar panels saw him elected a Fellow of the Royal Society in 2015. He is co-founder of Oxford Photovoltaics. Photographed in 2015.
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! EN_01354334_0513 SCI
Editorial use only Mark Forsyth (born 1977), author and etymologist. Forsyth is a graduate of Lincoln College, Oxford. His works include 'The Etymologicon' (2011), 'The Horologicon' (2012), and 'The Elements of Eloquence' (2013). Photographed in 2015.
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! EN_01354334_0514 SCI
Editorial use only Mark Forsyth (born 1977), author and etymologist, with a manuscript in a nutshell. Forsyth is a graduate of Lincoln College, Oxford. His works include 'The Etymologicon' (2011), 'The Horologicon' (2012), and 'The Elements of Eloquence' (2013). Photographed in 2015.
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! EN_01331816_0089 SCI
Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882), British naturalist, illustration. Darwin had briefly studied medicine and then trained in the clergy, but his interest was in natural history. In 1831 he set sail as naturalist on HMS Beagle, which was to provide the fieldwork for his famous book. His theory of evolution was published as 'On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection' (1859). It caused a storm of controversy with Christian orthodoxy, as it contradicted the widely accepted belief that different animal and plant species were created by a divine creator (God).
! EN_01322909_0062 SCI
Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc (1580-1637). 1930 illustration of an engraving by the French artist Claude Mellan of the French astronomer Nicolas-Claude Fabri de Peiresc. Peiresc was a noted intellectual who corresponded with most of the great thinkers of the age. His own work was diverse, making important contributions to history, geography, egyptology, ecology and zoology. In 1610 Peiresc used a telescope to make observations of Jupiter's moons. In the same year he discovered the Orion Nebula. He coordinated observations of a lunar eclipse in 1635 and from the readings made accurate determinations of longitude.
! EN_01303437_0507 SCI
Editorial use only Little Foot Australopithecus fossil. Paleoanthropologist Ronald J. Clark and his colleague examine a fossil rib and vertebra from Little Foot, a nearly complete Australopithecus skeleton discovered in the Sterkfontein Caves in South Africa in 1994-1998. The skeleton is an estimated 3.67 million years old, dated in 2015 by means of a new radioisotopic technique. The recovery of the bones proved extremely difficult, because they were completely embedded in rock. The primate Australopithecus is thought to be an ancestor of humans. Photographed in 2010.
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! EN_01303437_0508 SCI
Editorial use only Little Foot Australopithecus fossil. Paleoanthropologist Ronald J. Clark with a fossil rib and vertebra from Little Foot, a nearly complete Australopithecus skeleton discovered in the Sterkfontein Caves in South Africa in 1994-1998. The skeleton is an estimated 3.67 million years old, dated in 2015 by means of a new radioisotopic technique. The recovery of the bones proved extremely difficult, because they were completely embedded in rock. The primate Australopithecus is thought to be an ancestor of humans. Photographed in 2010.
Editorial use only Model Released
! EN_01303437_0509 SCI
Editorial use only Little Foot Australopithecus fossil. Paleoanthropologist Ronald J. Clark examines a fossil rib and vertebra from Little Foot, a nearly complete Australopithecus skeleton discovered in the Sterkfontein Caves in South Africa in 1994-1998. The skeleton is an estimated 3.67 million years old, dated in 2015 by means of a new radioisotopic technique. The recovery of the bones proved extremely difficult, because they were completely embedded in rock. The primate Australopithecus is thought to be an ancestor of humans. Photographed in 2010.
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! EN_01297106_0032 SCI
Samuel Wilberforce (1805-1873), Bishop of Oxford and one of the British opponents of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. Wilberforce was renowned as an eloquent orator, hence his name of 'Soapy' Sam. He argued against T. H. Huxley in a debate about evolution at a meeting of the British Association in 1860. Wilberforce asked Huxley if he traced his descent from the apes through his father or mother. Huxley replied that he would rather be descended from an ape than from an educated man who would introduce such a remark to a serious scientific discussion (meaning Wilberforce) and so won the debate. This salted paper print has been produced from a calotype negative obtained by Hill and Adamson in Scotland, dating from the period 1843 to 1848.
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! EN_01297106_0033 SCI
Samuel Wilberforce (1805-1873), Bishop of Oxford and one of the British opponents of Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. Wilberforce was renowned as an eloquent orator, hence his name of 'Soapy' Sam. He argued against T. H. Huxley in a debate about evolution at a meeting of the British Association in 1860. Wilberforce asked Huxley if he traced his descent from the apes through his father or mother. Huxley replied that he would rather be descended from an ape than from an educated man who would introduce such a remark to a serious scientific discussion (meaning Wilberforce) and so won the debate. This albumen silver print is from a photograph taken by Julia Margaret Cameron (1815-1879) in October 1872, at Freshwater on the Isle of Wight.
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! EN_01292973_1227 SCI
Russian-US geneticist Theodosius Dobzhansky (1900-1975) in his laboratory with his fly maze. Dobzhansky linked Darwin's evolution theory with Mendel's laws of hereditary. He studied the genes of the fruit fly, Drosophila sp, and found a greater variability than expected. He found a high proportion of flies had debilitating genes which were masked by the presence of a dominant 'normal' gene. He showed that the presence of a masked debilitating gene was advantageous as it allowed a population to be more versatile in adapting to a changing environment. Dobzhansky wrote many influential books, including 'Genetics and the Origin of Species' (1937). Photographed in 1965 by R. F. Carter.
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! EN_01292973_1228 SCI
Theodosius Dobzhansky (1900-1975), Russian-US geneticist, in his laboratory with a microscope. Dobzhansky linked Darwin's evolution theory with Mendel's laws of hereditary. He studied the genes of the fruit fly, Drosophila sp, and found a greater variability than expected. He found a high proportion of flies had debilitating genes which were masked by the presence of a dominant 'normal' gene. He showed that the presence of a masked debilitating gene was advantageous as it allowed a population to be more versatile in adapting to a changing environment. Dobzhansky wrote many influential books, including 'Genetics and the Origin of Species' (1937). Photographed in around 1959.
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! EN_01292973_1229 SCI
Theodosius Dobzhansky (1900-1975), Russian-US geneticist. Dobzhansky linked Darwin's evolution theory with Mendel's laws of hereditary. He studied the genes of the fruit fly, Drosophila sp, and found a greater variability than expected. He found a high proportion of flies had debilitating genes which were masked by the presence of a dominant 'normal' gene. He showed that the presence of a masked debilitating gene was advantageous as it allowed a population to be more versatile in adapting to a changing environment. Dobzhansky wrote many influential books, including 'Genetics and the Origin of Species' (1937). Photographed in around 1935.
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! EN_01173231_0014 SCI
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642). Historical artwork of the Italian astronomer and physicist Galileo Galilei. Galileo was the first to successfully use a telescope to observe the heavens, discovering new stars, mountains on the Moon, and the phases of Venus. His discoveries supported the Copernican theory that the Sun, not the Earth, was at the centre of the solar system. This brought Galileo into conflict with the Roman Catholic Church and, in 1632, he was found guilty of heresy and was held under house arrest for the rest of his life.
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! EN_01150989_3931 SCI
Betsy Ancker-Johnson (born 1929, nee Ancker), US physicist. Ancker-Johnson received her PhD in physics from Tubingen University in 1953. She specialised in plasma physics and radio technology, later working on environmental issues. She married in 1958 and worked for a range of universities and companies. She was Assistant Secretary for Science and Technology, US Department of Commerce (1973-77). In 1975, she was elected to the National Academy of Engineering for 'management of engineering and scientific efforts focused on human needs'. She became a Vice-President of General Motors in 1979. Photographed in June 1976.
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