poniedziałek, 18 grudnia 2017
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Naukowcy (486)

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! EN_01151355_0397 SCI
17th Century vacuum experiment. 1672 Dutch engraving of the German scientist Otto von Guericke (1602-1686) experimenting with electricity. Von Guericke was a German scientist, inventor, and politician, best known for establishing the physics of vacuums. Image from 'Experimenta nova Magdeburgica de vacuo spatio', by Otto von Guericke, 1672.
! EN_01151355_0398 SCI
Denis Papin (1647-1712). 1689 Engraving of the french physicist, mathematician and inventor, Denis Papin. Papin is best known for his pioneering invention of the pressure cooker and steam digester, the forerunner to the steam engine.
! EN_01151355_0400 SCI
Hans Orsted experimenting. Circa 1820 German engraving of the Danish physicist and chemist Hans Christian Orsted (1777-1851) discovering that electric currents create magnetic fields. Orsted is best known for this discovery, an important aspect of electromagnetism. He shaped post-Kantian philosophy and advances in science throughout the late 19th century. From Weltall und Menscheit (Universe and Humanity), by Hans Kraemer (ca. 1880).
! EN_01151355_0402 SCI
Werner Siemens (1816-1892). 19th Century artwork of the German electrical engineer and inventor Ernst Werner (Von) Siemens. Siemens is best known for designing electrical generators, electric traction and electrolytic systems. He also founded the company that would became Siemens AG. In 1888, he was elevated to the nobility and became Werner von Siemens. The SI unit of electrical conductance is named after him. From Weltall und Menscheit (Universe and Humanity), by Hans Kraemer (ca. 1880).
! EN_01151355_0405 SCI
Julius von Mayer (1814-1878). 19th Century engraving of the German physicist and physician Julius Robert von Mayer. Mayer was a pioneer of the theory of the conservation of energy. He noted that blood retained more oxygen in hot weather and deduced that this was because the body required less oxygen to maintain body heat, and concluded that there was a fixed relationship be-tween heat and work. He studied the specific heat of gases, & argued that a gas cools as it expands because the heat is used up in expanding against atmospheric pressure. He later applied his theory of the conservation of energy more widely. From Weltall und Menscheit (Universe and Humanity), by Hans Kraemer (ca. 1880).
! EN_01151355_0407 SCI
Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894). 19th century engraving of the German physiologist and physicist Hermann Ludwig Ferdinand von Helmholtz. Helmholtz studied medicine and made careful studies of the ear and the eye and worked on acoustic theories. He invented the ophthalmoscope and the ophthalmometer. In thermodynamics, he formulated a form of the law of the conservation of energy. He also produced vortex theorems in fluid dynamics, and the Helmholtz differential equation in mathematical physics is named after him. From Weltall und Menscheit (Universe and Humanity), by Hans Kraemer (ca. 1880).
! EN_01151355_0408 SCI
Helmholtz Ophthalmoscope. 19th Century artwork of an ophthalmoscope as invented by the German physiologist and physicist Hermann von Helmholtz (1821-1894). From Weltall und Menscheit (Universe and Humanity), by Hans Kraemer (ca. 1880).
! EN_01151355_0409 SCI
Thomas Edison (1847-1931). 19th Century engraving of the US inventor Thomas Alva Edison with his phonograph. Edison is famous for inventing or improving devices such as the phonograph and the electric light bulb. He founded several laboratories and companies, and filed over 1000 patents. Other work included improvements to telegraphy, cameras, and motion picture cameras, as well as his DC (direct current) electrical distribution systems. In 1880, Edison founded the journal 'Science'. He also discovered the Edison Effect, on which thermionic valves are based. From Weltall und Menscheit (Universe and Humanity), by Hans Kraemer (ca. 1880).
! EN_01151355_0415 SCI
Paracelsus (1493-1541). 1540 French engraving of the 16th Century Swiss German alchemist Paracelsus. Born Philippus Aureolus Theophrastus Bombastus von Hohenheim, he renamed himself Paracelsus (better than the Roman physician Celsus). Paracelsus travelled widely, absorbing the medical knowledge of many cultures. He advocated that physicians should not interfere with natural healing processes, and that pharmacists should be careful to control doses of drugs. He also tried to find a magical medicine or elixir of life. Paracelsianism was based on his theories.
! EN_01151355_1556 SCI
Jean-Antoine Nollet demonstration. Circa 1740 German engraving of the French clergyman and physicist Jean-Antoine, or Abbe, Nollet (1700-1770) demonstrating an electric machine in a salon in France. From Weltall und Menscheit (Universe and Humanity), by Hans Kraemer (ca. 1880).
EN_00962794_1184 ALB
WATT, James (Greenok 1736-Heathfield, 1819). Scottish inventor and mechanical engineer.
EN_00962794_4378 ALB
Edison, Thomas Alva (1847-1931). American Inventor. Nineteenth-century colored engraving.
EN_00962794_5336 ALB
CURIE, Marie (Warsaw, 1867-Sancellemoz, 1934). French physicist. Along with her husband, Pierre Curie discovered radium in 1898 and received the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1903 and for Chemistry in 1911. It was the first woman to occupy a position in higher education (1906). Marie Curie in their laboratory. "L'Illustration", 1911.
EN_00962794_5354 ALB
ASIMOV, Isaac (n. Petrovichi, 1920). Escritor y bioqu?mico estadounidense de origen ruso. Ha publicado obras de divulgacion cient?fica, novelas y relatos de ciencia-ficcion. Dibujo a color.
EN_00962794_5960 ALB
GUGLIELMO MARCONI (1874-1937). F?sico italiano. Logro la primera transmision de radio entre Francia y Gran Bretana. Premio Nobel de F?sica en el ano 1909. S. XIX-XX (S. XIX-S. XX). Grabado de 'L'Illustration' (ano 1897) .
EN_00962794_7566 ALB
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642). Physicist, Italian mathematician and astronomer. Galileo demonstrating his astronomical theories. Engraving by Rico in the "Spanish and American Illustration" (1884). Coloured.
EN_00962817_2363 ALB
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642). Physicist, Italian mathematician and astronomer. Galileo demonstrating his astronomical theories. Engraving by Rico in the "Spanish and American Illustration" (1884).
EN_00962817_3163 ALB
Kepler, Johannes (1571-1630) German mathematician and astronomer. Considered the founder of modern astronomy. Engraving.
EN_00958297_0024 PHO
The Reverend Nevil Maskelyne, Astronomer Royal, in an oil portrait by J. Downman.
EN_00958297_0025 PHO
Count Rumford (1753-1814), born Benjamin Thompson, English-American physicist and reformer. Born in Massachusetts, he joined the army at 18, acting as a secret agent for the British. He fled to England in 1776 and studied projectiles. He was elected to the Royal Society in 1779. After a brief return to America, he was knighted, and appointed adviser to the Elector of Bavaria. there he reformed the army, set up welfare schemes for the poor, bred stronger horses and cattle and laid out the English Garden in Munich. He also showed, by studying the boring of cannons, that heat was due to the motion of particles in a body.

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