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! EN_01151355_0931 SCI
Elisabeth de Rossel. Historical portrait of the French geoscientist Elisabeth Paul Edouard de Rossel. De Rossel was a knight of the Order of Saint Louis and a member of the Bureau des Longitudes.
! EN_01151355_0933 SCI
Voltaire (1694-1778). Historical artwork of the French author and poet Voltaire. Born Francois Marie Arouet, Voltaire wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2000 books and pamphlets. Among his scientific works was 'Elemens de la Philosophie de Newton' (1738), a guide to the theories of Isaac Newton. Voltaire also wrote on history, philosophy, religion and politics. He was a fierce critic of social and political injustices, which led to several periods of exile or imprisonment. Over a decade after his death, the French authorities honoured him with a ceremonial re-burial in the Pantheon, Paris, in 1791.
! EN_01151355_0950 SCI
^BSeymour Benzer ^b(born 1921), American geneticist. Benzer carried out research on bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, at the California Institute of Technology. He found that changes to a gene led to a change in the protein it coded for. He created the word cistron to refer to the smallest section of a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) strand forming a functioning gene. Benzer also discovered that mutations in certain areas of the DNA molecule occur more often than they would be expected to by chance alone. These hot spots are associated with modified nucleic acids on the DNA strand. His later research focused on the behaviour of the fruit fly (^IDrosophila sp.^i).
! EN_01151355_0951 SCI
^BJohn Hunter.^b Engraving of the British surgeon and anatomist John Hunter (1728-1793). Hunter studied surgery in London, England, before serving as a surgeon in Portugal during the Seven Years' War. In his ^IA Treatise on the Blood, Inflammation and ^IGunshot^i ^IWounds^i he wisely argued that bullets lodged in the body should be left alone unless endangering life. His dissections of over 500 species and numerous human cadavers led to important findings on the blood circulation, teeth and digestion. Hunter is regarded as the founder of scientific surgery. Engraving published between 1833-1837.
! EN_01151355_0952 SCI
^BFerdinand de Lesseps.^b Engraving of Ferdinand, Vicomte de Lesseps (1805-94), French civil engineer. De Lesseps spent his early career in the diplomatic service before retiring in 1854 to plan the Suez Canal, a waterway to connect the Mediterranean and Red Seas. Construction work began on 25 April 1859 and De Lesseps oversaw the digging until its completion on 17 November 1869. As a result, he received many honours. He then began work on the Panama Canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Work on the sea-level scheme began in 1881 but was stopped in 1888 amid financial, engineering & political problems. De Lesseps was later charged with embezzlement.
! EN_01151355_0953 SCI
^BFerdinand de Lesseps.^b Coloured portrait of Ferdinand, Vicomte de Lesseps (1805-94), French civil engineer. De Lesseps spent his early career in the diplomatic service before retiring in 1854 to plan the Suez Canal, a waterway to connect the Mediterranean and Red Seas. Construction work began in April 1859 and De Lesseps oversaw the digging until its completion in November 1869. As a result, he received many honours. He then began work on the Panama Canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Work on the sea-level scheme began in 1881 but was stopped in 1888 amid financial, engineering and political problems. De Lesseps was later charged with embezzlement.
! EN_01151355_1216 SCI
Otto Lilienthal and glider. Otto Lilienthal (1848-1896) was a German aviation pioneer, who became known as the 'Glider King' for his many experiments with gliders. He made over 2000 flights from 1891, made several important advances in aviation theory, and managed controlled glides of tens of metres. He died in 1896, falling from a glider during a test flight and breaking his back. He died the next day, but his legacy would later inspire the work by the Wright Brothers on heavier-than-air flight.
! EN_01151355_1242 SCI
Augustus Moore Herring (18671926), American aviation pioneer, flying a glider. Herring designed and flew several gliders in the 1890s. In October 1898 he attempted powered flight, when he attached a small engine to one of his gliders. Some claim that this was the first successful flight of a heavier-than-air vehicle, however the aircraft was not steerable and the engine was only able to operate for 30 seconds at a time.
! EN_01151355_1243 SCI
Engraving of Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937), Italian physicist and inventor of the radio. Marconi patented his radio system in Britain, established the Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company in London in 1897. In 1899 he made the first transmission across the English Channel and, in 1901, the first trans-Atlantic transmission. In 1909 he won the Nobel Prize in Physics. He later developed short-wave radio and established a global radio telegraph network.
! EN_01150989_1411 SCI
George Gaylord Simpson (1902-1984), US palaeontologist. Simpson was awarded his doctorate from Yale University, USA, in 1926. He was curator at the American Museum of Natural History from 1945 to 1959, then Agassiz Professor of Vertebrate Paleontology at Harvard University from 1959 to 1970. His main work was in clarifying the history of early mammals, and he is credited with devising the modern classification of mammals. Simpson also found evidence for neo-Darwinian evolution in population genetics, palaeontology and chromosomal studies. Photographed circa 1980 at the University of Arizona, USA, where he worked until his retirement in 1982.
! EN_01150989_1426 SCI
Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882), British naturalist. Darwin had briefly studied medicine and then trained in the clergy, but his interest was in natural history. In 1831 he set sail as naturalist on HMS Beagle, which was to provide the fieldwork for his famous book. His theory of evolution was published as 'On the Origin of Species By Means of Natural Selection' (1859). It caused a storm of controversy with Christian orthodoxy, as it contradicted the widely accepted belief that different animal and plant species were created by a divine creator (God). This cabinet card photograph of Darwin in old age is from the Barraud photographic studio in London, UK.
! EN_01150989_1427 SCI
Asa Gray (1810-1888), US botanist. Gray trained initially as a doctor, obtaining his MD in 1831. However, his real interest lay in botany, which he pursued successfully, being made Professor of Natural History at Harvard University, USA, in 1842. He published his 'Manual of the Botany of the Northern United States' in 1848. Gray travelled frequently to Europe to examine plant specimens. In 1851 he met Charles Darwin, who became a regular correspondent. Gray became the leading American advocate of Darwin's theory of natural selection. This cabinet card photograph is from the Pach Brothers photographic studio in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA.
! EN_01150989_1501 SCI
Charles William Metz (1889-1975), US geneticist and zoologist. Metz studied cytogenetics and the nature of chromosomes and their role in heredity, development, sex determination and evolution. Photographed at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA.
! EN_01150989_1503 SCI
Alfred Sherwood Romer (1894-1973), US palaeontologist and biologist. Romer specialised in vertebrate evolution. Photographed at the Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, Massachusetts, USA.
! EN_01150989_1521 SCI
Sewall Green Wright (1889-1988), US geneticist. Wright carried out pioneering work on population genetics, genetic drift, and calculations of gene frequency distributions. This work directly impacted on the use of genetics to refine and extend theories of evolution. Wright was elected a Foreign Member of the Royal Society in 1963, awarded the National Medal of Science in 1966, and awarded the Darwin Medal in 1980. Photographed in 1941, during the Ninth Symposium on Quantitative Biology (Genes and Chromosome Structure) at the Carnegie Institution Department of Genetics (later Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory), New York, USA.
! EN_01132903_1398 SCI
^BLorenz Oken.^b Engraving of Lorenz Oken (1779- 1851), German biologist. Oken (whose real name was Ockenfuss) was an important member of the Naturphilosophen ("nature philosophers") and in 1807 became professor of natural science at Jena. Oken elaborated on Goethe's theory that the human skull had formed from the fusing of vertebrae. This was later disproved by Thomas Huxley. Oken's theory had the valuable effect of raising awareness in the scientific community of the possiblility of evolutionary change. He founded the biological magazine ^IIsis.^i He also pioneered the system of holding regular meetings for scientists to discuss their theories in public.
! EN_01126623_0454 SCI
Carlos Silvestre Frenk (born 1951), Mexican-British cosmologist. Frenk is director of the Institute for Computational Cosmology at Durham University, UK. He and his researchers use supercomputers to create models of large scale structures, from the distribution of dark matter, to simulations modelling the evolution of galaxies and clusters. In the background is a map of dark matter distribution known as the 'Millennium Simulation', the biggest simulation to date of the evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to the present day. Frenk was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 2004. Photographed in 2007.
! EN_01126623_0465 SCI
Leon Mestel (born 1927), British astrophysicist. Mestel's research interests include stellar structure, stellar evolution, star formation, cosmic magnetism, pulsar electrodynamics, and magnetohydrodynamics. He has worked at the universities of Cambridge and Manchester, becoming professor of astronomy at the University of Sussex in 1973. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1977. He retired in 1992 and became Emeritus Professor at Sussex. His awards include the Eddington Medal (1992) and the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society (2002). Photographed in 2008, at the University of Sussex, near Brighton, UK.
! EN_01126623_0476 SCI
Simon David Manton White (born 1951), British cosmologist. White has been one of the directors since 1994 of the Max Planck Institute for Astrophysics, Garching, near Munich, Germany. He specialises in galaxy formation and simulations. His work includes the model shown in the background, a map of dark matter distribution known as the 'Millennium Simulation'. Produced in Garching at the Institute, this is the biggest simulation to date of the evolution of the universe from the Big Bang to the present day. White was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1997. He was jointly awarded the 2011 Gruber Prize in Cosmology. Photographed in 2008.
! EN_01122575_0023 SCI
Keith unveiling Piltdown memorial. Scottish anatomist Sir Arthur Keith (1866-1955) on 22 July 1938, unveiling the memorial marking the site of the discovery of the Piltdown skull by Charles Dawson in the period 1912 to 1915. The discoverers of this skull and other fragments claimed that Piltdown Man was the link between modern humans and their ape ancestors, combining the large human skull with an ape-like jaw. In 1953 Piltdown Man was shown to be a fraud. The skull fragments were human, the jaw came from an orangutan and the teeth from a chimpanzee.

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