poniedziałek, 23 października 2017
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Naukowcy (486)

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! EN_01151355_0951 SCI
^BJohn Hunter.^b Engraving of the British surgeon and anatomist John Hunter (1728-1793). Hunter studied surgery in London, England, before serving as a surgeon in Portugal during the Seven Years' War. In his ^IA Treatise on the Blood, Inflammation and ^IGunshot^i ^IWounds^i he wisely argued that bullets lodged in the body should be left alone unless endangering life. His dissections of over 500 species and numerous human cadavers led to important findings on the blood circulation, teeth and digestion. Hunter is regarded as the founder of scientific surgery. Engraving published between 1833-1837.
! EN_01151355_0952 SCI
^BFerdinand de Lesseps.^b Engraving of Ferdinand, Vicomte de Lesseps (1805-94), French civil engineer. De Lesseps spent his early career in the diplomatic service before retiring in 1854 to plan the Suez Canal, a waterway to connect the Mediterranean and Red Seas. Construction work began on 25 April 1859 and De Lesseps oversaw the digging until its completion on 17 November 1869. As a result, he received many honours. He then began work on the Panama Canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Work on the sea-level scheme began in 1881 but was stopped in 1888 amid financial, engineering & political problems. De Lesseps was later charged with embezzlement.
! EN_01151355_0953 SCI
^BFerdinand de Lesseps.^b Coloured portrait of Ferdinand, Vicomte de Lesseps (1805-94), French civil engineer. De Lesseps spent his early career in the diplomatic service before retiring in 1854 to plan the Suez Canal, a waterway to connect the Mediterranean and Red Seas. Construction work began in April 1859 and De Lesseps oversaw the digging until its completion in November 1869. As a result, he received many honours. He then began work on the Panama Canal between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans. Work on the sea-level scheme began in 1881 but was stopped in 1888 amid financial, engineering and political problems. De Lesseps was later charged with embezzlement.
! EN_01151355_1216 SCI
Otto Lilienthal and glider. Otto Lilienthal (1848-1896) was a German aviation pioneer, who became known as the 'Glider King' for his many experiments with gliders. He made over 2000 flights from 1891, made several important advances in aviation theory, and managed controlled glides of tens of metres. He died in 1896, falling from a glider during a test flight and breaking his back. He died the next day, but his legacy would later inspire the work by the Wright Brothers on heavier-than-air flight.
! EN_01151355_1242 SCI
Augustus Moore Herring (18671926), American aviation pioneer, flying a glider. Herring designed and flew several gliders in the 1890s. In October 1898 he attempted powered flight, when he attached a small engine to one of his gliders. Some claim that this was the first successful flight of a heavier-than-air vehicle, however the aircraft was not steerable and the engine was only able to operate for 30 seconds at a time.
! EN_01151355_1243 SCI
Engraving of Guglielmo Marconi (1874-1937), Italian physicist and inventor of the radio. Marconi patented his radio system in Britain, established the Marconi's Wireless Telegraph Company in London in 1897. In 1899 he made the first transmission across the English Channel and, in 1901, the first trans-Atlantic transmission. In 1909 he won the Nobel Prize in Physics. He later developed short-wave radio and established a global radio telegraph network.
! EN_01151355_0428 SCI
17th Century astronomer. 1673 engraving of a 17th Century astronomer in his observatory, by Johann Hevelius. From Weltall und Menscheit (Universe and Humanity), by Hans Kraemer (ca. 1880).
! EN_01151355_0429 SCI
17th Century astronomer. 1673 engraving of a 17th Century astronomer in his observatory, by Johann Hevelius. From Weltall und Menscheit (Universe and Humanity), by Hans Kraemer (ca. 1880).
! EN_01151355_0430 SCI
Inca sun worshippers. 1723 engraving of Inca sun worshippers in South American, by Bernard Picart. From Weltall und Menscheit (Universe and Humanity), by Hans Kraemer (ca. 1880).
! EN_01151355_0433 SCI
Ptolemy (c.90-c.168). Historical engraving of the Greek astronomer Claudius Ptolemaeus, also known as Ptolemy, who lived in the Greek culture of Roman Egypt. Ptolemy is one of the most famous astronomers of antiquity. The geocentric (Earth-centred) Ptolemaic system described in his Almagest documented previous Greek thought, and dominated Western science for over a thousand years. The Almagest summarised five centuries of Greek astronomy and represented the conventional view of the Universe until the Copernican revolution. He also worked out distances and sizes for the Sun and the Moon, compiled a catalogue of 1028 stars and described various astronomical instruments. From Weltall und Menscheit (Universe and Humanity), by Hans Kraemer (ca.
! EN_01151355_0440 SCI
Christiaan Huygens (1629 - 1695). Historical engraving of the Dutch astronomer and mathematician Christiaan Huygens with his pendulum clock. Huygens invented the pendulum clock, founded the wave theory of light, and discovered the rings of Saturn. From Weltall und Menscheit (Universe and Humanity), by Hans Kraemer (ca. 1880).
! EN_01151355_0441 SCI
Hevelius' 150-foot telescope. Historical artwork of the telescope constructed by the astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687). It was a tubeless telescope, with refracting lenses arranged along its length to achieve a focal length of 150 feet (45 metres). The design was a larger version of the type that Galileo had constructed. Hevelius built the telescope on the shores of the Baltic Sea, near his home town of Danzig (now Gdansk, Poland). The lenses were suspended in a wooden trough supported by a vertical 90-foot (27 metres) pole, and operated by a team of workers and horses operating ropes and pulleys. The largest telescope at the time, it proved difficult to keep stable and was rarely used. Artwork published in Machina Coelestis (1673). Extract from Weltall und Menscheit (Universe and Humanity), by Hans Kraemer (ca. 1880).
! EN_01151355_0442 SCI
Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687). Historical artwork of the Polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius and his wife Elisabetha observing the stars with a sextant. This is an illustration from Hevelius' book Machina Coelestis (Celestial Machine, 1673). Hevelius invented ten new constellations, seven of which are still recognized by astronomers. Elisabetha Koopman, Hevelius' second wife and assistant, completed her husband's final project after his death. Extract from Weltall und Menscheit (Universe and Humanity), by Hans Kraemer (ca. 1880).
! EN_01151355_0443 SCI
18th Century astronomers. 1785 engraving of a German astronomer with his telescope. From Weltall und Menscheit (Universe and Humanity), by Hans Kraemer (ca. 1880).
! EN_01151355_0444 SCI
Bonpland and Humboldt observing the stars. Historical engraving of the French explorer botanist Aime Bonpland (1773-1858) and Prussian geographer and naturalist Alexander von Humboldt (1769-1859) observing shooting stars in South America, in 1799. From Weltall und Menscheit (Universe and Humanity), by Hans Kraemer (ca. 1880).
! EN_01151355_0445 SCI
Giovanni Schiaparelli (1835-1910). Historical engraving of the Italian astronomer Giovanni Virginio Schiaparelli. Schiaparelli was, from 1862, the Director of the Milan Observatory for forty years. In 1866 he showed that meteors follow cometary orbits. In 1877 Mars made one of its closest approaches to Earth enabling Schiaparelli to discover its southern polar ice cap. He also saw many dark lines criss-crossing the planet and called them 'canali' (channels), which was mistranslated as 'canals'. As a result the American astronomer Lowell suggested that they were irrigation features constructed by a Martian civilisation when all along Schiaparelli believed them to be natural features. From Weltall und Menscheit (Universe and Humanity), by Hans Kraemer (ca.
! EN_01151355_0450 SCI
Pierre-Simon Laplace (1749-1827). Historical portrait of the French mathematician, astronomer and physicist, Pierre-Simon, Marquis de Laplace. Laplace is best known as a talented mathematician and he used these skills in astronomy. Between 1799 and 1825 Laplace published his most important work, Celestial Mechanics. The book aimed to improve the understanding of the motions in the solar system by studying the gravitational perturbations between the sun and the planets. Laplace also proposed that the solar system was formed from a rotating disk of gas. Engraving from Weltall und Menscheit (Universe and Humanity), by Hans Kraemer (ca. 1880).
! EN_01151355_0394 SCI
17th Century vacuum experiment. 1672 Dutch engraving of the German scientist Otto von Guericke (1602-1686) experimenting with vacuums in a barrel. Von Guericke was a German scientist, inventor, and politician, best known for establishing the physics of vacuums. Image from 'Experimenta nova Magdeburgica de vacuo spatio', by Otto von Guericke, 1672.
! EN_01151355_0395 SCI
17th Century vacuum experiment. 1672 Dutch engraving of the German scientist Otto von Guericke (1602-1686) experimenting with vacuums. Von Guericke was a German scientist, inventor, and politician, best known for establishing the physics of vacuums. Image from 'Experimenta nova Magdeburgica de vacuo spatio', by Otto von Guericke, 1672.
! EN_01151355_0396 SCI
17th Century vacuum experiment. 1672 Dutch engraving of the German scientist Otto von Guericke (1602-1686) experimenting with vacuums. Von Guericke was a German scientist, inventor, and politician, best known for establishing the physics of vacuums. Here, he is experimenting with Magdeburg - a pair of large copper hemispheres, with mating rims that were used to demonstrate the power of atmospheric pressure. When the rims were sealed with grease and the air was pumped out, the sphere contained a vacuum and could not be pulled apart by teams of horses. Image from 'Experimenta nova Magdeburgica de vacuo spatio', by Otto von Guericke, 1672.

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