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! EN_01151355_0214 SCI
Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-1859), English civil engineer. He was educated first by his father Marc, then later at Caen and Paris. He was apprenticed to the clock maker Breguet, but after completing his apprenticeship in 1822 returned to London. In 1825, Brunel helped his father to construct the first tunnel under the Thames in London, England. In 1830, he won the competition for a design for the Clifton Suspension Bridge in Bristol, England, his first independent work. In 1833, he was appointed engineer of the Great Western Railway (GWR). He designed and built the broad guage GWR railway track between London and southwest England, including many viaducts and tunnels. He later designed huge steam ships capable of crossing the Atlantic, amongst which were the Great Britain, the Great Western, and the Great Eastern.
! EN_01151355_0215 SCI
Michael Faraday (1791-1867), British chemist and physicist. Faraday lacked a formal education and achieved fame through his experimental work. He worked at the Royal Institution, London, rising from laboratory assistant to Humphrey Davy (1813), to Professor of Chemistry (1833). Faraday made several discoveries in chemistry in the 1820s, but his major works were in the areas of magnetism and electricity. Early experiments used electricity to produce motion (1821). Work on electromagnetic induction produced the first transformer (1831) and then the dynamo in the same year. He suggested the concepts of electric and magnetic fields. His lectures at the Royal Institution popularized science amongst the public, through 'evening discourses' for the gentry and the Christmas Lecture series for children, both of which continue to this day.
! EN_01151355_0786 SCI
John Arbuthnot (1667-1735), Scottish physician. Born and educated in Scotland, Arbuthnot went to London in 1691. He became a tutor of a student at the University of Oxford. In 1696, he was awarded a doctorate of medicine from the University of St Andrews. He was elected Fellow of the Royal Society (1704) and awarded a medical degree from the University of Cambridge (1705). He was physician to Queen Anne and Prince George, and was also made a Fellow of the Royal College of Physicians of Edinburgh. Arbuthnot also wrote on mathematics and authored satires and essays. He was a member of the Scriblerus Club.
! EN_01151355_0787 SCI
Bernhard Siegfried Albinus (1697-1770), Dutch anatomist. Albinus was the son of German physician Bernhardus Albinus, and when his father took up a position at Leiden University he began his studies there aged 12. He then studied in Paris, specialising in anatomy and botany. He was then appointed lecturer at Leiden in anatomy and surgery. In 1721, he succeeded his father to the professorships. His anatomy lessons became famous across Europe. His magnum opus was the anatomical atlas 'Tabulae sceleti et musculorum corporis humani' (1747). Albinus was also twice rector of Leiden University (1726-7 and 1738-9).
! EN_01151355_0788 SCI
Bernhard Siegfried Albinus (1697-1770), Dutch anatomist. Albinus was the son of German physician Bernhardus Albinus, and when his father took up a position at Leiden University he began his studies there aged 12. He then studied in Paris, specialising in anatomy and botany. He was then appointed lecturer at Leiden in anatomy and surgery. In 1721, he succeeded his father to the professorships. His anatomy lessons became famous across Europe. His magnum opus was the anatomical atlas 'Tabulae sceleti et musculorum corporis humani' (1747). This engraving by William Holl is after Dutch painter Carel Isaak de Moor (1695-1751).
! EN_01151355_0789 SCI
Antoine Louis (1723-1792), French surgeon. Louis was trained by his father, a military surgeon, before moving to Paris and working at the Salpetriere hospital. He was professor of physiology for 40 years from 1750. The French inscription refers to his roles as perpetual (lifetime) secretary of the French Royal Academy of Surgeons (Academie Royale de Chirurgie), as professor, Royal Censor, and consultant surgeon to the King's Armies and to the Montpellier Royal Society of Sciences. He was also inspector of the military hospitals and the national charities. He was a doctor of the Faculty of the University of Paris, and an advocate in the French Parliament.
! EN_01151355_0790 SCI
Jean Senebier (1742-1809), Swiss botanist, at his desk. Senebier was a pastor (leader of a religious congregation). He was born and died in Geneva, Switzerland. He wrote extensively on plant physiology, especially on the influence of light. He built on the work of Malpighi, Hales, Bonnet, Priestley, and Ingenhousz. It was Senebier who discovered the key role of carbon dioxide, and was the first to clearly show that the chemical and physiological activity discovered by others was confined to the green parts of the plant and took place in sunlight. This was the first connected view of plant growth in chemical terms, and was a key advance in understanding photosynthesis.
! EN_01151355_0791 SCI
Edward Jenner (1749-1823), British physician, holding an artwork of a cow. Jenner is famed for developing a vaccine for the often fatal viral infection smallpox. He investigated folk tales about the immunity of cowpox victims to smallpox. In 1796 he used a thorn to inoculate a healthy boy with fluid from a cowpox blister on a dairy maid's finger. Six weeks later he inoculated the boy with smallpox, and the boy did not develop the disease. The immunising process was named vaccination after the cowpox virus (vaccinia), and was made compulsory in Britain in 1853. This lithograph, by de Frey, is after a portrait by French artist Alphonse Leon Noel (1807-1884).
! EN_01151355_0792 SCI
Edward Jenner (1749-1823), British physician. Jenner, who also did work as a naturalist, is famed for developing a vaccine for the often fatal viral infection smallpox. He investigated folk tales about the immunity of cowpox victims to smallpox. In 1796 he used a thorn to inoculate a healthy boy with fluid from a cowpox blister on a dairy maid's finger. Six weeks later he inoculated the boy with smallpox, and the boy did not develop the disease. The immunising process was named vaccination after the cowpox virus (vaccinia), and was made compulsory in Britain in 1853. Jenner was elected Fellow of the Royal Society in 1788 for his work on the cuckoo.
! EN_01151355_0793 SCI
Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), German physician. Hahnemann founded homeopathy, the theory that an illness may be cured by administering minute doses of a drug which causes the same symptoms. The symptoms, he reasoned, were an effect of the body's fight against disease. The smaller the administered dose, the greater its effectiveness. He published his results in 'Homeopathic Materia Medica' (1811). He used his methods with some success during a typhus epidemic in France in 1812. Although his results were criticised, homeopathy spread rapidly in the ensuing decades. Artwork by French artist Nicolas-Eustache Maurin (1799-1850).
! EN_01151355_0794 SCI
Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), German physician. Hahnemann founded homeopathy, the theory that an illness may be cured by administering minute doses of a drug which causes the same symptoms. The symptoms, he reasoned, were an effect of the body's fight against disease. The smaller the administered dose, the greater its effectiveness. He published his results in 'Homeopathic Materia Medica' (1811). He used his methods with some success during a typhus epidemic in France in 1812. Although his results were criticised, homeopathy spread rapidly in the ensuing decades. Hahnemann died in and is buried in Paris, France.
! EN_01151355_0795 SCI
Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), German physician. Hahnemann founded homeopathy, the theory that an illness may be cured by administering minute doses of a drug which causes the same symptoms. The symptoms, he reasoned, were an effect of the body's fight against disease. The smaller the administered dose, the greater its effectiveness. He published his results in 'Homeopathic Materia Medica' (1811). He used his methods with some success during a typhus epidemic in France in 1812. Although his results were criticised, homeopathy spread rapidly in the ensuing decades. Hahnemann died in and is buried in Paris, France.
! EN_01151355_0796 SCI
Samuel Hahnemann (1755-1843), German physician. Hahnemann founded homeopathy, the theory that an illness may be cured by administering minute doses of a drug which causes the same symptoms, thought to be an effect of the body's fight against disease. The smaller the administered dose, the greater its effectiveness. He published his results in 'Homeopathic Materia Medica' (1811). He used his methods with some success during a typhus epidemic in France in 1812. Although his results were criticised, homeopathy spread rapidly in the ensuing decades. Engraved by R. Woodman after an 1844 portrait by British artist George Edwards Hering (1805-1879).
! EN_01151355_0797 SCI
Thomas Hodgkin (1798-1866), British physician. Hodgkin was appointed as a pathologist (Professor of Morbid Anatomy) at Guy's Hospital, London, England in 1825. In 1832, he was the first person to describe lymphadenoma or Hodgkin's disease. In this cancer, unchecked cell growth in the lymph nodes leads to enlargement of the nodes in the armpit, neck and groin, along with a diseased spleen. Hodgkin was curator of the hospital's museum. He also helped to found the Aborigines' Protection Society in 1838. This photograph, by Ernest Edwards (1837-1903), was published in 'Photographs of Eminent Medical Men' (volume 2, 1868).
! EN_01151355_0912 SCI
Louis-Antoine de Bougainville (1729-1811). Historical artwork of the French navigator and military commander Louis-Antoine, comet de Bougainville. Bougainville took part in the French and Indian War against Britain. He later gained fame for his expeditions, the first recorded settlement on the Falkland Islands and his voyages into the Pacific Ocean.
! EN_01151355_0913 SCI
William Dampier (1651-1715). Historical portrait of the English explorer William Dampier with Aborigines in Australia. Dampier was the first Englishman to explore parts of what is today Australia, and the first person to circumnavigate the world three times.
! EN_01151355_0915 SCI
Jean D'Alembert (1717- 1783). Historical artwork of the French mathematician Jean le Rond D'Alembert. D'Alembert investigated gravitational theory, particularly the precession of the equinoxes. He was a pioneer of the study of differential equations and their application in physics. This led him to study the equilibrium and motion of fluids. He sponsored both Lagrange and Laplace who completed this work. He worked on the great encyclopaedia of Diderot, writing the introduction and many of its mathematics and physics articles.
! EN_01151355_0931 SCI
Elisabeth de Rossel. Historical portrait of the French geoscientist Elisabeth Paul Edouard de Rossel. De Rossel was a knight of the Order of Saint Louis and a member of the Bureau des Longitudes.
! EN_01151355_0933 SCI
Voltaire (1694-1778). Historical artwork of the French author and poet Voltaire. Born Francois Marie Arouet, Voltaire wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2000 books and pamphlets. Among his scientific works was 'Elemens de la Philosophie de Newton' (1738), a guide to the theories of Isaac Newton. Voltaire also wrote on history, philosophy, religion and politics. He was a fierce critic of social and political injustices, which led to several periods of exile or imprisonment. Over a decade after his death, the French authorities honoured him with a ceremonial re-burial in the Pantheon, Paris, in 1791.
! EN_01151355_0950 SCI
^BSeymour Benzer ^b(born 1921), American geneticist. Benzer carried out research on bacteriophages, viruses that infect bacteria, at the California Institute of Technology. He found that changes to a gene led to a change in the protein it coded for. He created the word cistron to refer to the smallest section of a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) strand forming a functioning gene. Benzer also discovered that mutations in certain areas of the DNA molecule occur more often than they would be expected to by chance alone. These hot spots are associated with modified nucleic acids on the DNA strand. His later research focused on the behaviour of the fruit fly (^IDrosophila sp.^i).

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