czwartek, 19 października 2017
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Chemia/Biochemia (847)

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! EN_90260881_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Glucagon hormone molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the human hormone glucagon. Atoms are colour-coded spheres (carbon: grey, nitrogen: blue, and oxygen: red). The secondary structure (coiled ribbon) can also be seen. Glucagon is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and is released by the pancreas when blood glucose levels start to fall too low. It causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose and release it into the bloodstream, thus raising blood glucose levels. Glucagon also stimulates the release of insulin.
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! EN_90260881_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Glucagon hormone molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the human hormone glucagon. Atoms are colour-coded spheres (carbon: grey, nitrogen: blue, and oxygen: red). Glucagon is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and is released by the pancreas when blood glucose levels start to fall too low. It causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose and release it into the bloodstream, thus raising blood glucose levels. Glucagon also stimulates the release of insulin.
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! EN_90261037_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone molecule. Computer model showing the structure of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Atoms are colour-coded spheres (carbon: large grey, hydrogen: small grey, nitrogen: blue, and oxygen: red). GnRH is responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary gland in the hypothalamus of the brain. These hormones are known as gonadotrophins and are involved in the control and development of the ovaries and testes.
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! EN_90277714_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Scanning electron microscope (SEM), computer artwork. An SEM uses an electron beam (vertical yellow line) to obtain a three-dimensional image of an object at magnifications much higher than can be obtained using light waves. The beam is scanned over the sample (bottom left) in a vacuum, causing the emission of secondary electrons (diagonal yellow line). These secondary electrons are detected and used to form the image, which is displayed here on a screen.
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! EN_90279534_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Somatoliberin hormone molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the hormone somatoliberin, also known as growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). Atoms are colour-coded spheres (carbon: grey, nitrogen: blue, sulphur:yellow, and oxygen: red). GHRH is released by the hypothalamus and induces the release of somatotrophin, or growth hormone (GH). GH stimulates growth and cell reproduction and regeneration in humans and other animals. Somatotrophin is also produced artificially by recombinant DNA technology, when it is termed somatropin.
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! EN_90269755_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Nanoring structure. Computer artwork of a cylindrical nanotube, bent to form a ring. This molecule is a type of fullerene, a structural type (allotrope) of carbon. Its carbon atoms are arranged in a structure consisting of interlinking hexagonal and pentagonal rings. Theoretically, a wide range of shapes can be engineered at the molecular level using fullerenes. Such structures could have a wide range of technological and medical uses.
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! EN_90269755_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Nanoring structure. Computer artwork of the interior of a cylindrical nanotube, bent to form a ring. This molecule is a type of fullerene, a structural type (allotrope) of carbon. Its carbon atoms are arranged in a structure consisting of interlinking hexagonal and pentagonal rings. Theoretically, a wide range of shapes can be engineered at the molecular level using fullerenes. Such structures could have a wide range of technological and medical uses.
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! EN_90269762_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Nanotube structure. Computer artwork of the interior of a cylindrical nanotubeg. This molecule is a type of fullerene, a structural type (allotrope) of carbon. Its carbon atoms are arranged in a structure consisting of interlinking hexagonal and pentagonal rings. Theoretically, a wide range of shapes can be engineered at the molecular level using fullerenes. Such structures could have a wide range of technological and medical uses.
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! EN_90252276_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Collagen. Computer artwork showing the structure of collagen fibres (grey). Each fibre consists of many molecules of collagen. Each molecule consists of 3 helical protein chains (green, purple and blue), which are assembled into a triple helix. Collagen makes up one quarter of all proteins in the human body. Collagen is the most abundant protein in the body. It has has a high tensile strength, providing structure and elasticity to skin, tendons, ligaments and bones.
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! EN_90255465_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Dioxin. Computer artwork of a dioxin molecule enlcosed in a blue bubble. Atoms are represented by spheres (carbon: grey, chlorine: red, hydrogen: blue, oxygen: green) with the bonds between them as bars. Dioxins are a family of toxic by-products of a number of industrial processes, including burning waste, heating metals and bleaching paper and textiles. They have no industrial use themselves. They are persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and build up over time in living tissue (bioaccumulation). Long-term high-level exposure can cause birth defects, cancer and a higher risk of diabetes.
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! EN_90280226_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Standard periodic table colour-coded according to the date of each element's discovery. The periodic table shows the chemical elements ordered by atomic number (number of protons in the nucleus), but arranged in rows (periods) so that elements with similar chemistry occur in the same vertical column (group). The standard periodic table has 118 elements arranged in 18 groups and 7 periods. Each element is represented by its chemical symbol. Above each symbol is the element's atomic number, and below it is the atomic weight, and the element's name. The lathanoids and actinoids are expanded at bottom. This periodic table uses the standard names and data published by IUPAC (the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry) in 2005. Elements 113 to 118 have yet to be fully authenticated and have temporary names.
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! EN_90267066_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Lysyl oxidase enzyme molecule. Computer artwork showing the secondary structure of the enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX). LOX is a homodimeric (composed of two identical subunits) enzyme that modifies collagen and elastin proteins so that they can crosslink, thus stabilising deposits of these proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM acts as a barrier and separates different cell types within tissues. It also provides structural support and regulates intercellular communication. This LOX enzyme is from a yeast (Pichia pastoris), and although structurally different from mammalian LOX, it is functionally the same.
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! EN_90267066_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Lysyl oxidase enzyme molecule. Computer artwork showing the secondary structure of the enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX). LOX is a homodimeric (composed of two identical subunits) enzyme that modifies collagen and elastin proteins so that they can crosslink, thus stabilising deposits of these proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM acts as a barrier and separates different cell types within tissues. It also provides structural support and regulates intercellular communication. This LOX enzyme is from a yeast (Pichia pastoris), and although structurally different from mammalian LOX, it is functionally the same.
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! EN_90267066_0004 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Lysyl oxidase enzyme molecule. Computer artwork showing the secondary structure of a subunit (monomer) of the enzyme lysyl oxidase (LOX). LOX is a homodimeric (composed of two identical subunits) enzyme that modifies collagen and elastin proteins so that they can crosslink, thus stabilising deposits of these proteins in the extracellular matrix (ECM). The ECM acts as a barrier and separates different cell types within tissues. It also provides structural support and regulates intercellular communication. This LOX enzyme is from a yeast (Pichia pastoris), and although structurally different from mammalian LOX, it is functionally the same.
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! EN_90246602_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Artificial photosynthesis. Diagram showing how nano-sale artificial photosynthesis could be used to produce a carbon neutral and renewable fuel. To produce the fuel, nanotubes (grey) are seeded with cobalt oxide crystals and embedded within a silica membrane (blue). The cobalt oxide crystals are a photocatalyst that uses the energy in sunlight (yellow arrow) to split water (H2O) molecules. This frees up electrons and oxygen (O2) that then reacts with carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce methanol (CH3OF), the fuel.
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! EN_90280355_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Stem cell research, conceptual computer artwork. The glowing light behind the stem cell represents the dawning of a new era of medicine involving stem cells. A stem cell is an undifferentiated cell that can produce other types of cell when it divides. Medical researchers believe that eventually it will be possible to manufacture new tissues and organs from stem cells. There are three main types of mammalian stem cell: embryonic stem cells, derived from blastocysts; adult stem cells, which are found in adult tissues; and cord blood stem cells, which are found in the umbilical cord.
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! EN_90280356_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Stem cell with a glowing nucleus, computer artwork. A stem cell is an undifferentiated cell that can produce other types of cell when it divides. Medical researchers believe that eventually it will be possible to manufacture new tissues and organs from stem cells. There are three main types of mammalian stem cell: embryonic stem cells, derived from blastocysts; adult stem cells, which are found in adult tissues; and cord blood stem cells, which are found in the umbilical cord.
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! EN_90280357_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Stem cells with glowing nuclei, computer artwork. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can produce other types of cell when they divide. Medical researchers believe that eventually it will be possible to manufacture new tissues and organs from stem cells. There are three main types of mammalian stem cell: embryonic stem cells, derived from blastocysts; adult stem cells, which are found in adult tissues; and cord blood stem cells, which are found in the umbilical cord.
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! EN_90280357_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Stem cells with glowing nuclei, computer artwork. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can produce other types of cell when they divide. Medical researchers believe that eventually it will be possible to manufacture new tissues and organs from stem cells. There are three main types of mammalian stem cell: embryonic stem cells, derived from blastocysts; adult stem cells, which are found in adult tissues; and cord blood stem cells, which are found in the umbilical cord.
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! EN_90280357_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Stem cells, computer artwork. Stem cells are undifferentiated cells that can produce other types of cell when they divide. Medical researchers believe that eventually it will be possible to manufacture new tissues and organs from stem cells. There are three main types of mammalian stem cell: embryonic stem cells, derived from blastocysts; adult stem cells, which are found in adult tissues; and cord blood stem cells, which are found in the umbilical cord.
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