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Chemia/Biochemia (858)

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! EN_90274300_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Prostacyclin molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the hormone prostacyclin, or prostaglandin I2 (PGI2). Atoms are colour-coded (carbon: dark grey, hydrogen: light grey, oxygen: red). Prostacyclin acts to widen blood vessels (thus lowering blood pressure) and to prevent aggregation of platelets (preventing blood clotting). These effects are the opposite of those of the related hormone thromboxane, and the balance between the two is important in regulating the functioning of the circulatory system. When taken as a drug it is known as epoprostenol.
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! EN_90274300_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Prostacyclin molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the hormone prostacyclin, or prostaglandin I2 (PGI2). Atoms are colour-coded (carbon: dark grey, hydrogen: light grey, oxygen: red). Prostacyclin acts to widen blood vessels (thus lowering blood pressure) and to prevent aggregation of platelets (preventing blood clotting). These effects are the opposite of those of the related hormone thromboxane, and the balance between the two is important in regulating the functioning of the circulatory system. When taken as a drug it is known as epoprostenol.
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! EN_90258805_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Follicle stimulating hormone molecules. Computer artwork showing the secondary structure of two strands of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). This hormone, which is produced in the brain's pituitary gland, is a gonadotrophin, that is it acts on the ovaries and testes. In women FSH stimulates the maturation and release of an egg from the ovaries every month, while in men it stimulates the cells that produce sperm.
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! EN_90258805_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Follicle stimulating hormone molecules. Computer artwork showing the quaternary structure of two strands of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH). This hormone, which is produced in the brain's pituitary gland, is a gonadotrophin, that is it acts on the ovaries and testes. In women FSH stimulates the maturation and release of an egg from the ovaries every month, while in men it stimulates the cells that produce sperm.
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! EN_90263197_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Human placental lactogen hormone molecule. Computer model showing the secondary structure of human placental lactogen (hPL). Hydrogen bonding is shown by alpha helices (ribbons) and random coils (wires). HPL is a polypeptide hormone produced by the placenta during pregnancy. It breaks down fats from the mother to provide fuel for the growing foetus. It can lead to insulin resistance and carbohydrate intolerance in the mother. It also plays a role in stimulating lactation (milk production) in the mother.
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! EN_90274278_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Prolactin hormone molecule. Computer model showing the secondary structure of human prolactin (hPRL), or luteotropic hormone (LTH). Hydrogen bonding is shown by alpha helices (ribbons) and random coils (wires). PRL is primarily associated with lactation (milk production). It is synthesised and secreted by lactotrope cells in the anterior pituitary gland of the brain, as well as other tissues including the breast, and the central nervous system. During breastfeeding, suckling of the nipple stimulates the production of PRL, which triggers milk production. The breast then fills with milk via a process called lactogenesis.
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! EN_90279536_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Somatotrophin hormone molecule. Computer model showing the secondary structure of the human growth hormone somatotrophin (GH). Hydrogen bonding is shown by alpha helices (ribbons) and random coils (wires). GH stimulates growth and cell reproduction and regeneration in humans and other animals. It is synthesized, stored, and secreted by somatotroph cells within the anterior pituitary gland of the brain. Somatotrophin is also produced artificially by recombinant DNA technology, when it is termed somatropin.
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! EN_90250450_0005 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Carbon nanotube. Computer artwork showing the hexagonal carbon structure of a nanotube, or buckytube.
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! EN_90250450_0006 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Carbon nanotube. Computer artwork showing the hexagonal carbon structure of a nanotube, or buckytube.
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! EN_90260489_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Ghrelin hormone molecule. Computer model showing the crystal structure of the human hormone ghrelin. The crystal structure consists of both the secondary structure, represented by an alpha helix (ribbon), and primary structure, represented by colour-coded rods (carbon: grey, oxygen: red, nitrogen: blue). Ghrelin is responsible for stimulating the feeling of hunger. It is produced mainly by P/D1 cells lining the fundus of the human stomach, and epsilon cells in the pancreas. Ghrelin levels increase before meals and decrease after meals.
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! EN_90260087_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Gastrin hormone molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the human hormone gastrin. Atoms are colour-coded spheres (carbon: grey, hydrogen: light grey, nitrogen: blue, sulphur: yellow, and oxygen: red). Gastrin stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility. It is released by G cells in the stomach, duodenum and pancreas, in response to stimuli including stomach distension, the presence of partially digested proteins (especially amino acids), and elevated blood calcium levels (hypercalcemia).
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! EN_90260087_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Gastrin hormone molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the human hormone gastrin. Atoms are colour-coded spheres (carbon: grey, hydrogen: light grey, nitrogen: blue, sulphur: yellow, and oxygen: red). Gastrin stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the parietal cells of the stomach and aids in gastric motility. It is released by G cells in the stomach, duodenum and pancreas, in response to stimuli including stomach distension, the presence of partially digested proteins (especially amino acids), and elevated blood calcium levels (hypercalcemia).
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! EN_90260881_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Glucagon hormone molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the human hormone glucagon. Atoms are colour-coded spheres (carbon: grey, nitrogen: blue, and oxygen: red). The secondary structure (coiled ribbon) can also be seen. Glucagon is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and is released by the pancreas when blood glucose levels start to fall too low. It causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose and release it into the bloodstream, thus raising blood glucose levels. Glucagon also stimulates the release of insulin.
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! EN_90260881_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Glucagon hormone molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the human hormone glucagon. Atoms are colour-coded spheres (carbon: grey, nitrogen: blue, and oxygen: red). Glucagon is involved in carbohydrate metabolism and is released by the pancreas when blood glucose levels start to fall too low. It causes the liver to convert stored glycogen into glucose and release it into the bloodstream, thus raising blood glucose levels. Glucagon also stimulates the release of insulin.
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! EN_90261037_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Gonadotrophin-releasing hormone molecule. Computer model showing the structure of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH). Atoms are colour-coded spheres (carbon: large grey, hydrogen: small grey, nitrogen: blue, and oxygen: red). GnRH is responsible for the release of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinising hormone (LH) from the anterior pituitary gland in the hypothalamus of the brain. These hormones are known as gonadotrophins and are involved in the control and development of the ovaries and testes.
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! EN_90277714_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Scanning electron microscope (SEM), computer artwork. An SEM uses an electron beam (vertical yellow line) to obtain a three-dimensional image of an object at magnifications much higher than can be obtained using light waves. The beam is scanned over the sample (bottom left) in a vacuum, causing the emission of secondary electrons (diagonal yellow line). These secondary electrons are detected and used to form the image, which is displayed here on a screen.
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! EN_90279534_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Somatoliberin hormone molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the hormone somatoliberin, also known as growth hormone-releasing hormone (GHRH). Atoms are colour-coded spheres (carbon: grey, nitrogen: blue, sulphur:yellow, and oxygen: red). GHRH is released by the hypothalamus and induces the release of somatotrophin, or growth hormone (GH). GH stimulates growth and cell reproduction and regeneration in humans and other animals. Somatotrophin is also produced artificially by recombinant DNA technology, when it is termed somatropin.
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! EN_90269755_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Nanoring structure. Computer artwork of a cylindrical nanotube, bent to form a ring. This molecule is a type of fullerene, a structural type (allotrope) of carbon. Its carbon atoms are arranged in a structure consisting of interlinking hexagonal and pentagonal rings. Theoretically, a wide range of shapes can be engineered at the molecular level using fullerenes. Such structures could have a wide range of technological and medical uses.
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! EN_90269755_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Nanoring structure. Computer artwork of the interior of a cylindrical nanotube, bent to form a ring. This molecule is a type of fullerene, a structural type (allotrope) of carbon. Its carbon atoms are arranged in a structure consisting of interlinking hexagonal and pentagonal rings. Theoretically, a wide range of shapes can be engineered at the molecular level using fullerenes. Such structures could have a wide range of technological and medical uses.
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! EN_90269762_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Nanotube structure. Computer artwork of the interior of a cylindrical nanotubeg. This molecule is a type of fullerene, a structural type (allotrope) of carbon. Its carbon atoms are arranged in a structure consisting of interlinking hexagonal and pentagonal rings. Theoretically, a wide range of shapes can be engineered at the molecular level using fullerenes. Such structures could have a wide range of technological and medical uses.
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