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Chemia/Biochemia (858)

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! EN_90274300_0004 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Prostacyclin molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the hormone prostacyclin, or prostaglandin I2 (PGI2). Atoms are colour-coded (carbon: dark grey, hydrogen: light grey, oxygen: red). Prostacyclin acts to widen blood vessels (thus lowering blood pressure) and to prevent aggregation of platelets (preventing blood clotting). These effects are the opposite of those of the related hormone thromboxane, and the balance between the two is important in regulating the functioning of the circulatory system. When taken as a drug it is known as epoprostenol.
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! EN_90274302_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Prostaglandin E1 molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the hormone prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). Atoms are colour-coded (carbon: dark grey, hydrogen: light grey, oxygen: red). PGE1 acts to widen blood vessels (vasodilation), thus lowering blood pressure and improving blood flow. It is therefore used as a drug, known as Alprostadil, to treat erectile dysfunction.
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! EN_90274302_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Prostaglandin E1 molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the hormone prostaglandin E1 (PGE1). Atoms are colour-coded (carbon: dark grey, hydrogen: light grey, oxygen: red). PGE1 acts to widen blood vessels (vasodilation), thus lowering blood pressure and improving blood flow. It is therefore used as a drug, known as Alprostadil, to treat erectile dysfunction.
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! EN_90274303_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Prostaglandin E2 molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the hormone prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Atoms are colour-coded (carbon: dark grey, hydrogen: light grey, oxygen: red). Like other prostaglandins PGE2 acts to widen blood vessels (vasodilation), thus lowering blood pressure and improving blood flow. It also relaxes smooth muscles and inhibits the release of noradrenaline. It softens the cervix and causes uterine contraction during labour, and is therefore used as a vaginal suppository (dinoprostone) to prepare the cervix for labour and also to induce labour.
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! EN_90274303_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Prostaglandin E2 molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the hormone prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Atoms are colour-coded (carbon: dark grey, hydrogen: light grey, oxygen: red). Like other prostaglandins PGE2 acts to widen blood vessels (vasodilation), thus lowering blood pressure and improving blood flow. It also relaxes smooth muscles and inhibits the release of noradrenaline. It softens the cervix and causes uterine contraction during labour, and is therefore used as a vaginal suppository (dinoprostone) to prepare the cervix for labour and also to induce labour.
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! EN_90274304_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Prostaglandin F2a molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the hormone prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a). Atoms are colour-coded (carbon: dark grey, hydrogen: light grey, oxygen: red). Like other prostaglandins PGF2a acts to widen blood vessels (vasodilation), thus lowering blood pressure and improving blood flow. It is produced by the uterus, where it triggers the breakdown of the corpus luteum (luteolysis) if no embryo has been implanted, and stops the production of progesterone. It is therefore marketed as a drug used to induce abortion (an abortifacient) when it is known as Dinoprost.
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! EN_90274304_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Prostaglandin F2a molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the hormone prostaglandin F2a (PGF2a). Atoms are colour-coded (carbon: dark grey, hydrogen: light grey, oxygen: red). Like other prostaglandins PGF2a acts to widen blood vessels (vasodilation), thus lowering blood pressure and improving blood flow. It is produced by the uterus, where it triggers the breakdown of the corpus luteum (luteolysis) if no embryo has been implanted, and stops the production of progesterone. It is therefore marketed as a drug used to induce abortion (an abortifacient) when it is known as Dinoprost.
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! EN_90277132_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Salmon calcitonin hormone molecule. Computer model showing the structure of calcitonin from salmon. Atoms are colour-coded spheres (carbon: dark grey, hydrogen: light grey, nitrogen: blue, sulphur: yellow, and oxygen: red). Calcitonin is a linear polypeptide that is produced primarily by parafollicular cells (C-cells) in the thyroid gland. It acts to reduce blood calcium levels by opposing the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Salmon calcitonin is used to treat a number of disorders in humans, including postmenopausal osteoporosis, and hypercalcaemia (high calcium blood levels). It is used as it is rapidly absorbed and eliminated from the body and is therfore safer than the human form.
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! EN_90277132_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Salmon calcitonin hormone molecule. Computer model showing the structure of calcitonin from salmon. Atoms are colour-coded spheres (carbon: dark grey, hydrogen: light grey, nitrogen: blue, sulphur: yellow, and oxygen: red). Calcitonin is a linear polypeptide that is produced primarily by parafollicular cells (C-cells) in the thyroid gland. It acts to reduce blood calcium levels by opposing the effects of parathyroid hormone (PTH). Salmon calcitonin is used to treat a number of disorders in humans, including postmenopausal osteoporosis, and hypercalcaemia (high calcium blood levels). It is used as it is rapidly absorbed and eliminated from the body and is therfore safer than the human form.
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! EN_90278065_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Secretin hormone molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the hormone secretin. Atoms are colour-coded (carbon: dark grey, hydrogen: light grey, oxygen: red). Secretin controls the secretions into the upper part of the small intestine (duodenum), and also water homeostasis throughout the body. It is produced in the S cells of the duodenum and regulates the acidity of the duodenal contents through the control of gastric acid secretion and buffering (neutralising) with bicarbonate.
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! EN_90278065_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Secretin hormone molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the hormone secretin. Atoms are colour-coded (carbon: dark grey, hydrogen: light grey, oxygen: red). Secretin controls the secretions into the upper part of the small intestine (duodenum), and also water homeostasis throughout the body. It is produced in the S cells of the duodenum and regulates the acidity of the duodenal contents through the control of gastric acid secretion and buffering (neutralising) with bicarbonate.
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! EN_90278326_0004 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Serotonin molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the neurotransmitter (nerve signalling chemical) serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). Atoms are colour-coded (carbon: dark grey, hydrogen: light grey, nitrogen: blue, and oxygen: red). Serotonin is an important brain signalling molecule and a lack of it has been shown to cause depression and other mood disorders.
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! EN_90278326_0005 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Serotonin molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the neurotransmitter (nerve signalling chemical) serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine). Atoms are colour-coded (carbon: dark grey, hydrogen: light grey, nitrogen: blue, and oxygen: red). Serotonin is an important brain signalling molecule and a lack of it has been shown to cause depression and other mood disorders.
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! EN_90279535_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Somatostatin hormone molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the hormone somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH). Atoms are colour-coded spheres (carbon: dark grey, hydrogen: light grey, nitrogen: blue, sulphur:yellow, and oxygen: red). GHIH is released by the hypothalamus in the brain where it inhibits the release of somatotrophin, or growth hormone (GH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). It is also produced in the stomach, intestine and pancreas where it supresses the release of gastrointestinal and pancreatic hormones.
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! EN_90279535_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Somatostatin hormone molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the hormone somatostatin, also known as growth hormone-inhibiting hormone (GHIH). Atoms are colour-coded spheres (carbon: dark grey, hydrogen: light grey, nitrogen: blue, sulphur:yellow, and oxygen: red). GHIH is released by the hypothalamus in the brain where it inhibits the release of somatotrophin, or growth hormone (GH), and thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH). It is also produced in the stomach, intestine and pancreas where it supresses the release of gastrointestinal and pancreatic hormones.
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! EN_90280357_0004 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Stem cells, computer artwork. A stem cell is an undifferentiated cell that can produce other types of cell when it divides. Medical researchers believe that eventually it will be possible to manufacture new tissues and organs from stem cells. There are three main types of mammalian stem cell: embryonic stem cells, derived from blastocysts; adult stem cells, which are found in adult tissues; and cord blood stem cells, which are found in the umbilical cord.
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! EN_90280357_0005 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Stem cells, computer artwork. A stem cell is an undifferentiated cell that can produce other types of cell when it divides. Medical researchers believe that eventually it will be possible to manufacture new tissues and organs from stem cells. There are three main types of mammalian stem cell: embryonic stem cells, derived from blastocysts; adult stem cells, which are found in adult tissues; and cord blood stem cells, which are found in the umbilical cord.
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! EN_90266055_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Leptin hormone molecule. Computer model showing the secondary structure of the hormone leptin. This hormone is produced by adipose (fat) tissue. It interacts with receptors in the brain's hypothalamus to signal when a person is full. It also circulates in the blood at levels proportionate to body fat, which allows the brain to regulate appetite and metabolism. Mutations in the ob gene that codes for leptin are thought to be responsible for some forms of obesity.
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! EN_90266124_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Leukotriene E4 molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the fatty acid leukotriene E4. Atoms are colour-coded spheres (carbon: dark grey, hydrogen: light grey, nitrogen: blue, sulphur: yellow, and oxygen: red). Leukotrienes are part of the immune system and are an important part in inflammatory response. They are involved in asthmatic and allergic reactions, where they act to sustain inflammatory reactions. Leukotrienes are produced within cells and send signals that either act on the cell producing them (autocrine signalling) or on neighbouring cells (paracrine signalling) to regulate the immune response.
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! EN_90266124_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Leukotriene E4 molecule. Computer model showing the structure of the fatty acid leukotriene E4. Atoms are colour-coded (carbon: dark grey, hydrogen: light grey, nitrogen: blue, sulphur: yellow, and oxygen: red). Leukotrienes are part of the immune system and are an important part in inflammatory response. They are involved in asthmatic and allergic reactions, where they act to sustain inflammatory reactions. Leukotrienes are produced within cells and send signals that either act on the cell producing them (autocrine signalling) or on neighbouring cells (paracrine signalling) to regulate the immune response.
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