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Chemia/Biochemia (899)

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! EN_01354334_0563 SCI
Diamond molecular structure, illustration. Diamond is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. Carbon atoms are shown as spheres, linked by rigid bonds. Each carbon atom in a diamond molecule is at the centre of a tetrahedron, linked to four other atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron by strong covalent bonds. This repeating tetrahedral arrangement allows no rotation about the bonds, and so the structure is completely rigid, making diamond the hardest known naturally-occurring material. It is used in industry to tip heavy-duty cutting and drilling equipment, and is also a precious gemstone. For illustrations showing the tetrahedral unit cell, see images C042/4530 to C042/4533.
! EN_01354334_0564 SCI
Diamond molecular structure, illustration. Diamond is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. Carbon atoms are shown as spheres, linked by rigid bonds. Each carbon atom in a diamond molecule is at the centre of a tetrahedron, linked to four other atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron by strong covalent bonds. This repeating tetrahedral arrangement allows no rotation about the bonds, and so the structure is completely rigid, making diamond the hardest known naturally-occurring material. It is used in industry to tip heavy-duty cutting and drilling equipment, and is also a precious gemstone. For illustrations showing the tetrahedral unit cell, see images C042/4530 to C042/4533.
! EN_01354334_0565 SCI
Diamond molecular structure, illustration. Diamond is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. Carbon atoms are shown as spheres, linked by rigid bonds. Each carbon atom in a diamond molecule is at the centre of a tetrahedron, linked to four other atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron by strong covalent bonds. This repeating tetrahedral arrangement allows no rotation about the bonds, and so the structure is completely rigid, making diamond the hardest known naturally-occurring material. It is used in industry to tip heavy-duty cutting and drilling equipment, and is also a precious gemstone. For illustrations showing the tetrahedral unit cell, see images C042/4530 to C042/4533.
! EN_01354334_0566 SCI
Diamond molecular structure, illustration. Diamond is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. Carbon atoms are shown as spheres, linked by rigid bonds. Each carbon atom in a diamond molecule is at the centre of a tetrahedron, linked to four other atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron by strong covalent bonds. This repeating tetrahedral arrangement allows no rotation about the bonds, and so the structure is completely rigid, making diamond the hardest known naturally-occurring material. It is used in industry to tip heavy-duty cutting and drilling equipment, and is also a precious gemstone. For illustrations showing the tetrahedral unit cell, see images C042/4530 to C042/4533.
! EN_01354334_0567 SCI
Diamond tetrahedral molecular structure, illustration. Diamond is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. It takes the form of regularly repeating units with the tetrahedral structure shown here. The carbon atoms are shown as spheres, linked by rigid bonds. Each carbon atom in a diamond molecule is at the centre of a tetrahedron (as shown here), linked to four other atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron by strong covalent bonds. This repeating tetrahedral arrangement allows no rotation about the bonds, and so the structure is completely rigid, making diamond the hardest known naturally-occurring material. It is used in industry to tip heavy-duty cutting and drilling equipment, and is also a precious gemstone. For illustrations showing the extended repeating structure, see images C042/4526 to C042/4529.
! EN_01354334_0568 SCI
Diamond tetrahedral molecular structure, illustration. Diamond is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. It takes the form of regularly repeating units with the tetrahedral structure shown here. The carbon atoms are shown as spheres, linked by rigid bonds. Each carbon atom in a diamond molecule is at the centre of a tetrahedron (as shown here), linked to four other atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron by strong covalent bonds. This repeating tetrahedral arrangement allows no rotation about the bonds, and so the structure is completely rigid, making diamond the hardest known naturally-occurring material. It is used in industry to tip heavy-duty cutting and drilling equipment, and is also a precious gemstone. For illustrations showing the extended repeating structure, see images C042/4526 to C042/4529.
! EN_01354334_0569 SCI
Diamond tetrahedral molecular structure, illustration. Diamond is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. It takes the form of regularly repeating units with the tetrahedral structure shown here. The carbon atoms are shown as spheres, linked by rigid bonds. Each carbon atom in a diamond molecule is at the centre of a tetrahedron (as shown here), linked to four other atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron by strong covalent bonds. This repeating tetrahedral arrangement allows no rotation about the bonds, and so the structure is completely rigid, making diamond the hardest known naturally-occurring material. It is used in industry to tip heavy-duty cutting and drilling equipment, and is also a precious gemstone. For illustrations showing the extended repeating structure, see images C042/4526 to C042/4529.
! EN_01354334_0570 SCI
Diamond tetrahedral molecular structure, illustration. Diamond is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. It takes the form of regularly repeating units with the tetrahedral structure shown here. The carbon atoms are shown as spheres, linked by rigid bonds. Each carbon atom in a diamond molecule is at the centre of a tetrahedron (as shown here), linked to four other atoms at the corners of the tetrahedron by strong covalent bonds. This repeating tetrahedral arrangement allows no rotation about the bonds, and so the structure is completely rigid, making diamond the hardest known naturally-occurring material. It is used in industry to tip heavy-duty cutting and drilling equipment, and is also a precious gemstone. For illustrations showing the extended repeating structure, see images C042/4526 to C042/4529.
! EN_01354334_0571 SCI
Graphite molecular structure, illustration. Graphite is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. Graphite is used in pencil leads and as a lubricant. It is composed of parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms (spheres). Within each layer the carbon atoms are linked by strong covalent bonds, while the parallel layers are linked together by weak Van der Waals' forces. This Van der Waals' bonding is strong enough to hold the layers together, yet weak enough to let them slide over each other. This results in graphite's softness and its ability to act as a lubricant. For illustrations showing the hexagonal unit cell, see images C042/4538 to C042/4541.
! EN_01354334_0572 SCI
Graphite molecular structure, illustration. Graphite is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. Graphite is used in pencil leads and as a lubricant. It is composed of parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms (spheres). Within each layer the carbon atoms are linked by strong covalent bonds, while the parallel layers are linked together by weak Van der Waals' forces. This Van der Waals' bonding is strong enough to hold the layers together, yet weak enough to let them slide over each other. This results in graphite's softness and its ability to act as a lubricant. For illustrations showing the hexagonal unit cell, see images C042/4538 to C042/4541.
! EN_01354334_0573 SCI
Graphite molecular structure, illustration. Graphite is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. Graphite is used in pencil leads and as a lubricant. It is composed of parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms (spheres). Within each layer the carbon atoms are linked by strong covalent bonds, while the parallel layers are linked together by weak Van der Waals' forces. This Van der Waals' bonding is strong enough to hold the layers together, yet weak enough to let them slide over each other. This results in graphite's softness and its ability to act as a lubricant. For illustrations showing the hexagonal unit cell, see images C042/4538 to C042/4541.
! EN_01354334_0574 SCI
Graphite molecular structure, illustration. Graphite is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. Graphite is used in pencil leads and as a lubricant. It is composed of parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms (spheres). Within each layer the carbon atoms are linked by strong covalent bonds, while the parallel layers are linked together by weak Van der Waals' forces. This Van der Waals' bonding is strong enough to hold the layers together, yet weak enough to let them slide over each other. This results in graphite's softness and its ability to act as a lubricant. For illustrations showing the hexagonal unit cell, see images C042/4538 to C042/4541.
! EN_01354334_0575 SCI
Graphite hexagonal molecular structure, illustration. Graphite is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. It takes the form of regularly repeating units with the hexagonal structure shown here. Graphite is used in pencil leads and as a lubricant. It is composed of parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms (spheres). Within each layer the carbon atoms are linked by strong covalent bonds, while the parallel layers are linked together by weak Van der Waals' forces. This Van der Waals' bonding is strong enough to hold the layers together, yet weak enough to let them slide over each other. This results in graphite's softness and its ability to act as a lubricant. For illustrations showing the extended repeating structure, see images C042/4534 to C042/4537.
! EN_01354334_0576 SCI
Graphite hexagonal molecular structure, illustration. Graphite is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. It takes the form of regularly repeating units with the hexagonal structure shown here. Graphite is used in pencil leads and as a lubricant. It is composed of parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms (spheres). Within each layer the carbon atoms are linked by strong covalent bonds, while the parallel layers are linked together by weak Van der Waals' forces. This Van der Waals' bonding is strong enough to hold the layers together, yet weak enough to let them slide over each other. This results in graphite's softness and its ability to act as a lubricant. For illustrations showing the extended repeating structure, see images C042/4534 to C042/4537.
! EN_01354334_0577 SCI
Graphite hexagonal molecular structure, illustration. Graphite is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. It takes the form of regularly repeating units with the hexagonal structure shown here. Graphite is used in pencil leads and as a lubricant. It is composed of parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms (spheres). Within each layer the carbon atoms are linked by strong covalent bonds, while the parallel layers are linked together by weak Van der Waals' forces. This Van der Waals' bonding is strong enough to hold the layers together, yet weak enough to let them slide over each other. This results in graphite's softness and its ability to act as a lubricant. For illustrations showing the extended repeating structure, see images C042/4534 to C042/4537.
! EN_01354334_0578 SCI
Graphite hexagonal molecular structure, illustration. Graphite is a form (allotrope) of the element carbon. It takes the form of regularly repeating units with the hexagonal structure shown here. Graphite is used in pencil leads and as a lubricant. It is composed of parallel layers of hexagonally arranged carbon atoms (spheres). Within each layer the carbon atoms are linked by strong covalent bonds, while the parallel layers are linked together by weak Van der Waals' forces. This Van der Waals' bonding is strong enough to hold the layers together, yet weak enough to let them slide over each other. This results in graphite's softness and its ability to act as a lubricant. For illustrations showing the extended repeating structure, see images C042/4534 to C042/4537.
! EN_01354334_0579 SCI
Buckminsterfullerene molecule (C60), illustration. C60 is a fullerenes, a structural type (allotrope) of carbon. The carbon atoms (spheres) are bonded together as pentagon or hexagon structures. These in turn are connected to form the ball structure. The spherical fullerenes are sometimes referred to as buckyballs, after the first such molecule to be discovered (C60, buckminsterfullerene). The first fullerene was discovered in 1985. Since then, fullerenes have been synthesised that range from 36 to 540 carbon atoms in size. Their novel physical and chemical properties can be exploited to make new catalysts, lubricants and superconductors. They are also being investigated for medical applications.
! EN_01354334_0580 SCI
Buckminsterfullerene molecule (C60), illustration. C60 is a fullerenes, a structural type (allotrope) of carbon. The carbon atoms (spheres) are bonded together as pentagon or hexagon structures. These in turn are connected to form the ball structure. The spherical fullerenes are sometimes referred to as buckyballs, after the first such molecule to be discovered (C60, buckminsterfullerene). The first fullerene was discovered in 1985. Since then, fullerenes have been synthesised that range from 36 to 540 carbon atoms in size. Their novel physical and chemical properties can be exploited to make new catalysts, lubricants and superconductors. They are also being investigated for medical applications.
! EN_01354334_0581 SCI
Buckminsterfullerene molecule (C60), illustration. C60 is a fullerenes, a structural type (allotrope) of carbon. The carbon atoms (spheres) are bonded together as pentagon or hexagon structures. These in turn are connected to form the ball structure. The spherical fullerenes are sometimes referred to as buckyballs, after the first such molecule to be discovered (C60, buckminsterfullerene). The first fullerene was discovered in 1985. Since then, fullerenes have been synthesised that range from 36 to 540 carbon atoms in size. Their novel physical and chemical properties can be exploited to make new catalysts, lubricants and superconductors. They are also being investigated for medical applications.
! EN_01354334_0582 SCI
Buckminsterfullerene molecule (C60), illustration. C60 is a fullerenes, a structural type (allotrope) of carbon. The carbon atoms (spheres) are bonded together as pentagon or hexagon structures. These in turn are connected to form the ball structure. The spherical fullerenes are sometimes referred to as buckyballs, after the first such molecule to be discovered (C60, buckminsterfullerene). The first fullerene was discovered in 1985. Since then, fullerenes have been synthesised that range from 36 to 540 carbon atoms in size. Their novel physical and chemical properties can be exploited to make new catalysts, lubricants and superconductors. They are also being investigated for medical applications.

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