poniedziałek, 11 grudnia 2017
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Genetyka (1129)

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EN_90286236_0071 PHO
Model of DNA.
EN_90157271_0194 EN
PHOTO:EAST NEWS/ PHOTO RESEARCHERS/Illustration of the double helix strand of DNA undergoing genetic engineering, or gene therapy, as it is also called. Advances in understanding and the manipulation of the genetic code have set the stage for altering a person's genetic material in order to fight or prevent disease. Gene therapy involves the introduction of genetic material, either RNA or DNA, into a person's cells in order to effect a positive outcome in disease fighting and prevention. The three floating bases here represent the RNA sequence of 3 used to transmit information to cellular structures that build proteins (one shown here, in the center). The pattern of active and inactive genes in a cell, and the the resulting protein composition, determine what type of cell it is and what it can and cannot do.
EN_90157271_0192 EN
PHOTO:EAST NEWS/ PHOTO RESEARCHERS/Illustration of the double helix strand of DNA undergoing genetic engineering, or gene therapy, as it is also called. Advances in understanding and the manipulation of the genetic code have set the stage for altering a person's genetic material in order to fight or prevent disease. Gene therapy involves the introduction of genetic material, either RNA or DNA, into a person's cells in order to effect a positive outcome in disease fighting and prevention. In some cases, researchers are introducing a specific gene into a cell through the RNA of a retrovirus, seen at the top. Scientists alter the viruses used in genetic therapy to make them safe for humans and to increase their ability to deliver specific genes to a person's cells. Researchers are studying several ways to treat cancer using genetic therapy. One approach targets cancer cells, destroying them or inhibiting their growth. Proteins, shown here in the center, are a key ingredient in this type of cancer therapy.
EN_90157271_0191 EN
PHOTO:EAST NEWS/ PHOTO RESEARCHERS/Illustration of the double helix strand of DNA undergoing genetic engineering, or gene therapy, as it is also called. Advances in understanding and the manipulation of the genetic code have set the stage for altering a person's genetic material in order to fight or prevent disease. Gene therapy involves the introduction of genetic material, either RNA or DNA, into a person's cells in order to effect a positive outcome in disease fighting and prevention. The floating bases here represent the RNA sequence used to transmit information to cellular structures that build proteins (one shown here, in the center). The pattern of active and inactive genes in a cell and the the resulting protein composition determine what type of cell it is and what it can and cannot do. Researchers are studying several ways to treat cancer using genetic therapy. One approach aims to destroy or inhibit the growth of cancer cells. Proteins are a key ingredient in this type of cancer therapy.
EN_90157271_0190 EN
. PHOTO:EAST NEWS/ PHOTO RESEARCHERS/This is a stylized Illustration of the destruction of DNA. The double helix strand of DNA is shown unwinding from a chromosome. DNA is the self-replicating molecule in cells that carries the genes, the information of heredity. Each DNA molecule is tightly wrapped around particles called chromatin, and packed tightly into a chromosome; 46 chromosomes are found inside the nucleus of the cell. There are various ways that DNA can be altered or destroyed, one of which is the introduction of free-radicals into the cells
EN_90157271_0189 EN
PHOTO:EAST NEWS/ PHOTO RESEARCHERS/DNA with chromosomes.
EN_90157271_0185 EN
PHOTO:EAST NEWS/ PHOTO RESEARCHERS/Illustration of the double helix strand of DNA unwinding from a chromosome. DNA is the self-replicating molecule in cells that carries the genes, the information of heredity. Each DNA molecule is tightly wrapped around particles called chromatin, and packed tightly into a chromosome; 46 chromosomes are found inside the nucleus of the cell.
EN_90157271_0184 EN
PHOTO:EAST NEWS/ PHOTO RESEARCHERS/Illustration of the double helix strand of DNA unwinding from a chromosome. DNA is the self-replicating molecule in cells that carries the genes, the information of heredity. Each DNA molecule is tightly wrapped around particles called chromatin, and packed tightly into a chromosome; 46 chromosomes are found inside the nucleus of the cell.
! EN_90059366_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY HIV retrovirus. Schematic illustration of the structure of a retrovirus, such as the HIV-1 virus that causes AIDS. At centre are RNA strands (rainbow colours) making up the viral genetic material. The RNA is enclosed in a core protein shell (yellow). The outer envelope (green) consists of a lipid bi-layer, with protein spikes (orange). In the HIV virus the spikes consist of a glycoprotein, gp120, and it is these that recognise CD4 markers on white blood T-cells, allowing the T-cells to become infected. The HIV virus kills T-cells after using them to reproduce its viral RNA, thus weakening the immune system of the human host.
! EN_90058985_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Fertilisation. Computer illustration of a human egg cell surrounded by spermatozoa (sperm) prior to fertilisation. The egg will be penetrated by a single sperm. The sperm's genetic material fuses with that of the egg, creating a zygote with the full 46 human chromosomes, 23 from each parent.
! EN_90058800_0005 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Nanorobot. Conceptual computer illustration of a nanorobot repairing DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) with a laser. DNA is the hereditary genetic material of living organisms. This tiny robot could assist the body's own DNA repair mechanisms.
! EN_90058196_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Human cloning. Conceptual computer illustration of human cloning showing identical babies breaking free from their eggs. Cloning is a method of producing a genetically identical copy of an organism. In the future human babies could be cloned by placing DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) from an adult's cells into human eggs from which the genetic material has been stripped out.
! EN_90058113_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Illustration of a model for the basic structure of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the causative agent of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). A map of the world showing regions with a high incidence of AIDS in yellow is superimposed over the protein core shell. The spherical viral membrane (orange) is studded with glycoprotein (green) and HLA antigens (red). The core contains the vital genetic information for the replication of the virus in form of RNA and the enzyme reverse transcriptase that transcribes the viral RNA into DNA for the purpose of subverting the host cell's genetic material.
! EN_90058051_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Action of designed enediynes: 2nd of 4 molecular graphics showing showing the targetting & cleavage of DNA by a synthetic enediyne (at top). A number of these compounds have been designed by K.C. Nicolaou & colleagues at the Scripps Research Institute, California, to mimic the selective anticancer properties of more complex naturally- occurring relatives. The enediynes are designed with functional groups that target the DNA & trigger a series of reactions that results in its breakage. The DNA model was produced by J.Macke for a video by M.Pique entitled ENEDIYNES: CHEMICAL WARFARE AGAINST CANCER.
! EN_90017713_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Adenovirus. Computer illustration of an adenovirus particle. This virus has an icosahedral (20-sided) outer protein coat, or capsid (green). This encloses the virus' DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) genetic material. The capsid is made up of 252 individual protein subunits known as capsomers. The long spikes protruding from the capsid are tipped with proteins which allow the virus to enter its target cells. Adenoviruses often cause upper respiratory tract infections, with symptoms usually resembling those of the common cold. They are also associated with diarrhoea in children and eye infections such as conjunctivitis.
EN_90016773_0001 PHA
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/PHANIE BADANIA GENETYCZNE, ILUSTRACJA Illustration de la recherche g??n??tique et ses applications : th??rapie g??nique, biom??trie etc... Artwork to illustrate genetic research and its applications : genic therapy, biometry etc...
Toute utilisation / All use
EN_90016763_0001 PHA
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/PHANIE Illustration clonage Cloning illustration
Toute utilisation / All use
EN_90016762_0001 PHA
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/PHANIE Illustration clonage Cloning illustration
Toute utilisation / All use
EN_90124633_0033 BSI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/BSIP Les risques g??n??tiques de d??clarer la dr??panocytose. Repr??sentation sous forme de tableau des risques pour un enfant d'A?tre porteur du gA?ne de la dr??panocytose ou de d??clarer la maladie. Aucun risque si les deux parents ne portent pas le gA?ne. Porteur du gA?ne mais sans d??veloppement syst??matique de la maladie chez les enfants dont un des deux parents est proteur de gA?ne. D??veloppement syst??matique de la maladie chez l'enfant lorsque les deux parents sont porteurs.
EN_90085757_0244 BSI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/BSIP La reproduction ou le destin du chromosome. Repr??sentation de la f??condation d'un ovule par un spermatozoA?de contenant un chromosome "Y" et les premiers instants de la fusion, migration division des deux identit??s g??n??tiques qui donneront 9 mois plus tard un gar??on. Reproduction, the destiny of a chromosome. Illustration of the fertilization of an ovum by a spermatozoid possessing the "Y" chromosome and the initial moments of fusion, migration and division of the two genetic entities, resulting, nine months later, in the birth of a baby boy.

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