poniedziałek, 23 października 2017
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Ekologia (438)

192021
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! EN_90252911_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Gaia hypothesis. Computer artwork of the Earth half seen as an apple over a sea. The Gaia hypothesis, named after the personification of Mother Earth in ancient Greek mythology, is that the entire planet acts as a self-regulating organism. This theory was put forward by Professor James Lovelock (born 1919).
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! EN_90252911_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Gaia hypothesis. Computer artwork of the Earth half seen as an apple. The Gaia hypothesis, named after the personification of Mother Earth in ancient Greek mythology, is that the entire planet acts as a self-regulating organism. This theory was put forward by Professor James Lovelock (born 1919).
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! EN_90246716_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Atmospheric pollution. Artwork depicting the Earth with several examples of sources of atmospheric pollutants. The Earth is shown with a hole (dark patch) in the ozone layer above the South Pole. Ozone depletion has been strongly linked to chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) used in aerosol products and in the manufacture of some polystyrene packaging. Other sources of pollution include the destruction of the rainforests, the use of coal and the increasing use of motor vehicles. All of these may increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, contributing to global warming through the Greenhouse Effect.
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! EN_90238112_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Space junk. Artwork of the distribution of debris (yellow dots) in orbit around the Earth. Some 22,000 man-made objects are in orbit around the Earth. Only a small fraction represents operating satellites; the remainder could be categorised as used rocket bodies, dead payloads, operational debris (such as optics covers and payload attachment hardware) and the consequence of 30 years of payload and rocket fragmentation. These objects are a hazard for future space missions due to the increasing probability of an impact with satellites or spacecrafts. The position of geo- synchronous satellites is marked by the inclined ellipse running from bottom left to top right.
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! EN_90260820_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Global warming. Conceptual computer artwork depicting the effect of global warming - a parched and barren surface with blisteringly hot sunshine.
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! EN_90260820_0004 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Global warming. Conceptual computer artwork depicting the effect of global warming - a parched and barren surface with blisteringly hot sunshine.
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! EN_90268806_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Effects of deforestation. Computer-generated map of South America, showing the mean surface air temperature change due to total replacement of rain forests with pasture. Temperature increases are colour-coded from pale yellow (0.5-1 Celsius) to brown (3-3.5 Celsius). Drop in mean temperaure is shown as blue. The tropical rain forest reflects a very large proportion of infrared (heat) radiation that comes from the Sun. The loss of the forest would allow far more heat to be absorbed by the ground, thus raising local temperatures. This is one factor that would lead to a dramatically dryer climate for the region.
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! EN_90252969_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Computer-generated map of the World showing global distribution of vegetation based on today's climate. A bioclimatic scheme is first obtained by correlating historical observations of vegetation distribution, annual mean temperature and precipitation. This scheme is then applied to today's climate. The map produced predicts the type of vegetation that will be seen at a given combination of mean annual temperature and precipitation, based on a model of the global climate. There is an excellent correlation between the predicted vegetation types shown here and the actual types observed today.
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! EN_90252972_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Computer-generated of the World showing vegetation distribution for the climate of 18,000 years before present (18kYBP). This coincdes with the time of the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM), or 'Ice Age'. A bioclimatic model, based on historical observations, was used to correlate vegetation to annual mean temperatures and precipitation. Another model was used to simulate the climate of 18kYBP. The two models were then combined, giving a prediction of the vegetation at that time. Of particular note is the massive northern ice sheet, the existence of evergreen forests in Spain and Mexico, and the huge Afro-Eurasian arid grassland.
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! EN_90252973_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Computer-generated map of the World showing predicted global vegetation for a doubled CO2 climate. A bioclimatic model, based on historical observations, is used to predict vegetation type as a function of annual mean temperature and precipitation. Another model is used to predict global temperatures and precipitation for an atmosphere with twice the current levels of carbon dioxide. The two models are then combined. Of particular note is the loss of tundra in the northern hemisphere (being replaced by evergreen forests), and the expansion of the tropical rain forests as a result of the climate changes.
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! EN_90252990_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Global warming. Computer-generated images of the world showing the projected increase in surface air temperature to the year 2050. Red and orange indicate increased temperatures. The projection was made by the Global Climate Model of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies on the basis that the emission of 'greenhouse' gases (such as carbon dioxide, methane and CFCs) will continue to increase at current rates. These gases trap an increased amount of solar radiation in the atmosphere, leading to gradual warming of the planet. Global Climate Models use available data to model Earth's climate using supercomputers.
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! EN_90252990_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Global warming. Computer-generated images of the world showing the projected spread of drought up to the year 2050. Brown and orange indicate regions with a high probability of drought. The projection was made by the Global Climate Model of NASA's Goddard Institute for Space Studies on the basis that the emission of 'greenhouse' gases (such as carbon dioxide, methane and CFCs) will continue to grow at current rates. These gases trap an increased amount of solar radiation in the atmosphere, leading to gradual warming of the planet. Global Climate Models use available data to model Earth's climate using supercomputers.
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! EN_90263827_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Illustration of the 'greenhouse effect'. The build-up of certain gases in the Earth's atmosphere traps an increased amount of solar radiation and leads to a gradual warming of the whole planet. The 'greenhouse' gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). They are generated by a wide variety of human activities, including industry, the burning of fossil fuels, increased agriculture and modern agricultural methods, and deforestation. Global warming is expected to cause massive changes in weather patterns and a rise in sea level (due to the melting of polar ice) that could flood coastal cities and low-lying plains.
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! EN_90253025_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Conceptual illustration showing the causes & results of the greenhouse effect. The build-up of certain gases in Earth's atmosphere traps an increased amount of solar radiation & leads to a gradual warming of the whole planet. The greenhouse gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide & chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). They are generated by industry, the burning of fossil fuels, increased modern agricultural methods & deforestation. Global warming is expected to cause massive changes in weather patterns & a rise in sea level (due to the melting of polar ice) which could flood coastal cities & plains.
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! EN_90263812_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Illustration depicting the 'greenhouse effect'. The build-up of certain gases in Earth's atmosphere traps an increased amount of solar radiation & leads to a gradual warming of the whole planet. The 'greenhouse' gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide & chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). They are generated by a wide variety of human activities, including industry, the burning of fossil fuels, increased agriculture & modern agricultural methods, & deforestation. Global warming is expected to cause massive changes in weather patterns & a rise in sea level (due to the melting of polar ice) that could flood coastal cities & plains.
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! EN_90269017_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Montage showing aerosol can spraying the world. Aerosol sprays are powered by chemicals called chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). There is growing evidence that CFCs rise high into the atmosphere & deplete the ozone layer which protects us from the Sun's ultraviolet radiation. Chemical reactions triggered by CFCs have been implicated in the 'ozone hole' that has appeared recently over Antarctica each austral spring (September- October). Because increased ultraviolet is a threat to human health, notably as a cause of skin cancer, an international treaty to limit production of CFCs was signed in 1987. CFCs are also used in refrigerants & fast-food packaging. Yellow space-filled map of Earth on yellow grid. Blue wedge for spray.
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! EN_90263813_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Illustration of the 'greenhouse effect'. The build-up of certain gases in Earth's immediate atmosphere - the trophosphere - traps an increased amount of solar radiation & leads to a gradual warming of the whole planet. Here, a polluted trophosphere is represented by the purple band, allowing only a small fraction of re-radiated solar energy (yellow arrows) to return to space. The 'greenhouse' gases (chiefly carbon dioxide, nitrous oxide & methane) are generated by a wide range of human activities. Global warming is expected to cause massive changes in weather patterns, resulting in floods, droughts & drastic shifts in global food production.
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! EN_90263827_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Illustration of the 'greenhouse effect'. The build-up of certain gases in Earth's atmosphere traps an increased amount of solar radiation & leads to a gradual warming of the whole planet. The 'greenhouse' gases include carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide & chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs). They are generated by a wide variety of human activities, including industry, the burning of fossil fuels, increased agriculture & modern agricultural methods, & deforestation. Global warming is expected to cause massive changes in weather patterns & a rise in sea level (due to the melting of polar ice) that could flood coastal cities & plains.
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