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! EN_01354334_0365 SCI
Malaria parasite life cycle, illustration. Diagram showing the life cycle of the Plasmodium parasite that causes malaria in humans. At top left is a female mosquito laying her eggs. The sporozoite stage of the parasite is injected into humans by a mosquito (upper left). The trophozoite and merozoite stages develop and form inside red blood cells (erythrocytes) in an asexual reproduction cycle (lower right), causing anaemia and periodic fevers in the host. The sexual reproduction cycle of Plasmodium occurs in the mosquito's salivary glands (lower left), when it is taken up again by a mosquito feeding on the human host. The gametocytes are labelled with male and female symbols. One of the parasite's reproductive stages occurs in the hosts' liver cells (liver shown at upper centre).
! EN_01354334_0399 SCI
Female anatomy, illustration.
! EN_01354334_0400 SCI
Headache, illustration. Inflamed and expanded blood vessels in the region around the brain (blue) can lead to the throbbing and sharp pains of a headache. There can be a range of reasons for the underlying cause of the headache, but most are treatable with painkilling drugs.
! EN_01354334_0401 SCI
Deep brain stimulation. Illustration of the neurosurgical treatment deep brain stimulation (DBS), which involves the implantation of a brain pacemaker (under skin, blue), which sends electrical impulses to specific areas of the brain through an electrode (implanted below scalp). The device placed under the skin is known as an implanted pulse generator (IPG). DBS was developed for the treatment of patients with Parkinson's disease, but is being investigated for use in other conditions. The electrodes provide continuous electrical stimulation, which blocks the signals that cause the tremors of Parkinson's disease.
! EN_01354334_0402 SCI
Brain and skull anatomy. Illustration of the human brain and skull, seen from the side in a human figure. This view includes the upper part of the spinal cord encased by the cervical vertebrae of the neck (lower centre). The outer folds of the brain's cerebral cortex are shown, along with the cerebellum (upper centre) at the rear base of the brain. At centre right are the bones of the face, including the eye sockets and jaw and cheek bones.
! EN_01354334_0403 SCI
Brown fat and white fat, illustration. Male and female figures, and a child seen from the front and rear, showing typical location of the two types of fat: brown and white. Brown fat (orange), also known as brown adipose tissue (BAT) is especially abundant in newborns. Its primary function is thermoregulation, producing heat by a process known as non-shivering thermogenesis. In adults brown fat is present in the upper chest and neck, especially alongside the vertebrae. White fat, also known as white adipose tissue (WAT), makes up 20 to 25 percent of healthy body weight in adults. It functions as a store of energy. It is found under the skin on the abdomen in men, on the hips in women, and around some internal organs in both sexes.
! EN_01354334_0404 SCI
Knee ligaments, illustration. The ligaments (white) shown here, on the outer (lateral) side of the knee, include the anterolateral ligament (ALL) and the fibular collateral ligament (FCL; also known as the lateral collateral ligament, LCL). Ligaments are fibrous connective bands that connect bones to other bones. The ALL joins the femur and tibia. The FCL joins the femur and fibula. Also shown here are the popliteofibular ligament and the tendon of the popliteus muscle. The knee cartilage pads are also shown.
! EN_01354334_0405 SCI
Periodontitis and dental implants, illustration. This patient has receding and inflamed gums. This is typical of conditions such as gingivitis and periodontal disease (periodontitis). If not checked, erosion of the teeth and gums leads to loss of the teeth. The teeth may need to be extracted and replaced with implants, as shown here. The teeth are shown in an X-ray at upper right. The typical process for an implant is to drill a hole in the jaw bone, insert a titanium base, and screw an artificial tooth into this base. The implant here is for one of the incisors at the front of the mouth. The insets show molars and premolars.
! EN_01354334_0406 SCI
Taste and smell physiology. Illustration of a human head, showing the mouth and nose, and the taste and smell centre of the brain. The insets at left show the anatomy of the papillae and taste buds (lower left) of the tongue, and the taste pores (upper left). After chemical particles trigger signals in the tongue, the taste information (red arrows) is transmitted by the lingual, vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves to the medulla oblongata in the brainstem. Smell information (white arrows) arrives at the olfactory bulb. Although the senses of taste and smell are separate, the information received is integrated at a brain location called the orbitofrontal cortex. It is this integration of the two senses that often gives rise to what is called taste. For this illustration with labels, see image C036/7683.
! EN_01354334_0407 SCI
Mesentery anatomy, illustration. The mesentery is an organ in the abdomen that attaches the intestines to the posterior abdominal wall and forming the peritoneal folds. Its function is to store fat, as well as forming the intestinal supply of blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves. It arises from the mesenteric root in the small intestine, with the colon section of the mesentery known as the mesocolon. The upper portion (around the liver) is here labelled as the omentum or peritoneum mesentery. Knowledge of the anatomy of the mesentery is vital when carrying out intestinal surgery. For this illustration without labels, see image C042/4371.
! EN_01354334_0408 SCI
Mesentery anatomy, illustration. The mesentery is an organ in the abdomen that attaches the intestines to the posterior abdominal wall and forming the peritoneal folds. Its function is to store fat, as well as forming the intestinal supply of blood vessels, lymph vessels, and nerves. It arises from the mesenteric root in the small intestine, with the colon section of the mesentery known as the mesocolon. The upper portion (around the liver) is known as the omentum or peritoneum mesentery. Knowledge of the anatomy of the mesentery is vital when carrying out intestinal surgery. For this illustration with labels, see image C042/4370.
! EN_01354334_0409 SCI
Wound healing, illustration. Sequence from left to right, illustration the process of healing when the skin is cut. At left, blood vessels in the wound contract and release platelets (yellow). These start to form fibrin to seal the wound. At centre, after a few days, the fibroblasts secrete collagen that acts as a scaffold for dermal cells to reconstruct the tissue. Over the next year (right), the skin is reconstructed on this collagen matrix, with potential scarring. The inset at lower left shows white blood cells (leucocytes) as part of the immune response to defend against infection by bacteria and other microbes. At lower right, the inset shows stitches that are necessary for the healing of deep wounds. For this image without labels, see image C042/4373.
! EN_01354334_0410 SCI
Wound healing, illustration. Sequence from left to right, illustration the process of healing when the skin is cut. At left, blood vessels in the wound contract and release platelets (yellow). These start to form fibrin to seal the wound. At centre, after a few days, the fibroblasts secrete collagen that acts as a scaffold for dermal cells to reconstruct the tissue. Over the next year (right), the skin is reconstructed on this collagen matrix, with potential scarring. The inset at lower left shows white blood cells (leucocytes) as part of the immune response to defend against infection by bacteria and other microbes. At lower right, the inset shows stitches that are necessary for the healing of deep wounds. For this image with labels, see image C042/4372.
! EN_01354334_0411 SCI
Medical cannabis, conceptual image. Leaf of the cannabis plant (Cannabis sativa) on a pill. Cannabis (also known as marijuana) is an illicit drug containing the psychoactive chemical tetrahydrocannabinol (THC). Cannabis is useful medically due to its ability to relieve pain, increase appetite and control muscle spasms. Cannabis has the potential to treat the side-effects of chemotherapy and the symptoms of conditions including AIDS, multiple sclerosis and chronic pain from nerve damage.
! EN_01354334_0595 SCI
Radiation effects on humans, illustration. Three types of radiation are shown impacting or passing through a human body. From top, they are: gamma rays, beta particles, and X-rays. Beta particles are a form of ionising radiation and consist of high-energy electrons. They can damage and cause spontaneous mutation in the body's genetic material (DNA) that can cause cancer. Gamma rays and X-rays are forms of electromagnetic radiation, with gamma rays having a shorter wavelength and being more energetic and penetrating than X-rays. X-rays will penetrate soft tissues, but are absorbed by bones. Gamma rays and beta particles are produced by radioactive materials. Exposure to an excessive amount of gamma rays can be lethal. For this illustration without labels, see image C042/4559. For other illustrations on radiation effects, see images C042/4558 to C042/4569.
! EN_01354334_0596 SCI
Radiation effects on humans, illustration. Three types of radiation are shown impacting or passing through a human body. From top, they are: gamma rays, beta particles, and X-rays. Beta particles are a form of ionising radiation and consist of high-energy electrons. They can damage and cause spontaneous mutation in the body's genetic material (DNA) that can cause cancer. Gamma rays and X-rays are forms of electromagnetic radiation, with gamma rays having a shorter wavelength and being more energetic and penetrating than X-rays. X-rays will penetrate soft tissues, but are absorbed by bones. Gamma rays and beta particles are produced by radioactive materials. Exposure to an excessive amount of gamma rays can be lethal. For this illustration with labels, see image C042/4558. For other illustrations on radiation effects, see images C042/4558 to C042/4569.
! EN_01354334_0597 SCI
Radiation effects on humans, illustration. Three types of radiation are shown impacting or passing through a human body. From top, they are: gamma rays, beta particles, and X-rays. Beta particles are a form of ionising radiation and consist of high-energy electrons. They can damage and cause spontaneous mutation in the body's genetic material (DNA) that can cause cancer. Gamma rays and X-rays are forms of electromagnetic radiation, with gamma rays having a shorter wavelength and being more energetic and penetrating than X-rays. X-rays will penetrate soft tissues, but are absorbed by bones. Gamma rays and beta particles are produced by radioactive materials. Exposure to an excessive amount of gamma rays can be lethal. For this illustration without labels, see image C042/4561. For other illustrations on radiation effects, see images C042/4558 to C042/4569.
! EN_01354334_0598 SCI
Radiation effects on humans, illustration. Three types of radiation are shown impacting or passing through a human body. From top, they are: gamma rays, beta particles, and X-rays. Beta particles are a form of ionising radiation and consist of high-energy electrons. They can damage and cause spontaneous mutation in the body's genetic material (DNA) that can cause cancer. Gamma rays and X-rays are forms of electromagnetic radiation, with gamma rays having a shorter wavelength and being more energetic and penetrating than X-rays. X-rays will penetrate soft tissues, but are absorbed by bones. Gamma rays and beta particles are produced by radioactive materials. Exposure to an excessive amount of gamma rays can be lethal. For this illustration with labels, see image C042/4560. For other illustrations on radiation effects, see images C042/4558 to C042/4569.
! EN_01354334_0599 SCI
Radiation effects on humans, illustration. Six types of radiation are shown impacting a human body. From top, they are: gamma rays, beta particles, X-rays, alpha particles, and two forms of ultraviolet radiation (UVB and UVA). Beta particles (electrons) and alpha particles (helium nuclei) are forms of ionising radiation. They can damage and cause spontaneous mutation in the body's genetic material (DNA) that can cause cancer. Gamma rays and X-rays and UV radiation are forms of electromagnetic radiation, with gamma rays having a shorter wavelength and being more energetic and penetrating than X-rays, which are more penetrating than UV radiation. X-rays will penetrate soft tissues, but are absorbed by bones. UVB radiation and alpha particles are absorbed by and damage the upper layer of the skin (shown in inset), while UVA radiation penetrates to deeper levels. Gamma rays and alpha and beta particles are produced by radioactive materials. UV radiation is found in sunlight. High doses of gamma rays can be lethal. For this illustration without labels, see image C042/4563. For other illustrations on radiation effects, see images C042/4558 to C042/4569.
! EN_01354334_0600 SCI
Radiation effects on humans, illustration. Six types of radiation are shown impacting a human body. From top, they are: gamma rays, beta particles, X-rays, alpha particles, and two forms of ultraviolet radiation (UVB and UVA). Beta particles (electrons) and alpha particles (helium nuclei) are forms of ionising radiation. They can damage and cause spontaneous mutation in the body's genetic material (DNA) that can cause cancer. Gamma rays and X-rays and UV radiation are forms of electromagnetic radiation, with gamma rays having a shorter wavelength and being more energetic and penetrating than X-rays, which are more penetrating than UV radiation. X-rays will penetrate soft tissues, but are absorbed by bones. UVB radiation and alpha particles are absorbed by and damage the upper layer of the skin (shown in inset), while UVA radiation penetrates to deeper levels. Gamma rays and alpha and beta particles are produced by radioactive materials. UV radiation is found in sunlight. High doses of gamma rays can be lethal. For this illustration with labels, see image C042/4562. For other illustrations on radiation effects, see images C042/4558 to C042/4569.

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