poniedziałek, 23 lipca 2018
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! EN_90219252_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Abstract computer graphics image of a human eye staring out of a computer circuit board. The image might represent artificial intelligence (AI), the attempts being made by computer engineers to provide machines with the intelligence of living creatures. Current areas of interest in AI include machine vision, that is, the simulation of human vision as input to a machine. Examples are found in robotics and surveillance equipment.
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! EN_90219251_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Computer graphics image of antibodies moving along an artery. Antibodies, special blood proteins, are synthesised in lymphoid tissue in response to the presence of a particular antigen (foreign sub- stance) and circulated in the blood plasma to the troubled site. A huge range of antibodies is produced, each with some slight structural difference enabling it to bind to the surface of a different antigen. The antibodies thus act as flexible adaptor molecules, so that a wide range of infectious agents may be recognised. Here, the arms of the 'Y' shape form the antigen binding portion (Fab), the rest is the Fc portion; this binds to Fc receptors on host tissue cells.
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! EN_90219251_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Computer graphics image of lymphocytes (white blood cells) & antibodies ('Y'-shaped objects) in an artery. Antibodies, special blood proteins, are synthesised in lymphoid tissue in response to the presence of a particular antigen (foreign sub- stance). A huge range of antibodies is produced, each with some slight structural difference enabling it to bind to the surface of a different antigen. They thus act as flexible adaptor mole- cules, so that a wide range of infectious agents may be recognised. Here, the arms of the 'Y' shape form the antigen binding portion (Fab), the rest is the Fc portion; this binds to Fc receptors on host tissue cells.
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! EN_90219238_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY False-colour photograph of a human skull. The colouring has been achieved using computer graphics methods.
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! EN_90219237_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Computer graphics illustration of a human heart, showing the great vessels, the body's major blood vessels, which include the aorta and the pulmonary artery (top of heart). Also visible are branches of the coronary arteries, which trace across the heart muscle to supply its tissue with oxygen.
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! EN_90225344_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Computer graphic representation of the haemoglobin molecule, the oxygen-carrying substance of human blood. The roughly tubular features (in orange and blue) are polypeptide (protein) chains, of which there are four in two identical pairs. The protein component combines with four discs (in red) which contain the iron pigment, haem. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are literally packed with haemoglobin, containing only very small amounts of other substances.
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! EN_90219240_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Abstract computer graphics image representative of human sight.
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! EN_90242567_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Artwork featuring different types of white blood cells that comprise the orchestra of the human immune system, the body's defence mechanism. The maturation of cells derived from bone marrow is featured at bottom left. There are three main types of white cells - lymphocytes, leucocytes and monocytes (the large macrophage at top right is a monocyte). Lymphocytes originate in the bone marrow & mature there or in the thymus - hence the names B-lymphocytes (blue, centre right) and T- lymphocytes (orange, bottom). B-cells produce antibodies, chemicals that disable invading microorganisms. Some T-cells attack other cells infected with viruses directly.
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! EN_90229624_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Illustration based on a scanning electron micrograph of a human macrophage phagocytosing (engulfing) a latex bead. Macrophages are monocytes from circulating blood that have migrated to tissues, notably in lymphatic system & lungs; certain types migrate to sites of infection in response to chemical stimuli. In addition to a scavenging role, the macrophage is capable of processing antigenic (foreign) substances during initial phase of immune response. Processed antigens are presented on the macrophage's surface so they might be recognized and possibly ultimately eliminated by specific lymphocytes.
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