czwartek, 24 stycznia 2019
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! EN_01354334_0473 SCI
Quantum entanglement, illustration. Sequence from top to bottom, showing entangled quantum particles or events (left and right) interacting at a distance. Quantum entanglement is one of the consequences of quantum theory. Two particles (here, photons in China and Vienna) will appear to be linked across space and time, with changes to one of the particles (such as an observation or measurement) affecting the other one. This instantaneous effect appears to be independent of both space and time, meaning that, in the quantum realm, effect may precede cause. This may have applications in quantum information theory and quantum teleportation. For this image without labels, see image C042/4437.
! EN_01354334_0474 SCI
Quantum entanglement, illustration. Sequence from top to bottom, showing entangled quantum particles or events (left and right) interacting at a distance. Quantum entanglement is one of the consequences of quantum theory. Two particles (here, photons in China and Vienna) will appear to be linked across space and time, with changes to one of the particles (such as an observation or measurement) affecting the other one. This instantaneous effect appears to be independent of both space and time, meaning that, in the quantum realm, effect may precede cause. This may have applications in quantum information theory and quantum teleportation. For this image with labels, see image C042/4436.
! EN_01354334_0591 SCI
Free-space optical transceiver, illustration. Free-space optical communication (FSO) is a communications technology that uses light beams to transmit data wirelessly through air, a vacuum, or space. The optical part of the device is the receiver optics (centre left). The input beams (blue) are focused by the optics onto the detector (centre right), which then passes the signal to the data processor (far right). Outgoing data is passed from the processor to a laser transmitter (centre), which sends the data as output beams (pink) via the transmitter optics (centre left). This technology in its ultra-long-range form can be used by spacecraft, but long range applications on Earth are hindered by the effects of weather. For this illustration without labels, see image C042/4555.
! EN_01354334_0592 SCI
Free-space optical transceiver, illustration. Free-space optical communication (FSO) is a communications technology that uses light beams to transmit data wirelessly through air, a vacuum, or space. The optical part of the device is the receiver optics (centre left). The input beams (blue) are focused by the optics onto the detector (centre right), which then passes the signal to the data processor (far right). Outgoing data is passed from the processor to a laser transmitter (centre), which sends the data as output beams (pink) via the transmitter optics (centre left). This technology in its ultra-long-range form can be used by spacecraft, but long range applications on Earth are hindered by the effects of weather. For this illustration with labels, see image C042/4554.
! EN_01354334_0593 SCI
Free-space optical transceiver, illustration. Free-space optical communication (FSO) is a communications technology that uses light beams to transmit data wirelessly through air, a vacuum, or space. The optical part of the device is the receiver optics (centre left). The input beams (blue) are focused by the optics onto the detector (centre right), which then passes the signal to the data processor (far right). Outgoing data is passed from the processor to a laser transmitter (centre), which sends the data as output beams (pink) via the transmitter optics (centre left). This technology in its ultra-long-range form can be used by spacecraft, but long range applications on Earth are hindered by the effects of weather. For this illustration without labels, see image C042/4557.
! EN_01354334_0594 SCI
Free-space optical transceiver, illustration. Free-space optical communication (FSO) is a communications technology that uses light beams to transmit data wirelessly through air, a vacuum, or space. The optical part of the device is the receiver optics (centre left). The input beams (blue) are focused by the optics onto the detector (centre right), which then passes the signal to the data processor (far right). Outgoing data is passed from the processor to a laser transmitter (centre), which sends the data as output beams (pink) via the transmitter optics (centre left). This technology in its ultra-long-range form can be used by spacecraft, but long range applications on Earth are hindered by the effects of weather. For this illustration with labels, see image C042/4556.
! EN_01354334_0595 SCI
Radiation effects on humans, illustration. Three types of radiation are shown impacting or passing through a human body. From top, they are: gamma rays, beta particles, and X-rays. Beta particles are a form of ionising radiation and consist of high-energy electrons. They can damage and cause spontaneous mutation in the body's genetic material (DNA) that can cause cancer. Gamma rays and X-rays are forms of electromagnetic radiation, with gamma rays having a shorter wavelength and being more energetic and penetrating than X-rays. X-rays will penetrate soft tissues, but are absorbed by bones. Gamma rays and beta particles are produced by radioactive materials. Exposure to an excessive amount of gamma rays can be lethal. For this illustration without labels, see image C042/4559. For other illustrations on radiation effects, see images C042/4558 to C042/4569.
! EN_01354334_0596 SCI
Radiation effects on humans, illustration. Three types of radiation are shown impacting or passing through a human body. From top, they are: gamma rays, beta particles, and X-rays. Beta particles are a form of ionising radiation and consist of high-energy electrons. They can damage and cause spontaneous mutation in the body's genetic material (DNA) that can cause cancer. Gamma rays and X-rays are forms of electromagnetic radiation, with gamma rays having a shorter wavelength and being more energetic and penetrating than X-rays. X-rays will penetrate soft tissues, but are absorbed by bones. Gamma rays and beta particles are produced by radioactive materials. Exposure to an excessive amount of gamma rays can be lethal. For this illustration with labels, see image C042/4558. For other illustrations on radiation effects, see images C042/4558 to C042/4569.
! EN_01354334_0597 SCI
Radiation effects on humans, illustration. Three types of radiation are shown impacting or passing through a human body. From top, they are: gamma rays, beta particles, and X-rays. Beta particles are a form of ionising radiation and consist of high-energy electrons. They can damage and cause spontaneous mutation in the body's genetic material (DNA) that can cause cancer. Gamma rays and X-rays are forms of electromagnetic radiation, with gamma rays having a shorter wavelength and being more energetic and penetrating than X-rays. X-rays will penetrate soft tissues, but are absorbed by bones. Gamma rays and beta particles are produced by radioactive materials. Exposure to an excessive amount of gamma rays can be lethal. For this illustration without labels, see image C042/4561. For other illustrations on radiation effects, see images C042/4558 to C042/4569.
! EN_01354334_0598 SCI
Radiation effects on humans, illustration. Three types of radiation are shown impacting or passing through a human body. From top, they are: gamma rays, beta particles, and X-rays. Beta particles are a form of ionising radiation and consist of high-energy electrons. They can damage and cause spontaneous mutation in the body's genetic material (DNA) that can cause cancer. Gamma rays and X-rays are forms of electromagnetic radiation, with gamma rays having a shorter wavelength and being more energetic and penetrating than X-rays. X-rays will penetrate soft tissues, but are absorbed by bones. Gamma rays and beta particles are produced by radioactive materials. Exposure to an excessive amount of gamma rays can be lethal. For this illustration with labels, see image C042/4560. For other illustrations on radiation effects, see images C042/4558 to C042/4569.
! EN_01354334_0599 SCI
Radiation effects on humans, illustration. Six types of radiation are shown impacting a human body. From top, they are: gamma rays, beta particles, X-rays, alpha particles, and two forms of ultraviolet radiation (UVB and UVA). Beta particles (electrons) and alpha particles (helium nuclei) are forms of ionising radiation. They can damage and cause spontaneous mutation in the body's genetic material (DNA) that can cause cancer. Gamma rays and X-rays and UV radiation are forms of electromagnetic radiation, with gamma rays having a shorter wavelength and being more energetic and penetrating than X-rays, which are more penetrating than UV radiation. X-rays will penetrate soft tissues, but are absorbed by bones. UVB radiation and alpha particles are absorbed by and damage the upper layer of the skin (shown in inset), while UVA radiation penetrates to deeper levels. Gamma rays and alpha and beta particles are produced by radioactive materials. UV radiation is found in sunlight. High doses of gamma rays can be lethal. For this illustration without labels, see image C042/4563. For other illustrations on radiation effects, see images C042/4558 to C042/4569.
! EN_01354334_0600 SCI
Radiation effects on humans, illustration. Six types of radiation are shown impacting a human body. From top, they are: gamma rays, beta particles, X-rays, alpha particles, and two forms of ultraviolet radiation (UVB and UVA). Beta particles (electrons) and alpha particles (helium nuclei) are forms of ionising radiation. They can damage and cause spontaneous mutation in the body's genetic material (DNA) that can cause cancer. Gamma rays and X-rays and UV radiation are forms of electromagnetic radiation, with gamma rays having a shorter wavelength and being more energetic and penetrating than X-rays, which are more penetrating than UV radiation. X-rays will penetrate soft tissues, but are absorbed by bones. UVB radiation and alpha particles are absorbed by and damage the upper layer of the skin (shown in inset), while UVA radiation penetrates to deeper levels. Gamma rays and alpha and beta particles are produced by radioactive materials. UV radiation is found in sunlight. High doses of gamma rays can be lethal. For this illustration with labels, see image C042/4562. For other illustrations on radiation effects, see images C042/4558 to C042/4569.
! EN_01354334_0601 SCI
Radiation effects on humans, illustration. Six types of radiation are shown impacting a human body. From top, they are: gamma rays, beta particles, X-rays, alpha particles, and two forms of ultraviolet radiation (UVB and UVA). Beta particles (electrons) and alpha particles (helium nuclei) are forms of ionising radiation. They can damage and cause spontaneous mutation in the body's genetic material (DNA) that can cause cancer. Gamma rays and X-rays and UV radiation are forms of electromagnetic radiation, with gamma rays having a shorter wavelength and being more energetic and penetrating than X-rays, which are more penetrating than UV radiation. X-rays will penetrate soft tissues, but are absorbed by bones. UVB radiation and alpha particles are absorbed by and damage the upper layer of the skin (shown in inset), while UVA radiation penetrates to deeper levels. Gamma rays and alpha and beta particles are produced by radioactive materials. UV radiation is found in sunlight. High doses of gamma rays can be lethal. For this illustration without labels, see image C042/4565. For other illustrations on radiation effects, see images C042/4558 to C042/4569.
! EN_01354334_0602 SCI
Radiation effects on humans, illustration. Six types of radiation are shown impacting a human body. From top, they are: gamma rays, beta particles, X-rays, alpha particles, and two forms of ultraviolet radiation (UVB and UVA). Beta particles (electrons) and alpha particles (helium nuclei) are forms of ionising radiation. They can damage and cause spontaneous mutation in the body's genetic material (DNA) that can cause cancer. Gamma rays and X-rays and UV radiation are forms of electromagnetic radiation, with gamma rays having a shorter wavelength and being more energetic and penetrating than X-rays, which are more penetrating than UV radiation. X-rays will penetrate soft tissues, but are absorbed by bones. UVB radiation and alpha particles are absorbed by and damage the upper layer of the skin (shown in inset), while UVA radiation penetrates to deeper levels. Gamma rays and alpha and beta particles are produced by radioactive materials. UV radiation is found in sunlight. High doses of gamma rays can be lethal. For this illustration with labels, see image C042/4564. For other illustrations on radiation effects, see images C042/4558 to C042/4569.
! EN_01354334_0603 SCI
Radiation exposure effects on humans, illustration. Labelled graph showing the effects of increased radiation exposure on humans. Radiation exposure is measured in units called Sieverts. The doses shown here range from 0.2 Sieverts to more than 5 Sieverts. The lowest dose shown here (lower left) causes a drop in white blood cells and reduced immune system function. An exposure of 1 Sievert produces the first signs of radiation sickness. An exposure of 3-4 Sieverts kills half of those exposed within 30 days if left untreated. More than 5 Sieverts is invariably lethal within 30 days. For this illustration with less text, see image C042/4567. For other illustrations on radiation effects, see images C042/4558 to C042/4569.
! EN_01354334_0604 SCI
Radiation exposure effects on humans, illustration. Labelled graph showing the effects of increased radiation exposure on humans. Radiation exposure is measured in units called Sieverts. The doses shown here range from 0.2 Sieverts to more than 5 Sieverts. The lowest dose shown here (lower left) causes a drop in white blood cells and reduced immune system function. An exposure of 1 Sievert produces the first signs of radiation sickness. An exposure of 3-4 Sieverts kills half of those exposed within 30 days if left untreated. More than 5 Sieverts is invariably lethal within 30 days. For this illustration with more text, see image C042/4566. For other illustrations on radiation effects, see images C042/4558 to C042/4569.
! EN_01354334_0605 SCI
Radiation exposure effects on humans, illustration. Labelled graph showing the effects of increased radiation exposure on humans. Radiation exposure is measured in units called Sieverts. The doses shown here range from 0.2 Sieverts to more than 5 Sieverts. The lowest dose shown here (lower left) causes a drop in white blood cells and reduced immune system function. An exposure of 1 Sievert produces the first signs of radiation sickness. An exposure of 3-4 Sieverts kills half of those exposed within 30 days if left untreated. More than 5 Sieverts is invariably lethal within 30 days. For this illustration with less text, see image C042/4569. For other illustrations on radiation effects, see images C042/4558 to C042/4569.
! EN_01354334_0606 SCI
Radiation exposure effects on humans, illustration. Labelled graph showing the effects of increased radiation exposure on humans. Radiation exposure is measured in units called Sieverts. The doses shown here range from 0.2 Sieverts to more than 5 Sieverts. The lowest dose shown here (lower left) causes a drop in white blood cells and reduced immune system function. An exposure of 1 Sievert produces the first signs of radiation sickness. An exposure of 3-4 Sieverts kills half of those exposed within 30 days if left untreated. More than 5 Sieverts is invariably lethal within 30 days. For this illustration with more text, see image C042/4568. For other illustrations on radiation effects, see images C042/4558 to C042/4569.
! EN_01354334_0607 SCI
Big Bang and expanding universe. Illustration showing the universe expanding over time (left to right). Matter formed after the Big Bang (far right, orange), the initial expansion of the universe from an infinitely compact state 13.8 billion years ago. Around 100 million years after the Big Bang, the first stars and galaxies formed. On the largest scale, the galaxies are observed to be moving away from each other. This is due to the expansion of the universe. This is a flattened version of the expansion. For curved versions and a timeline of the history of the universe, see images C042/4571 to C042/4573.
! EN_01354334_0608 SCI
Big Bang and expanding universe. Illustration showing the universe expanding over time (upper left to lower right). Matter formed after the Big Bang (top left, yellow), the initial expansion of the universe from an infinitely compact state 13.8 billion years ago. Around 100 million years after the Big Bang, the first stars and galaxies formed. On the largest scale, the galaxies are observed to be moving away from each other. This is due to the expansion of the universe. This is a curved version of the expansion. For a flattened version and labelled versions of this illustration, see images C042/4570 to C042/4573.

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