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! EN_90247016_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Atomic force microscopy methods. Artwork showing the methods of operation of an atomic force microscope and a graph of the results on different surfaces. Both set-ups use a laser beam (at upper right in each diagram), reflected off a probe on the surface, with a detector (at upper left in each diagram). The method at left involves the probe oscillating as it moves across the surface The method at right involves moving the surface being moved up and down as the probe moves across it. The graph shows how the different methods can image a surface in different ways, ranging from hard (lower left) to soft (upper right).
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! EN_90280576_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Storm waves, chaos model. This artwork was generated using non-linear transformations in the plane. This involved random vertical and horizontal shearing of a blue-green-white layered initial structure. The shearings turned the layers into this chaotic mixture. The same process is seen in distortions of wave fields, such as eddies refracting ocean waves, generating storm waves and rogue waves.
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! EN_90273087_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY *** THIS PICTURE MAY NOT BE USED TO STATE OR IMPLY ESA ENDORSEMENT OF ANY COMPANY OR PRODUCT *** Planck space observatory cooling system at one degree Kelvin, artwork. This unmanned spacecraft, launched on 14 May 2009, is designed to study the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the radiation left over from the Big Bang. To achieve this, the Planck instruments, the Low Frequency Instrument (LFI) and the High Frequency Instrument (HFI), operate at a few degrees above absolute zero. To achieve this, a series of cooling stages are required. The artwork shows the third and last cooling stage, bringing down the temperature of the HFI instruments to around 0.1 Kelvin.
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! EN_90273089_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY *** THIS PICTURE MAY NOT BE USED TO STATE OR IMPLY ESA ENDORSEMENT OF ANY COMPANY OR PRODUCT *** Planck space observatory scanning the sky, artwork. This unmanned spacecraft, launched on 14 May 2009, is designed to study the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the radiation left over from the Big Bang. The spacecraft observes a large circle on the sky as it spins (shown here). As the spin axis follows the Sun, the circle observed by the instruments moves round the sky at a rate of 1 degree per day. Planck will take about 6 months to complete a full scan of the sky, charting two complete sky maps during its expected lifetime (about 15 months).
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! EN_90273089_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY *** THIS PICTURE MAY NOT BE USED TO STATE OR IMPLY ESA ENDORSEMENT OF ANY COMPANY OR PRODUCT *** Planck space observatory scanning the sky, artwork. This unmanned spacecraft, launched on 14 May 2009, is designed to study the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB), the radiation left over from the Big Bang. The spacecraft observes a large circle on the sky as it spins (shown here). As the spin axis follows the Sun, the circle observed by the instruments moves round the sky at a rate of 1 degree per day. Planck will take about 6 months to complete a full scan of the sky, charting two complete sky maps during its expected lifetime (about 15 months).
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! EN_90261232_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Gravity Probe B (GP-B) satellite, computer artwork. The Earth is shown warping a grid of space-time. The GP-B satellite (left) was used to investigate some predictions of Einstein's theory of General Relativity. This theory presents gravity as a warping of space and time. The GP-B used a telescope and four gyroscopes to try to detect both the Earth's warping of space-time, and also the predicted 'drag' on space-time caused by the rotation of the Earth. The satellite was launched in 2004, and the experiment finished in September 2005. The analysis of the results is ongoing, as of 2009, but has so far confirmed the Earth's warping of space-time to an uncertainty of less than 0.5 per cent.
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! EN_90274508_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Pulsar. Diagram showing emission mechanisms from a pulsar. Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars that cast out narrow beams of energy (blue) as they rotate. The beams are confined by extremely strong magnetic fields (orange) that emanate from the star. The spin axis of the star is shown by the vertical line down centre. The image shows competing gamma-ray (white wavy arrows) generation mechanisms: the polar cap model and the slot-gap/outer-gap models. The polar cap model predicts that the gamma rays are emitted from the neutron star's surface close to the polar caps. The slot-gap/outer-gap models predict that the gamma rays are produced far above the star by particles that are accelerated along the arcs of the magnetic field.
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! EN_90284440_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Warped space-time. Artwork showing how a large body such as a star warps space-time (represented by the grid) in its vicinity. The warping is due to the object's gravity. In his General Theory of Relativity, Einstein explained the phenomenon of gravity as a distortion of space-time.
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! EN_90282961_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Tsunami in a dish, conceptual computer artwork. Tsunami are powerful waves caused by a displacement of the ocean floor.
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! EN_90253991_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Cryogenic freezers, computer artwork. These tall, vertical freezers are used to store human bodies after death. The bodies are frozen using liquid nitrogen. The hope is that future medical science may be able to revive the bodies.
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! EN_90256276_0004 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Earth's magnetic field, computer artwork. Abstract representation of the Earth's magnetic field (white lines and glows), with the Earth at centre. The Earth's magnetic field is thought to be generated by the movement of molten iron in the Earth's core and protects Earth from high-energy radiation from the Sun.
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! EN_90258186_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Fire whirl, computer artwork. Also called a fire tornado, this phenomenon can develop above large fires as the heat causes the formation of a vertical vortex of rotating air. Fire whirls usually form over wildfires. Lightning is also seen at left.
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! EN_90256569_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Electrical effect, computer artwork.
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! EN_90256276_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Earth's magnetic field, computer artwork. The white lines represent the magnetic field lines, which extend from the magnetic poles near the North and South poles. The magnetic field is thought to be generated by the movement of molten iron in the Earth's core and protects Earth from high-energy radiation from the Sun.
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! EN_90256276_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Earth's magnetic field, computer artwork. The blue lines represent the magnetic field lines, which extend from the magnetic poles near the North and South poles. The magnetic field, which is thought to be generated by the movement of molten iron in the Earth's core, protects Earth from high-energy radiation from the Sun. The shape of the magnetic field channels charged particles from the Sun towards the poles, where they impact atmospheric gases and cause the aurorae.
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! EN_90256276_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Earth's magnetic field, computer artwork. The blue lines represent the magnetic field lines, which extend from the magnetic poles near the North and South poles. The magnetic field, which is thought to be generated by the movement of molten iron in the Earth's core, protects Earth from high-energy radiation from the Sun. The shape of the magnetic field channels charged particles from the Sun towards the poles, where they impact atmospheric gases and cause the aurorae.
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! EN_90271826_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Parallel universes, conceptual computer artwork. Spheres containing different universes connected by beams of light. This could represent parallel universes connected to each other by wormholes. Wormholes are a possible solution to Einstein's equations that describe the properties of space-time, the continuum of unified space and time.
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! EN_90271826_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Parallel universes, conceptual computer artwork. Spheres containing different universes connected by beams of light. This could represent parallel universes connected to each other by wormholes. Wormholes are a possible solution to Einstein's equations that describe the properties of space-time, the continuum of unified space and time.
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! EN_90285643_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Wormhole. Conceptual computer artwork showing a wormhole leading from one universe (blue) to another (red). Wormholes are a possible solution to Einstein's equations that describe the properties of space-time, the continuum of unified space and time.
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! EN_90262536_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Higgs Boson particle. Computer artwork of a yellow sphere in a circular chamber with light emanating from behind it. This could represent the Higgs Boson particle being discovered in a particle accelerator. The Higgs Boson is an elementary particle predicted by the Standard Model of particle physics. It is the only particle of the Standard Model which is yet to be detected (as of 2009). Particle accelerators are enormous circular tunnels built underground. They are used to accelerate particles towards each other at massive speeds. When the particles collide they break up into smaller particles, revealing their component parts. It is hoped that this process will enable the detection of the Higgs Boson.
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