czwartek, 24 stycznia 2019
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! EN_01354334_0453 SCI
Suspension bridge. Illustration showing the forces present in a suspension bridge. This type of bridge has cables suspended between towers, plus vertical suspender cables (hangers) that carry the weight of the deck, upon which traffic crosses. Any load carried by the bridge is transformed into a tension in the hangers and main cables. The main cables continue beyond the towers to deck-level anchors in the ground. Tension in the cables (red arrows) is transferred to the towers. The resulting compression force in the towers (blue arrows) is transferred into the ground.
! EN_01354334_0454 SCI
Cantilever bridge, illustration. Cantilevers are structures that project horizontally into space and are supported at only one end. A simple cantilever span is formed by two cantilever arms extending from opposite sides of a gap, meeting in the middle. In the example seen here the cantilever arms do not meet in the centre. Instead they support a suspended span or central truss which rests on the ends of the cantilever arms. The load on the bridge (purple arrow) is transferred as tension and compression forces in the structure of the bridge. The red arrows represent tension forces, and blue arrows represent compression forces.
! EN_01354334_0455 SCI
Cantilever bridge, illustration. Cantilevers are structures that project horizontally into space and are supported at only one end. A simple cantilever span is formed by two cantilever arms extending from opposite sides of a gap, meeting in the middle. In the example seen here the cantilever arms do not meet in the centre. Instead they support a suspended span or central truss which rests on the ends of the cantilever arms. The load on the bridge (purple arrow) is transferred as tension and compression forces in the structure of the bridge. The red arrows represent tension forces, and blue arrows represent compression forces.
! EN_01354334_0456 SCI
Truss bridge, illustration. In a truss bridge, the load-bearing structure consists of a truss, a system of connectors usually forming triangular units. The connected elements may be stressed from tension, compression, or sometimes both in response to dynamic loads such as this truck. Blue arrows represent compression forces, red arrows represent tension forces and the purple arrow represents the load.
! EN_01354334_0457 SCI
Truss bridge, illustration. In a truss bridge, the load-bearing structure consists of a truss, a system of connectors usually forming triangular units. The connected elements may be stressed from tension, compression, or sometimes both in response to dynamic loads such as this truck. Blue arrows represent compression forces, red arrows represent tension forces and the purple arrow represents the load.
! EN_01354334_0458 SCI
Equal volumes of different materials, illustration. From left to right are blocks of foam, wood and lead. Although they are the same size, the mass of the blocks increases markedly from left to right, as the materials have different densities. Density is calculated by dividing the mass of an object by its volume.
! EN_01354334_0459 SCI
Equal volumes of different materials, illustration. From left to right are blocks of foam, wood and lead. Although they are the same size, the mass of the blocks increases markedly from left to right, as the materials have different densities. Density is calculated by dividing the mass of an object by its volume.
! EN_01354334_0460 SCI
Measuring the volume of an irregular object, illustration. If an object has an irregular shape, its volume can be measured by submerging it in a eureka can filled with water. The volume of water displaced into the measuring cylinder (right) gives the volume of the submerged object.
! EN_01354334_0461 SCI
Measuring the volume of an irregular object, illustration. If an object has an irregular shape, its volume can be measured by placing it in a eureka can filled with water. The volume of water displaced into the measuring cylinder gives the volume of the submerged object.
! EN_01354334_0462 SCI
Measuring the volume of an irregular object, illustration. If an object has an irregular shape, its volume can be measured by submerging it in a measuring cylinder partly filled with water. The increase in the level of the water indicates the amount of water displaced, and therefore the volume of the submerged object.
! EN_01354334_0463 SCI
Measuring the volume of an irregular object, illustration. If an object has an irregular shape, its volume can be measured by placing it in a measuring cylinder partly filled with water. The increase in the level of the water indicates the amount of water displaced, and therefore the volume of the submerged object.
! EN_01354334_0464 SCI
Measuring the density of an object, illustration. The mass of the object can be determined by placing it on a top-pan balance. If the object has an irregular shape, its volume can be measured by placing it in a measuring cylinder partly filled with water. The increase in the level of the water indicates the amount of water displaced, and therefore the volume of the submerged object. To calculate its density, the object's mass is divided by its volume.
! EN_01354334_0465 SCI
Measuring the density of an object, illustration. The mass of the object can be determined by placing it on a top-pan balance. If the object has an irregular shape, its volume can be measured by placing it in a measuring cylinder partly filled with water. The increase in the level of the water indicates the amount of water displaced, and therefore the volume of the submerged object. To calculate its density, the object's mass is divided by its volume.
! EN_01354334_0466 SCI
Future digital city, illustration. The technology in use here includes flexible computers and digital newspapers, touch screens, electric cars, and image projectors.
! EN_01354334_0467 SCI
Future digital home, illustration. The technology in use here includes shopping applications, image projectors, and landscape windows.
! EN_01354334_0468 SCI
Cyber warfare. Conceptual illustration of an exploding computer screen, with computer code. This image represents forms of cyber warfare and terrorism. These terms are used to describe the use of computers and programs such as computer viruses to carry out attacks on networks of computers. Where systems are heavily dependent on computers, this can cause widespread and large-scale disruption.
! EN_01354334_0469 SCI
Cyber warfare. Conceptual illustration of an aircraft dropping bombs with computer binary code. This image could represent forms of cyber warfare and terrorism, as well as the use of computer-controlled drones to wage war. Cyber warfare includes the use of computers and programs such as computer viruses to carry out attacks on networks of computers. Where systems are heavily dependent on computers, this can cause widespread and large-scale disruption.
! EN_01354334_0470 SCI
V-2 rocket missile and launcher, illustration. This rocket was designed and built at Peenemunde on Germany's Baltic coast during World War II. The rocket was 14 metres in length, carried nearly a tonne of explosive, and could reach a height of 80 kilometres. It was the world's first ballistic missile, and the first to achieve sub-orbital flight. The first successful flight was on 3 October 1942. From September 1944 to March 1945, over 3000 V-2 rockets were launched by Nazi Germany during the war. The work on the V-2 rocket laid the foundations for later work on space flight.
! EN_01354334_0471 SCI
Viet Cong tunnels during Vietnam war, illustration. The Vietnam War took place from 1955 to 1975. It was fought between South Vietnamese forces, supported by the USA and other allies, and the North Vietnamese Viet Cong (the National Liberation Front), supported by China the USSR and other communist countries. The Viet Cong had both guerrilla and regular military units, and also organized and armed peasants in the territory it controlled. Here, US soldiers, using foot soldiers, a tank with flamethrower, and a helicopter, are being fought by Viet Cong forces in an underground network of tunnels. The war was eventually won by North Vietnam.
! EN_01354334_0472 SCI
Mars exploration, illustration. Astronauts using advanced scanning technology and robotic machines to explore Mars. Mars is a rocky desert world with no surface water. Its gravity is about one third of that on Earth. The atmosphere is mostly carbon dioxide and surface temperatures are well below freezing. Martian astronauts will have to breathe their own air supply and wear heated spacesuits. Human missions to explore Mars have been planned since the 1950s, usually involving a period of 10 to 30 years to develop the necessary technology and resources.

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