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! EN_01354334_0433 SCI
Centripetal force, illustration. A hand spins a ball in a circle on the end of a string, demonstrating centripetal force. Centripetal force is a force that makes a body follow a curved path. Newton's First Law states that an object will continue in a state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by a force. In this demonstration the hand exerts a force on the string which pulls the ball towards the centre. This centripetal force prevents the ball from continuing in a straight line. The force required is equal to the product of the ball's mass (m) and the square of its velocity (v), divided by the radius of its path (r).
! EN_01354334_0434 SCI
Centripetal force, illustration. A hand spins a ball in a circle on the end of a string, demonstrating centripetal force. Centripetal force is a force that makes a body follow a curved path. Newton's First Law states that an object will continue in a state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by a force. In this demonstration the hand exerts a force on the string which pulls the ball towards the centre. This centripetal force prevents the ball from continuing in a straight line.
! EN_01354334_0435 SCI
Centripetal force and inertia, illustration. A woman spins a bucket of water on the end of a rope in a circle without spilling the water, demonstrating the balance of centripetal force and inertia. Newton's First Law of Motion states that an object will continue in a state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by a force. In this demonstration the woman exerts a centripetal force on the rope which pulls the bucket towards the centre, preventing it from continuing in a straight line. However the inertia of the water means that it would continue to move in a straight line but for the centripetal force exerted by the bucket, which contains it.
! EN_01354334_0436 SCI
Centripetal force and inertia, illustration. A woman spins a bucket of water on the end of a rope in a circle without spilling the water, demonstrating the balance of centripetal force and inertia. Newton's First Law of Motion states that an object will continue in a state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by a force. In this demonstration the woman exerts a centripetal force on the rope which pulls the bucket towards the centre, preventing it from continuing in a straight line. However the inertia of the water means that it would continue to move in a straight line but for the centripetal force exerted by the bucket, which contains it.
! EN_01354334_0437 SCI
Illustration showing the mechanism of a spin dryer. The motor drives a spinning drum, the walls of which are perforated with holes. Newton's First Law of Motion states that an object will continue in a state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by a force. The inertia of water droplets means that they are propelled straight out of the holes, unlike the clothes which are trapped by the centripetal force exerted by the walls of the drum.
! EN_01354334_0438 SCI
Cars travelling in a circle, illustration. The purple arrow from the car on the left indicates the direction of centrifugal force, which appears to act on the car and its passengers as it circles. It arises from inertia, the tendency of a body to continue in a state of uniform motion in a straight line unless acted on by a force. On the right, centripetal force (green arrow) is the force that makes a body follow a curved path, preventing it from continuing in a straight line, and is directed towards the centre of the circle.
! EN_01354334_0439 SCI
Cars travelling in a circle, illustration. The purple arrow from the car on the left indicates the direction of centrifugal force, which appears to act on the car and its passengers as it circles. It arises from inertia, the tendency of a body to continue in a state of uniform motion in a straight line unless acted on by a force. On the right, Centripetal force (green arrow) is the force that makes a body follow a curved path, preventing it from continuing in a straight line, and is directed towards the centre of the circle.
! EN_01354334_0440 SCI
Centrifugal force, illustration. The purple arrow indicates the direction of centrifugal force, which appears to act on the car and its passengers as it circles. It arises from inertia, the tendency of a body to continue in a state of uniform motion in a straight line unless acted on by a force.
! EN_01354334_0441 SCI
Centrifugal force, illustration. The purple arrow indicates the direction of centrifugal force, which appears to act on the car and its passengers as it circles. It arises from inertia, the tendency of a body to continue in a state of uniform motion in a straight line unless acted on by a force.
! EN_01354334_0442 SCI
Centripetal force, illustration. The green arrow indicates the direction of centripetal force. Newton's First Law of Motion states that an object will continue in a state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by a force. Centripetal force is the force that makes a body follow a curved path, preventing it from continuing in a straight line, and is directed towards the centre of the circle.
! EN_01354334_0443 SCI
Centripetal force, illustration. The green arrow indicates the direction of centripetal force. Newton's First Law of Motion states that an object will continue in a state of rest or uniform motion in a straight line unless acted upon by a force. Centripetal force is the force that makes a body follow a curved path, preventing it from continuing in a straight line, and is directed towards the centre of the circle.
! EN_01354334_0444 SCI
Orbit of the Earth around the Sun, illustration. The Earth orbits the Sun at a distance of about 150 million kilometres, taking just over 365 days to complete one orbit. Like all the other planets the Earth orbits in a counter-clockwise direction when viewed from above (North). In this representation the distances and sizes are not to scale.
! EN_01354334_0445 SCI
Orbit of the Earth around the Sun, illustration. The Earth orbits the Sun at a distance of about 150 million kilometres, taking just over 365 days to complete one orbit. Like all the other planets the Earth orbits in a counter-clockwise direction when viewed from above (North). In this representation the distances and sizes are not to scale.
! EN_01354334_0446 SCI
Orbit of the Earth around the Sun, illustration. The Earth orbits the Sun at a distance of about 150 million kilometres, taking just over 365 days to complete one orbit. Like all the other planets the Earth orbits in a counter-clockwise direction when viewed from above (North). In this representation the distances and sizes are not to scale.
! EN_01354334_0447 SCI
Orbit of the Earth around the Sun, illustration. The Earth orbits the Sun at a distance of about 150 million kilometres, taking just over 365 days to complete one orbit. Like all the other planets the Earth orbits in a counter-clockwise direction when viewed from above (North). In this representation the distances and sizes are not to scale.
! EN_01354334_0448 SCI
Orbit of the Moon around the Earth, illustration. The Moon orbits the Earth at a distance of about 384,400 kilometres, taking just over 27 days to complete one orbit. The Moon orbits in a counter-clockwise direction when viewed from above (North). In this representation the distances and sizes are not to scale.
! EN_01354334_0449 SCI
Orbit of the Moon around the Earth, illustration. The Moon orbits the Earth at a distance of about 384,400 kilometres, taking just over 27 days to complete one orbit. The Moon orbits in a counter-clockwise direction when viewed from above (North). In this representation the distances and sizes are not to scale.
! EN_01354334_0450 SCI
Arch bridge. Illustration showing a vehicle crossing an arch bridge. A red arrow indicates the weight of the vehicle and blue arrows represent the compression forces in the bridge. Arch bridges work by transferring the weight of the bridge and its loads partially into horizontal thrust restrained by the abutments at either end. Stone, brick and similar materials are strong in compression and are traditionally used for arch bridges. Consequently arch bridges are heavy and require extensive foundations.
! EN_01354334_0451 SCI
Arch bridge. Illustration showing a vehicle crossing an arch bridge. A red arrow indicates the weight of the vehicle and blue arrows represent the compression forces in the bridge. Arch bridges work by transferring the weight of the bridge and its loads partially into horizontal thrust restrained by the abutments at either end. Stone, brick and similar materials are strong in compression and are traditionally used for arch bridges. Consequently arch bridges are heavy and require extensive foundations.
! EN_01354334_0452 SCI
Suspension bridge. Illustration showing the forces present in a suspension bridge. This type of bridge has cables suspended between towers, plus vertical suspender cables (hangers) that carry the weight of the deck, upon which traffic crosses. Any load carried by the bridge is transformed into a tension in the hangers and main cables. The main cables continue beyond the towers to deck-level anchors in the ground. Tension in the cables (red arrows) is transferred to the towers. The resulting compression force in the towers (blue arrows) is transferred into the ground.

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