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Astronomia (526)

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! EN_01151355_0052 SCI
Brain anatomy. Artwork of a transverse section through a brain. At centre is the corpus callosum (cream), a bundle of nerve fibres that links the two hemispheres of the brain. Either side of the corpus callosum are the lobes (oval) of the thalamus. The thalamus processes sensory input and relays it to higher parts of the brain. The cream structures to the left of the thalamus are the tails of the caudate nucleus, which, along with other structures, are responsible for voluntary movement.
! EN_01150989_0740 SCI
Massive starbirth region, artwork. Stars forming from a collapsing cloud of hydrogen gas and dust, with filaments spiralling into the core region. This depiction is based on a study of the protostar MM1 at the heart of the dark cloud SDC335.579-0.292. Research from 2013 identified this as the largest starbirth event yet observed in the Milky Way. It is 10,000 light years from Earth in the constellation of Norma. It contains enough material to form stars with the mass of 5500 Suns. The accretion at the centre had a mass of 545 Suns. It is thought that the region will eventually form a large open star cluster.
! EN_01150989_3199 SCI
Reflection nebula (NGC 1999), composite image. This nebula is a large cloud of dust and gas lying around 1500 light years from Earth in the constellation Orion. It does not emit light of its own, but reflects light from the nearby V380 star. It appears blue because short-wavelength blue light is scattered more than red by the dust particles. Just visible as a dark T-shaped cavity within the nebula is an object designated Parsamian 34. Its nature is unclear. The reddish regions are due to areas of emission nebulosity, where the radiation of hot young stars ionises hydrogen gas and causes it to glow. Image data from 8.2 Meter Subaru Telescope (NAOJ), Digitized Sky Survey, and the Hubble Space Telescope.
! EN_01150989_3200 SCI
Reflection nebula (NGC 1999), composite image. This nebula is a large cloud of dust and gas lying around 1500 light years from Earth in the constellation Orion. It does not emit light of its own, but reflects light from the nearby V380 star. It appears blue because short-wavelength blue light is scattered more than red by the dust particles. Visible as a dark T-shaped cavity within the nebula is an object designated Parsamian 34. Originally thought to be a Bok globule (a dense cloud of gas and dust thought to be collapsing into star formation), its nature is now unclear. The reddish regions are due to areas of emission nebulosity, where the radiation of hot young stars ionises hydrogen gas and causes it to glow. Image data from 8.2 Meter Subaru Telescope
! EN_01150989_3627 SCI
Kepler supernova remnant. Chandra X-ray Observatory image of the Kepler supernova remnant, an expanding cloud of glowing gas that formed following a supernova, the explosive death of a large star. Also known as SN 1604, this object is around 13,000 light years from Earth in the constellation Ophiuchus. The supernova occurred in 1604, and was observed by the famous astronomer Johannes Kepler. The energy of the expanding gases is high enough to generate X-rays, colour-coded here as low energy (red), medium energy (yellow/green) and high energy shockwaves on the outer edges (blue).
! EN_01124366_0283 SCI
Nebula NGC 6357. Optical image of part of the nebula and starbirth region NGC 6357. The glowing clouds of gas and dust have been sculpted by ultraviolet radiation and stellar winds from the many hot young stars present. NGC 6357 is around 8000 light years from Earth, in the constellation of Scorpius. This optical image was obtained by the FORS2 (focal reducer and low dispersion spectrograph) sensor on the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope. Image published in 2012.
THIS IMAGE MAY NOT BE USED BY OR TO PROMOTE THE ARMS, NUCLEAR POWER OR TOBACCO INDUSTRIES OR ANY RELIGIOUS ORGANISATION, OR IN ANY DISCRIMINATORY WAY, OR TO IMPLY THE ENDORSEMENT BY ESO OF ANY PRODUCT, SERVICE OR ACTIVITY.
! EN_01124366_0289 SCI
Pencil Nebula. Optical image of the supernova remnant known as the Pencil Nebula (NGC 2736). This region of glowing gas and dust is a small part of a huge remnant left over after a supernova explosion that took place about 11,000 years ago. It is around 800 light years distant, in the constellation of Vela. This image was obtained by the Wide Field Imager (WFI) sensor on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope. Image published in 2012.
THIS IMAGE MAY NOT BE USED BY OR TO PROMOTE THE ARMS, NUCLEAR POWER OR TOBACCO INDUSTRIES OR ANY RELIGIOUS ORGANISATION, OR IN ANY DISCRIMINATORY WAY, OR TO IMPLY THE ENDORSEMENT BY ESO OF ANY PRODUCT, SERVICE OR ACTIVITY.
! EN_01124366_0290 SCI
Planetary nebula IC 5148, optical image. This shell of gas was thrown off from a dying star. It has a diameter of a couple of light years and is still growing at over 50 kilometres per second. It is one of the fastest expanding planetary nebulae known. The central star, which will cool to become a white dwarf, is seen at centre. IC 5148 is around 3000 light years away in the constellation of Grus. This image was obtained by the ESO Faint Object Spectrograph and Camera (EFOSC2) sensor on the New Technology Telescope at La Silla, Chile. Image published in 2012.
THIS IMAGE MAY NOT BE USED BY OR TO PROMOTE THE ARMS, NUCLEAR POWER OR TOBACCO INDUSTRIES OR ANY RELIGIOUS ORGANISATION, OR IN ANY DISCRIMINATORY WAY, OR TO IMPLY THE ENDORSEMENT BY ESO OF ANY PRODUCT, SERVICE OR ACTIVITY.
! EN_01124366_0293 SCI
Stellar carbon monoxide, ALMA radio telescope image. This ALMA image shows the region where carbon monoxide snow (CO, green) has formed around the star TW Hydrae (180 light years distant in the constellation of Hydra). The CO begins at a distance of more than 30 astronomical units from TW Hydrae. It is an essential component of planetary and comet formation, as well as for the the creation of methanol, a fundamental building block required for life. ALMA (the Atacama Large Millimeter-submillimeter Array) is an array of 66 radio telescopes in Chile's Atacama desert. The images are combined by interferometry. Image published in 2013.
THIS IMAGE MAY NOT BE USED BY OR TO PROMOTE THE ARMS, NUCLEAR POWER OR TOBACCO INDUSTRIES OR ANY RELIGIOUS ORGANISATION, OR IN ANY DISCRIMINATORY WAY, OR TO IMPLY THE ENDORSEMENT BY ESO OF ANY PRODUCT, SERVICE OR ACTIVITY.
! EN_01124366_0294 SCI
Galactic carbon monoxide, ALMA radio telescope image. Three-dimensional visualisation of ALMA observations of cold carbon monoxide gas in the starburst galaxy NGC 253 (Sculptor Galaxy, 11 million light years distant). The colours represent the intensity of the emission detected by ALMA, with pink being the strongest and red the weakest. Large amounts of cool gas are being ejected from the central parts of this galaxy. This will make it more difficult for the next generation of stars to form. ALMA (the Atacama Large Millimeter-submillimeter Array) is an array of 66 radio telescopes in Chile's Atacama desert. Image published in 2013.
THIS IMAGE MAY NOT BE USED BY OR TO PROMOTE THE ARMS, NUCLEAR POWER OR TOBACCO INDUSTRIES OR ANY RELIGIOUS ORGANISATION, OR IN ANY DISCRIMINATORY WAY, OR TO IMPLY THE ENDORSEMENT BY ESO OF ANY PRODUCT, SERVICE OR ACTIVITY.
! EN_01099312_2099 SCI
Meteorites approaching Earth, computer artwork. It is thought that primitive life may have been brought to Earth on meteorites that crashed into the planets surface.
! EN_01099312_2325 SCI
Discovery of supernova 1993J. X-ray telescope images of the central region of the galaxy M81 in October 1992 (left) and April 1993 (right), showing the appearance of the supernova SN 1993J (arrowed, lower right). A supernova is the explosive death of a large star. This supernova was discovered on 28 March 1993 by Spanish amateur astronomer Francisco Garcia Diaz. SN 1993J is around 11 million light years distant, in the constellation Ursa Major. The discovery was followed by other observations, including these images obtained with the PSPC sensors on the ROSAT satellite X-ray telescope. The scale bar (left) shows an angular distance of one arcminute.
! EN_01099312_2326 SCI
*** THIS PICTURE MAY NOT BE USED TO STATE OR IMPLY THE ENDORSEMENT BY NRAO, AUI OR NSF OF ANY COMPANY OR PRODUCT *** Evolution of supernova 1993J. Radio telescope observations of the expanding shell formed by supernova SN 1993J between May 1993 (top left) and February 2000 (bottom right). During the explosive death of a large star, the outer layers are propelled outwards as the collapsing core rebounds. This supernova was discovered on 28 March 1993. It is around 11 million light years distant, in the constellation Ursa Major. Its relative closeness allows observation by radio interferometry with arrays such as the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA). The expansion has decelerated from 16,000 to 10,000 kilometres per second.
*** THIS PICTURE MAY NOT BE USED TO STATE OR IMPLY THE ENDORSEMENT BY NRAO, AUI OR NSF OF ANY COMPANY OR PRODUCT ***
! EN_01099312_2411 SCI
Supermassive black hole. Artwork of an accretion disc of infalling material (orange) and a high-energy particle jet (blue) associated with a supermassive black hole at the centre of a galaxy. Black holes are formed when matter collapses to densities where gravity prevents light escaping. Supermassive ones can contain the mass of billions of stars. X-rays from the base of the jet illuminates the accretion disc, allowing studies such as those carried out by NASA's NuSTAR mission (Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array). This allows calculations of the rate of rotation within the accretion disc, and the rate of spin of the black hole. Image published in 2013.
! EN_01084902_0117 SCI
Planet destroyed by white dwarf. Artwork of the white dwarf star GD 362 pulling apart a planet. The debris is being incorporated into Saturn-like rings. A white dwarf is a collapsed remnant of a star after it has run out of nuclear fuel and expanded into a red giant. This star is located around 150 lights years from Earth, in the constellation of Hercules. An account of the research supporting this scenario was published in 2009.
! EN_01084902_0118 SCI
Planet destroyed by white dwarf. Artwork of the white dwarf star GD 362 pulling apart a planet. The debris is being incorporated into Saturn-like rings. A white dwarf is a collapsed remnant of a star after it has run out of nuclear fuel and expanded into a red giant. This star is located around 150 lights years from Earth, in the constellation of Hercules. An account of the research supporting this scenario was published in 2009.
! EN_01084902_0129 SCI
W33A protostar accretion disc. Artwork of the accretion disc (yellow-orange), the outer torus (cloudy, dusty ring), and polar outflow jets (blue) within the nebulae of the stellar nursery surrounding the W33A protostar. It has a mass more than ten times that of the Sun. W33A is 12,000 light years from Earth, in the constellation of Sagittarius. Artwork and research published in 2010.
! EN_01084902_6778 SCI
Optical image of the Horsehead nebula (IC 434) in the constellation Orion. The smaller, more orange Flame nebula (NGC 2024) is at lower left. These nebulae are part of the Orion nebula complex, an enormous starbirth region some 1500 light years from Earth.
! EN_01151355_0439 SCI
17th Century astronomers. Historical allegorical engraving of astronomers, from Oculus artificialis teledioptricus sive telescopium, by Johann Zahn, Germany, 1685. Extract from Weltall und Menscheit (Universe and Humanity), by Hans Kraemer (ca. 1880).
EN_00961178_6401 AFL
Digital Image of Earth and Moon in Space

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