czwartek, 24 stycznia 2019
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Astronomia (526)

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! EN_01312545_0229 SCI
Menopause vaginal effects. Illustration of the effects of the menopause on the vagina, showing the vagina, uterus and ovaries before (left) and after (right) the menopause and estrogen loss. The menopause is a series of changes in hormone production that mark the end of female fertility. This illustration shows the effect of a decrease in the production of the hormone estrogen by the ovaries, leading to a woman's menstrual periods ceasing. The effects on the vagina shown here are: the lining goes from thick and moist to thin and dry; the vaginal wall becomes less elastic; less fluids are secreted during sex; and the vagina narrows and shortens. For this image with text labels, see C038/4747.
! EN_01309398_0068 SCI
Black hole. Illustration of a black hole, an object that forms when the core of a sufficiently massive star collapses under its own weight. This increases its gravitational field to the point where, beyond a boundary known as the event horizon, nothing, not even light, can escape.
! EN_01309398_0069 SCI
Black hole. Illustration of a black hole, an object that forms when the core of a sufficiently massive star collapses under its own weight. This increases its gravitational field to the point where, beyond a boundary known as the event horizon, nothing, not even light, can escape.
! EN_01309398_0528 SCI
Evolution of the interior of Mercury. (1) Global melting of the planet and separation of a metallic core (orange-yellow) and a silicate magma ocean; (2) Cooling of the planet, crystallization of the solid inner core (formation of Fe-snow) and formation of a thin FeS layer (yellow) at the core-mantle boundary, crystallization of the magma ocean producing the primordial mantle and a graphite floatation crust. (3) Partial melting of the solidified mantle, production of the secondary crust by lavas flows and synchronous cratering of the surface. (4) Termination of major volcanism, global planetary contraction (contraction faults at the surface).
! EN_01163426_0007 SCI
Antennae Galaxies (NGC 4038 and NGC 4039), combined ALMA (red and yellow) and HST (blue) image. ALMA (Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array) is an array of 66 radio telescopes in Chile's Atacama desert that combines data by interferometry. HST is the Hubble Space Telescope. Test ALMA observations, begun in 2011, included this pair of colliding spiral galaxies located 70 million light years away in the constellation of Corvus. This view was obtained with only 12 antennas, using ALMA bands 3 and 7, detecting carbon monoxide in molecular clouds where stars are forming. As more of the array is used, image quality will improve. For ALMA test images, see C011/9913-15.
This image may not be used by or to promote the arms, nuclear power or tobacco industries or any religious organisation, or in any discriminatory way, or to imply the endorsement by ESO of any product, service or activity
! EN_01163428_0001 SCI
Monkey Head Nebula. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of pillars of glowing gas and dark dust in the Monkey Head Nebula (NGC 2174). The pillars are created by high velocity winds blowing outwards from hot young stars within the nebula. The Monkey Head Nebula is located in the constellation of Orion, 6,400 light years from Earth. Data obtained by the Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 on the HST.
! EN_01163428_0002 SCI
Lagoon Nebula. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of a close-up of the centre of the Lagoon Nebula (M8, NGC 6523). Strong winds from the hot young stars within the nebula are sculpting the clouds of gas and dust. The Lagoon Nebula is located in the constellation Sagittarius, 4100 light years from Earth. Data obtained by the Advanced Camera for Surveys on the HST.
! EN_01163428_0010 SCI
Nebula Sh 2-106, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image. Combined optical and infrared image of the compact star-forming region and emission nebula Sharpless 2-106 (Sh 2-106). A newly-formed star (S106 IR, centre) is heating the surrounding nebula, causing hydrogen to glow (blue). The polar jets from this star create the observed bipolar symmetry. This region is 3300 light years from Earth, in the constellation of Cygnus. Image data obtained with the HST's Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instrument. Image published in 2011.
! EN_01163428_0011 SCI
Tarantula Nebula (30 Doradus). Combined optical and infrared image of the large star-forming region known as the Tarantula Nebula. This nebula is is 170,000 light years from Earth, in the constellation of Dorado. It is part of the Large Magellanic Cloud, a small satellite galaxy of our Milky Way. Image data obtained with the Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) and Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3) instruments of the Hubble Space Telescope (HST). Glowing hydrogen and oxygen are revealed by observations made with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the ground-based MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope. Image published in 2012.
! EN_01163428_0023 SCI
^BCone Nebula. ^b Optical image of the dark Cone Nebula taken by the new Hubble Space Telescope Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS) on April 2nd 2002. The Cone Nebula is a dense, dark pillar of gas and dust seen silhouetted against part of the bright red emission nebula NGC 2264. The tip of the pillar is illuminated by hot young stars (out of frame at top). Radiation from these stars heats the cool gas of the nebula, releasing it into surrounding space. There it is ionised by ultraviolet light, causing it to glow red. The Cone Nebula lies around 2500 light years from Earth in the constellation Monoceros.
! EN_01163428_0024 SCI
^BNebula in M17^b, Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image. This is a close-up of a region 3 light years wide in the Omega Nebula (M17). M17 is also called the Swan Nebula. A cloud (nebula) of hydrogen gas and dust covers the lower right half of the image. It is heated by nearby young, massive stars (not seen). Hot gases (blue) spread out from the warm surface (orange). The colours correspond to light emitted by hydrogen (green), sulphur (red) and oxygen (blue). The Omega Nebula, about 5500 light years away, is in the constellation Sagittarius. Image acquired from 29-30 May 1999, using the HST's Wide Field Planetary Camera 2 (WFPC2).
! EN_01163428_0025 SCI
^BOrion nebula.^b Coloured composite infrared and visible light image of the Orion nebula M42. This emission nebula, a cloud of gas and dust in which starbirth takes place, is found in the constellation Orion, some 1500 light years from Earth. Glowing clouds of ionised hydrogen and sulphur gases are green, and cool clouds of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons are orange and red. The gases are ionised by radiation from the four young Trapezium stars at the core (centre left). The small orange dots are embryonic stars, growing as they accumulate dust and gas. M42's neighbour, the M43 nebula, can also be seen (pale blue, top left). Infrared data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, visible light data from the Hubble Space Telescope.
! EN_01163428_0026 SCI
^BEta Carinae.^b False colour Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image showing the gas and dust clouds around the giant star Eta Carinae. The smallest features seen here are about 15 billion kilometres across - the size of the Solar System. The gas and dust around the star came from a gigantic outburst observed about 150 years ago. The dust is seen in the two giant pink lobes of material. Closer to the star (centre), there is little dust so blue wavelengths of light are seen. Eta Carinae is about 100 times more massive than the Sun, and is located some 8000 light years from Earth.
! EN_01163428_0027 SCI
^BEta Carinae nebula.^b Coloured Hubble Space Telescope (HST) image of part of the Eta Carinae nebula. This large pillar of cold hydrogen gas and dust is the site of star birth. The narrow pillar (pointing towards top left) alone measures one light year in length. Two stellar jets, or Herbig- Haro objects (white streaks) are seen bursting from the cloud. The ultraviolet radiation in these jets, which are formed by the young hot stars, is slowly eroding the pillar. The Eta Carinae Nebula is around 10,000 light years from Earth in the constellation of Carina. Image taken using Hubble's Advanced Camera for Surveys.
! EN_01163428_0028 SCI
^BGas pillars in the Eagle Nebula.^b Hubble Space Telescope image showing dark pillars of dense molecular hydrogen and dust in the Eagle Nebula (M16). Ultraviolet light from young stars (out of frame) evaporates gas from the 1 light-year long pillars, creating the blue halo-like effect. The small protrusions on the pillars contain globules of even denser gas which are embryonic stars; these have been dubbed Evaporating Gaseous Globules, or EGGs. The evaporation of the pillar limits the amount of gas and dust which these embryonic stars can gather. The Eagle Nebula is about 7000 light years from Earth.
! EN_01163428_0032 SCI
R700/0129 STI Ant planetary nebula Ant nebula. Hubble Space Telescope image of the Ant nebula (Menzel 3 or Mz3). This is a planetary nebula, an expanding cloud of glowing gas expelled by a dying Sun-like star (centre) at its heart. The bipolar nature of the shells of gas (seen to the left and right of the star) are unusual. They may be due to the presence of a closely orbiting companion star. The expelled gas glows due to ionisation by radiation from the star. The Ant nebula lies around 3000 light years from Earth. The name planetary nebula is misleading and arose because of the resemblance between these objects and planets through early telescopes. NASA/ESA/STSCI/HUBBLE HERITAGE TEAM/ SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY planetary nebula,explosion,star death,astrophysics,stellar evolution,hubble space telescope,menzel 3, mz3,gas ejection,ejecting,bipolar,emission,astronomy, cosmology, science,stellar, star death, nebula, 13-Jul-01
! EN_01163426_0020 SCI
Galactic carbon monoxide, ALMA radio telescope image. Three-dimensional visualisation of ALMA observations of cold carbon monoxide gas in the starburst galaxy NGC 253 (Sculptor Galaxy, 11 million light years distant). The colours represent the intensity of the emission detected by ALMA, with pink being the strongest and red the weakest. Large amounts of cool gas are being ejected from the central parts of this galaxy. This will make it more difficult for the next generation of stars to form. ALMA (the Atacama Large Millimeter-submillimeter Array) is an array of 66 radio telescopes in Chile's Atacama desert. Image published in 2013.
! EN_01150989_6425 SCI
Composite image of the Omega Nebula (M17, NGC 6618) in the constellation of Sagittarius. 5000 light years away, M17 is a HII region - a cloud of interstellar dust and gas, mainly hydrogen, which is ionised and lit up by young, hot stars situated in the brightest region of the nebula. Image data from 8.2 Meter Subaru Telescope (NAOJ) and the Hubble Space Telescope.
! EN_01150989_6807 SCI
Superbubble DEM L50. Composite image of the superbubble DEM L50 (or N186), which is located in the Large Magellanic Cloud, around 160,000 light years from Earth. Superbubbles are found in regions where massive stars have formed in the last few million years. The massive stars produce intense radiation, expel matter at high speeds and race through their evolution to explode as supernovas. The winds and supernova shock waves carve out huge cavities called superbubbles in the surrounding gas. Imaged by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory (pink) with optical data from the Magellanic Cloud Emission Line Survey (MCELS, red, green and blue) from the University of Michigan's 0.9-meter Curtis Schmidt telescope at Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory
! EN_01150989_9248 SCI
The Rosette Nebula (NGC 2237- 2239) above the William Herschel Telescope (WHT), La Palma, Canary Islands. About 2600 light years away, the Rosette Nebula is a giant cloud of dust and hydrogen some 100 light years across. It is ionised and lit up by the open cluster of young, hot stars (NGC 2244) at its centre. The William Herschel telescope stands at an altitude of about 2300 metres. It was commissioned in 1987 and is run by the Royal Greenwich Observatory as part of the Isaac Newton Group (ING) of telescopes.


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