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Astronomia (526)

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! EN_01354334_0623 SCI
Cosmological constant theory of dark energy, illustration. Dark energy is a relatively unknown quantity that is thought to be driving the universe's expansion. Here, it is shown as a constant, originating from empty space (inset at left) and exerting an outwards force. At right is a depiction of the universe originating in the Big Bang and expanding over time (straight arrow) as the galaxies formed. The curved arrows indicate an accelerating expansion forever. An alternative theory of dark matter is known as quintessence (see images C042/4588 to C042/4591). For this illustration without labels, see image C042/4587.
! EN_01354334_0624 SCI
Cosmological constant theory of dark energy, illustration. Dark energy is a relatively unknown quantity that is thought to be driving the universe's expansion. Here, it is shown as a constant, originating from empty space (inset at left) and exerting an outwards force. At right is a depiction of the universe originating in the Big Bang and expanding over time (straight arrow) as the galaxies formed. The curved arrows indicate an accelerating expansion forever. An alternative theory of dark matter is known as quintessence (see images C042/4588 to C042/4591). For this illustration with labels, see image C042/4586.
! EN_01354334_0625 SCI
Quintessence theory of dark energy, illustration. Dark energy is a relatively unknown quantity that is thought to be driving the universe's expansion. Here, it is shown as a variable field (inset at left) that can change over time. At right is a depiction of the universe originating in the Big Bang and expanding over time (straight arrow) as the galaxies formed. The curved arrows indicate an accelerating expansion (as dark energy increases) towards what is known as the Big Rip. If dark energy decreases, the result will be the reversal of the expansion (shown here), ending in what is called the Big Crunch. An alternative theory of dark matter is known as the cosmological constant (see images C042/4584 to C042/4587). For this illustration without labels, see image C042/4589.
! EN_01354334_0626 SCI
Quintessence theory of dark energy, illustration. Dark energy is a relatively unknown quantity that is thought to be driving the universe's expansion. Here, it is shown as a variable field (inset at left) that can change over time. At right is a depiction of the universe originating in the Big Bang and expanding over time (straight arrow) as the galaxies formed. The curved arrows indicate an accelerating expansion (as dark energy increases) towards what is known as the Big Rip. If dark energy decreases, the result will be the reversal of the expansion (shown here), ending in what is called the Big Crunch. An alternative theory of dark matter is known as the cosmological constant (see images C042/4584 to C042/4587). For this illustration with labels, see image C042/4588.
! EN_01354334_0627 SCI
Quintessence theory of dark energy, illustration. Dark energy is a relatively unknown quantity that is thought to be driving the universe's expansion. Here, it is shown as a variable field (inset at left) that can change over time. At right is a depiction of the universe originating in the Big Bang and expanding over time (straight arrow) as the galaxies formed. The curved arrows indicate an accelerating expansion (as dark energy increases) towards what is known as the Big Rip. If dark energy decreases, the result will be the reversal of the expansion (shown here), ending in what is called the Big Crunch. An alternative theory of dark matter is known as the cosmological constant (see images C042/4584 to C042/4587). For this illustration without labels, see image C042/4591.
! EN_01354334_0628 SCI
Quintessence theory of dark energy, illustration. Dark energy is a relatively unknown quantity that is thought to be driving the universe's expansion. Here, it is shown as a variable field (inset at left) that can change over time. At right is a depiction of the universe originating in the Big Bang and expanding over time (straight arrow) as the galaxies formed. The curved arrows indicate an accelerating expansion (as dark energy increases) towards what is known as the Big Rip. If dark energy decreases, the result will be the reversal of the expansion (shown here), ending in what is called the Big Crunch. An alternative theory of dark matter is known as the cosmological constant (see images C042/4584 to C042/4587). For this illustration with labels, see image C042/4590.
! EN_01326834_0393 SCI
High-mass X-ray binary system with jets, illustration. This binary system consists of a massive star (blue, right) and a black hole (centre left). Matter spirals from the massive star toward the black hole, forming an accretion disk (multi-coloured). The matter is heated to temperatures of million of degrees, and intense electromagnetic forces in the disk expel jets of high-energy matter (white). The jets are moving at 26 percent of the speed of light. In this system the jets are slowly wobbling, or precessing, around a fixed axis. The system shown here is SS 433, in the constellation of Aquila, around 16,000 light years from Earth. Image published in 2004.
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! EN_01326834_0396 SCI
Cygnus X-1 black hole, illustration. Cygnus X-1 is located near large active regions of star formation in the Milky Way. This illustration depicts what astronomers think is happening within the Cygnus X-1 system. Cygnus X-1 is a so-called stellar-mass black hole, a class of black holes that comes from the collapse of a massive star. The black hole (left) pulls material from a massive, blue companion star (right) toward it. This material forms a disk (red and orange) that rotates around the black hole before falling into it or being redirected away from the black hole in the form of powerful jets. Cygnus X-1 is around 6000 light years from Earth, in the constellation of Cygnus. Image published in 2011.
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! EN_01326834_0397 SCI
GRB 140903A gamma-ray burst, illustration. This event is the aftermath of a neutron star merger, producing a gamma-ray burst (GRB). At centre is a compact object, either a black hole or a massive neutron star, with an accretion disc (red) of material left over from the merger. Energy from this in-falling material drives the GRB jet (yellow). A wind of particles (orange) is blowing away from the disc, while material ejected (blue) from the compact object is expanding at very high speeds of about one tenth the speed of light. This GRB, observed by the Chandra X-ray Observatory, is in a galaxy about 3.9 billion light years from Earth, in the constellation Corona Borealis. Image published in 2016.
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! EN_01326834_0398 SCI
Supermassive black hole destroying star, illustration. Located at the centre of a galaxy, this supermassive black hole (upper right) is shown destroying and absorbing a star. The star is shown intact at top left. As it gets too close to the intense gravitational pull of the black hole, it is first stretched (lower left) and then torn apart (lower right) by tidal forces. The resulting cloud of stellar material forms an accretion ring around the black hole (upper right). This ring heats up (white) and produces electromagnetic radiation, including ultraviolet rays, before merging with the black hole. This event was observed in the ultraviolet region of the spectrum by NASA's Galaxy Evolution Explorer. Image published in 2006.
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! EN_01326834_0399 SCI
Recoiling supermassive black hole, illustration. Supermassive black hole (upper right) that is in motion (recoiling) away from the galaxy in which it formed. This example is named CXO J101527.2+625911, and is about 3.9 billion light years distant, in the constellation of Ursa Major. It is thought to contain about 160 million solar masses, and have formed and been set in motion by the collision of two smaller black holes. The merger would have generated an imbalance of gravitational waves that would cause the observed motion. This supermassive black hole was observed with the Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes in 2008. This image was published in 2017.
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! EN_01326834_0400 SCI
Black hole X-ray flares, illustration. The glowing material and radiation around this massive black hole are the result of a star approaching too close. The star has been torn apart by tidal forces, and the stellar material has formed into a smooth, hot disk (centre) glowing brightly in X-rays. As the disk forms, its central region heats up tremendously, which drives a flow of material, called a wind (blue areas), away from the disk. Relativistic jets moving at high speeds are also produced. This X-ray flaring can last for a few years after a star is destroyed by a black hole. This illustration is based on the observations of tidal disruption event ASASSN-14li in 2014. The event occurred in galaxy PGC 043234, around 290 million light years from Earth, in the constellation of Coma Berenices. This image was published in 2015.
! EN_01326834_0072 SCI
This image may not be used by or to promote the arms, nuclear power or tobacco industries or any religious organisation, or in any discriminatory way, or to imply the endorsement by ESO of any product, service or activity LL Pegasi binary star system. Composite optical and radio image combining data from the HST and ALMA telescopes. LL Pegasi is an old star that is continuously losing gaseous material as it evolves into a planetary nebula. The spiral shape seen here is the imprint made by the two stars orbiting within this gas. The resulting pinwheel-shaped nebula is known as IRAS 23166+1655. LL Pegasi is a Mira variable star. It is around 4250 light years from Earth, in the constellation of Pegasus. The optical data is from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST)'s Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS. The radio data is from band 6 of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA). Image published in 2017.
! EN_01326834_0073 SCI
Red giant star ejecting shell of gas. Hubble Space Telescope (HST) optical image of the red giant star U Camelopardalis, surrounded by a shell of gas it has ejected. This ejecting of a shell of gas occurs every few thousand years as the star begins to run out of fuel and fuse helium in the outer layers of its core. This star (which is also a carbon star) is around 1500 light years from Earth, in the constellation of Camelopardalis. This image was obtained with the High Resolution Channel of the HST's Advanced Camera for Surveys (ACS). Image published in 2012.
! EN_01324252_0016 SCI
Massive neutron star, illustration. This super-dense astronomical object is the remains of a massive star that has collapsed under its own gravity. The nuclear reactions that prevented its gravitational collapse have ceased. The mass is sufficiently great to overcome the repulsion between protons and electrons that holds open ordinary matter. Only a quantum mechanical effect (neutron degeneracy) prevents total collapse. The star is as dense as an atomic nucleus, having a mass of up to three times that of the Sun despite being only around 10 kilometres across. Neutron stars have powerful magnetic fields. Jets of radiation are shown here at the star's magnetic poles.
! EN_01324252_0017 SCI
Internal structure of a neutron star, illustration. This super-dense astronomical object is the remains of a massive star that has collapsed under its own gravity. The nuclear reactions that prevented its gravitational collapse have ceased. The mass is sufficiently great to overcome the repulsion between protons and electrons that holds open ordinary matter. Only a quantum mechanical effect (neutron degeneracy) prevents total collapse. The star is as dense as an atomic nucleus, having a mass of up to three times that of the Sun despite being only around 10 kilometres across. The photosphere (blue) conceals crusts (light brown) of electrons and atomic nuclei. Free neutrons form a superfluid (pink-red). The solid core (dark red) exceeds nuclear densities. Neutron stars have powerful magnetic fields. Jets of radiation are shown here at the star's magnetic poles.
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! EN_01320297_0287 SCI
Artwork of a white dwarf star destroying a planet. White dwarfs are the end-point of stellar evolution for stars like the Sun. As a sun-like star runs out of hydrogen in its core, the core contracts while the star's outer layers are jettisoned. The core is exposed to the cosmos, as a white dwarf. Astronomers have found that some white dwarfs have atmospheres that are very rich in heavy elements. These can only be explained by rocky planets falling into the star and polluting its atmosphere.
! EN_01312545_0226 SCI
Menopause vaginal effects. Illustration of the effects of the menopause on the vagina, showing the vagina, uterus and ovaries before (left) and after (right) the menopause and estrogen loss. The menopause is a series of changes in hormone production that mark the end of female fertility. This illustration shows the effect of a decrease in the production of the hormone estrogen by the ovaries, leading to a woman's menstrual periods ceasing. The effects on the vagina listed here are: the lining goes from thick and moist to thin and dry; the vaginal wall becomes less elastic; less fluids are secreted during sex; and the vagina narrows and shortens. For this image without text labels, see C038/4746.
! EN_01312545_0227 SCI
Menopause vaginal effects. Illustration of the effects of the menopause on the vagina, showing the vagina, uterus and ovaries before (left) and after (right) the menopause and estrogen loss. The menopause is a series of changes in hormone production that mark the end of female fertility. This illustration shows the effect of a decrease in the production of the hormone estrogen by the ovaries, leading to a woman's menstrual periods ceasing. The effects on the vagina shown here are: the lining goes from thick and moist to thin and dry; the vaginal wall becomes less elastic; less fluids are secreted during sex; and the vagina narrows and shortens. For this image with text labels, see C038/4745.
! EN_01312545_0228 SCI
Menopause vaginal effects. Illustration of the effects of the menopause on the vagina, showing the vagina, uterus and ovaries before (left) and after (right) the menopause and estrogen loss. The menopause is a series of changes in hormone production that mark the end of female fertility. This illustration shows the effect of a decrease in the production of the hormone estrogen by the ovaries, leading to a woman's menstrual periods ceasing. The effects on the vagina listed here are: the lining goes from thick and moist to thin and dry; the vaginal wall becomes less elastic; less fluids are secreted during sex; and the vagina narrows and shortens. For this image without text labels, see C038/4748.

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