poniedziałek, 23 lipca 2018
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Biologia (bakteria, wirus) (474)

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! EN_90199797_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Influenza virus protein spikes. Computer artwork of part of the surface of a virus particle of the influenza (flu) virus. These spikes (formed by the surface proteins) allow the virus to attach to its host cell. Influenza belongs to the orthomyxovirus group of viruses. It contains a core of RNA (ribonucleic acid) genetic material inside a protein coat. Influenza is an infection of the respiratory tract. It causes fever, aching muscles, a sore throat and weakness. New strains of the virus develop rapidly, and can cause epidemics.
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! EN_90199797_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Influenza virus protein spikes. Computer artwork of part of the surface of a virus particle of the influenza (flu) virus. These spikes (formed by the surface proteins) allow the virus to attach to its host cell. Influenza belongs to the orthomyxovirus group of viruses. It contains a core of RNA (ribonucleic acid) genetic material inside a protein coat. Influenza is an infection of the respiratory tract. It causes fever, aching muscles, a sore throat and weakness. New strains of the virus develop rapidly, and can cause epidemics.
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! EN_90198742_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Herpes virus. Computer artwork of herpes virus particles (virions). Each virus consists of a DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) genome (red) surrounded by an icosahedral capsid (protein coat), which is itself surrounded by an envelope (green) covered in glycoprotein spikes (grey). Members of the herpes virus family include several that infect humans: herpes simplex viruses type 1 and type 2 (oral and genital herpes), varicella- zoster virus (chicken pox and shingles), Epstein- Barr virus (glandular fever) and cytomegalovirus (various infections).
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! EN_90240812_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Trichomonas parasites. Computer artwork of the parasitic protozoa Trichomonas vaginalis. These single-celled organisms have flagella (thread like appendages) that they move in a whip-like fashion to propel themselves. T. vaginalis infects the urogenital tract of both men and women. In men infection is symptomless, but in women it causes vaginitis, the inflammation of the vagina with a foul discharge.
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! EN_90188884_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Avian and human flu viruses combining. Computer artwork of avian influenza virus particles (green and light blue, H5N1 strain) and human influenza virus particles (dark blue and pink) infecting a cell (lower right). Viruses replicate by using the genetic replication machinery in the nucleus of a host cell. The genetic material from each virus is shown entering the nucleus (bottom right corner, purple surface). The genetic information may mix and form a new virus (red and yellow, lower left). This new virus might be able to spread from human to human, unlike the avian flu virus. There would be no resistance to this new strain, and a deadly pandemic would result. The H5N1 strain was first found in humans in South-East Asia in 1997.
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! EN_90188884_0004 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Avian and human flu viruses combining. Computer artwork of avian influenza virus particles (green and light blue, H5N1 strain) and human influenza virus particles (dark blue and pink). If these infect a cell at the same time, they may combine (mixing their genetic information) to produce a new flu virus strain (red and yellow). This new virus might be able to spread from human to human, unlike the avian flu virus. There would be no resistance to this new strain, and a deadly pandemic would result. The H5N1 strain was first found in humans in South-East Asia in 1997. Swans, seen in background, are an example of wild birds that can carry the H5N1 strain.
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! EN_90188884_0005 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Avian and human flu viruses combining. Computer artwork of avian influenza virus particles (green and light blue, H5N1 strain) and human influenza virus particles (dark blue and pink). If these infect a cell at the same time, they may combine (mixing their genetic information) to produce a new flu virus strain (red and yellow). This new virus might be able to spread from human to human, unlike the avian flu virus. There would be no resistance to this new strain, and a deadly pandemic would result. The H5N1 strain was first found in humans in South-East Asia in 1997. Swans, seen in background, are an example of wild birds that can carry the H5N1 strain.
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! EN_90188884_0006 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Avian and human flu viruses combining. Computer artwork of avian influenza virus particles (green and light blue, H5N1 strain) and human influenza virus particles (dark blue and pink). If these infect a cell at the same time, they may combine (mixing their genetic information) to produce a new flu virus strain (red and yellow). This new virus might be able to spread from human to human, unlike the avian flu virus. There would be no resistance to this new strain, and a deadly pandemic would result. The H5N1 strain was first found in humans in South-East Asia in 1997. Swans, seen in background, are an example of wild birds that can carry the H5N1 strain.
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! EN_90188891_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Avian flu virus particles, computer artwork. The H5N1 strain of avian flu first appeared in humans in Southeast Asia in 1997. Between 2003 and 2005 it killed over 60 people. It is contracted through close contact with infected birds, although it cannot be transmitted between humans in the air, in the way that human influenza can. There are fears that it may mutate into a form that can be spread between humans, which could cause millions of deaths worldwide. Research is underway to try to develop a vaccine and treatments in case of a pandemic.
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! EN_90199252_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Human papilloma viruses. Computer artwork of human papilloma virus (HPV) virions (particles). This virus consists of a protein capsid enclosing DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid), the virus' genetic material. Attached to the capsid are numerous surface proteins (spikes). HPV causes warts, which mostly occur on the hands and feet. Certain strains also infect the genitals. Although most warts are non-malignant (non-cancerous) some strains of HPV have been associated with cancers, especially cervical cancer.
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! EN_90240812_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Trichomonas parasites. Computer artwork of the parasitic protozoa Trichomonas vaginalis. These single-celled organisms have flagella (thread like appendages) that they move in a whip-like fashion to propel themselves. T. vaginalis infects the urogenital tract of both men and women. In men infection is symptomless, but in women it causes vaginitis, the inflammation of the vagina with a foul discharge.
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! EN_90233170_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Osteocyte, artwork. An osteocyte is an osteoblast (bone-producing cell) that has become trapped within a bone cavity (lacuna). Osteocytes produce and secrete the organic matrix of the bone (osteoid). Long thin processes (red) extend from the cell into small channels within the bone and connect to other osteocytes. Within the cell are the organelles. The nucleus (dark pink) contains the cell's genetic information. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER, pink lines) produces, modifies and transports proteins. The Golgi apparatus (orange) also modifies proteins, as well as packing them into vesicles for transport out of the cell. The mitochondria (oval, pink) provide the cell with energy.
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! EN_90239502_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Tapeworms, computer artwork. Adult tapeworms (Taenia sp.) are parasites that inhabit the intestines of animals and humans. Different species of tapeworms have different animals as their intermediate and final hosts. The hooks and suckers (round) at the tip of the scolex (head) are used to anchor the worms to their host's intestinal lining. They do not possess a digestive tract and so absorb nutrients from the half-digested food of the host through their skin.
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! EN_90285750_0005 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Yeast cells, computer artwork. Yeasts are single- cell fungi. Some yeasts have industrial uses, for example in brewing and baking, others are human pathogens, for example thrush is caused by the yeast Candida albicans.
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! EN_90249411_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Budding yeast cell. Computer artwork of a section through a yeast (Candida albicans) cell that is reproducing asexually. A daughter cell (top left) is budding from the parent cell. A mitochondrion (red) and other cellular components are moving into the daughter cell along cytoskeletal filaments (yellow). Mitochondria produce the cell's energy, while the cytoskeleton gives it its shape. The nucleus (purple) contains the cell's genetic information. Inside the nucleus is the nucleolus (round), which synthesises ribosomal ribonucleic acid (RNA). The outer surface of the cell wall is covered with fimbriae, which attach the cell to other cells and aid movement. C. albicans causes the disease thrush.
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! EN_90186771_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Viral DNA research. Artwork of an enveloped virus behind a test tube containing a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA). The virus consists of genetic material (DNA) inside an icosahedral protein coat (nucleocapsid), enveloped by other proteins. Viruses contain DNA or RNA (ribonucleic acid), never both. DNA consists of two strands (red and blue) twisted into a double helix. Between the two strands are nucleotide bases. DNA contains sections called genes, which encode an organism's genetic information.
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! EN_90268455_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Microbes. Conceptual computer artwork of microbes under a light microscope.
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! EN_90262300_0016 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Helicobacter pylori bacteria. Computer artwork of Helicobacter pylori bacteria (green) in the stomach. Formerly known as Campylobacter pyloridis, these are Gram-negative spiral-shaped bacteria. They are motile, possessing extensions, called flagella, that they use to propel themselves. H. pylori are found in the mucus lining of the stomach. They cause gastritis and are also the most common cause of stomach ulcers. H. pylori may also be a cause or co-factor for gastric cancer as its presence increases the risk of developing stomach tumours.
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! EN_90269540_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Multiresistant bacterim, computer artwork. Bacterium with antibiotic resistance due to genetic mutations. This bacterium is resistant to several antibiotics and is known informally as a superbug.
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! EN_90280687_0005 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Streptococcus bacteria. Computer artwork of chains of Streptococcus pneumoniae bacteria. This Gram- positive oval-shaped bacterium is one of the causes of pneumonia. Although found living harmlessly in the body, S. pneumoniae can cause dangerous opportunistic infections of the lungs, often as a complication of another disease when the victim's immunity is compromised. Treatment is with antibiotics.
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