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Biologia (bakteria, wirus) (389)

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! EN_90199428_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Basic illustration showing a Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) particle, the causative agent of AIDS, binding to a CD4 receptor (green) on its host cell, a T-lymphocyte. The AIDS virus particle is spherical, about 100 nanometres in diameter. The particle is covered by a membrane (white), made up of two layers of lipid (fatty material) derived from the outer membrane of the host cell. Studding the membrane are glycoproteins, each divided into 2 components: gp41 (blue) spans the membrane and gp120 (brown) extends beyond it. The membrane/protein envelope covers a core (red) containing viral genetic material in the form of RNA (yellow).
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! EN_90219250_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Computer graphic representation of part of the haemoglobin molecule, the oxygen-carrying substance of human blood, showing its four polypeptide (protein) chains. The protein component of haemoglobin combines with four haem groups (iron-containing porphyrin substances), shown here in green & red. Haemoglobin has the ability to combine reversibly with oxygen, taking it up in the lungs and releasing it through the tissues. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are literally packed with haemoglobin, containing only very small amounts of other substances.
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! EN_90225344_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Computer graphic representation of the haemoglobin molecule, the oxygen-carrying substance of human blood. The roughly tubular features (in orange and blue) are polypeptide (protein) chains, of which there are four in two identical pairs. The protein component combines with four discs (in red) which contain the iron pigment, haem. Red blood cells (erythrocytes) are literally packed with haemoglobin, containing only very small amounts of other substances.
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! EN_90197864_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Illustration of a model for the basic structure of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the causative agent of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The spherical viral membrane (yellow) is studded with glycoprotein (green) and HLA antigens (red). Inside, a protein core shell (grey) surrounds the central, conical ribonucleic protein core. The core contains the vital genetic information for the replication of the virus in form of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and the enzyme reverse transcriptase (both shown in red) that transcribes the viral RNA into DNA for the purpose of subverting the host cell's genetic material. Purple/pink background.
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! EN_90199476_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Illustration of a model for the basic structure of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the causative agent of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). The spherical viral membrane (yellow) is studded with glycoprotein (green) and HLA antigens (red). Inside, a protein core shell (grey) surrounds the central, conical ribonucleic protein core. The core contains the vital genetic information for the replication of the virus in form of RNA (ribonucleic acid) and the enzyme reverse transcriptase (both shown in red) that transcribes the viral RNA into DNA for the purpose of subverting the host cell's genetic material. Dark & light blue background.
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! EN_90202529_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Illustration of a model for the basic structure of the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), the causative agent of AIDS (Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome). A map of the world showing regions with a high incidence of AIDS in yellow is superimposed over the protein core shell. The spherical viral membrane (orange) is studded with glycoprotein (green) and HLA antigens (red). The core contains the vital genetic information for the replication of the virus in form of RNA and the enzyme reverse transcriptase that transcribes the viral RNA into DNA for the purpose of subverting the host cell's genetic material. Purple & pink background.
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! EN_90246684_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Cutaway illustration of the internal structure of a typical bacterial cell. The bacterial cell wall (orange & brown) overlies the cytoplasmic membrane (white). Hair- like flagella cover the surface of the cell wall; their whip-like action enables the bacterium to move through its environment. Inside the cytoplasm, the nucleus is represented by the red coiled mass at left. Ribosomes (blue) are involved in the assembly of proteins. The formation of a cytoplasmic inclusion body is shown at top.
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! EN_90219246_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Computer graphics space-filling representation of the haem group of the protein haemoglobin, the oxygen- and carbon dioxide-transporting pigment in blood. The site of interraction between oxygen or carbon dioxide and haemoglobin is an atom of iron (the central purple sphere), held in the centre of a perfectly flat porphyrin ring. The flat shape of the porphyrin allows oxygen and carbon dioxide access to the central iron atom to bind, be carried and ultimately be released without undergoing any chemical change. Image modelled using Chemical Design's Chem-X software.
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! EN_90219242_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Computer graphics model of the protein haemoglobin, the oxygen-transporting pigment in blood. The site of interraction between oxygen and haemoglobin is an atom of Iron (Fe++ - yellow ball), which is held in the centre of a haem ring (represented by the green balls). The protein environment and the geometry of atoms surrounding the Iron atom permits oxygen to be bound, carried and ultimately given up without having been oxidised or otherwise changed chemically. The image was produced using Chemical Design's Chem-X software.
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