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Biologia (bakteria, wirus) (389)

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EN_00958165_5512 PHO
Illustration of a multipolar neuron, a type of neuron that possesses a single axon and many dendrites. This allows for the integration of a great deal of information from other neurons. Multipolar neurons constitute the majority of neurons in the brain and include motor neurons and interneurons.
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Diagram showing structure and size of a typical Rabies virus (Rhabdovirus), causing Vesicular stomatitis and certain plant virus diseases.
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Illustration of the concept of biological organization.
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An ' stylized depiction of a retrovirus, consisting of a geomic nucleic acid, RNA or DNA (here RNA, in violet), and surrounded by capsid proteins (orange-yellow), surrounded by a glycoprotein envelope. Examples of retroviruses are the flu virus, the AIDS virus, and the SARS virus (depicted here). Viruses can only reproduce by invading and taking over other cells, as they lack the cellular machinery for self-reproduction.
EN_90125281_0028 BSI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/BSIP This scanning electron micrograph (SEM) revealed some of the ultrastructural morphologic features of a Klebsiella pneumoniae bacterium. K. pneumoniae is a non-motile, Gram-negative rod, and a facultative anaerobe, which means that it is able to adapt to an existence in an oxygenated or deoxygenated environment. It is an encapsulated bacterium that is commonly found in the human digestive tract, and is often the cause of hospital acquired, or nosocomial infections involving the urinary and pulmonary systems.
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PHOTO: EAST NEWS/BSIP This electron micrograph reveals a number of RNA rotavirus virions, and a number of unknown, 29nm virion particles. A rotavirus has a characteristic wheel-like appearance when viewed by electron microscopy, i.e., rotavirus is derived from the Latin rota, meaning "wheel". Rotaviruses are nonenveloped, double-shelled viruses, making the virus stable in the environment.
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PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Influenza virus structure. 3D computer artwork showing the structure of a generic influenza virion. A portion of the virion's protein coat (capsid) has been cut away, revealing its core ribonucleic acid proteins (RNP, green). The surface proteins (blue, hemagglutinin [H]; and red, neuraminidase [N]), are shown, as well as ion channels (blue, round). These structures are identified in a key at right. Influenza A viruses are divided into subtypes based on the surface proteins. In the spring of 2009, a new influenza A (H1N1) virus caused an influenza pandemic. This artwork is not specific to a particular seasonal, avian or 2009 H1N1 virus.
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! EN_90281363_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY T-bacteriophages on E.coli. Artwork of T-bacteriophage virions attacking Escherichia coli bacteria (brown). Each virion has a protein head (orange) containing DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) genetic material and a contractile tail (shaft) with tail fibres (pink). The virion at bottom right is injecting its viral DNA into the E. coli cell. Once within the cell, the DNA will take over, effectively turning the bacterium into a virus-making machine.
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! EN_90270084_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY New flu virus strain. Computer artwork of avian (blue) and human (pink) influenza viruses infecting a human cell and combining to form a new and potentially more lethal strain (yellow).
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! EN_90261459_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Grey mould fungal spores, computer artwork. Grey mould (Botrytis cinerea) is a fungal disease also known as 'Botrytis bunch rot' in horticulture. It is caused by either consistant wet, humid conditions, or by dry conditions following wet weather. The mould's asexual spores, known as 'conidia' are dispersed by wind and rain. Grey mould affects many plants, in particular strawberries, which are inedible once infected.
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! EN_90261459_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Grey mould fungal spores, computer artwork. Grey mould (Botrytis cinerea) is a fungal disease also known as 'Botrytis bunch rot' in horticulture. It is caused by either consistant wet, humid conditions, or by dry conditions following wet weather. The mould's asexual spores, known as 'conidia' are dispersed by wind and rain. Grey mould affects many plants, in particular strawberries, which are inedible once infected.
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! EN_90276901_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY SARS virus and chicken, computer artwork. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an often fatal lung disease that first appeared in China in 2002. The SARS virus is a coronavirus (spheres), with the protrusions being surface proteins that aid the infection process. Birds, such as chickens, are one of the natural reservoirs for this virus. Spread of the virus from birds to humans is one way that a new SARS epidemic outbreak might take place.
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! EN_90276903_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY SARS virus, conceptual computer artwork. Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) is an often fatal lung disease that first appeared in China in 2002. The SARS virus is a coronavirus, and here is represented as rows of 'space invaders' attacking a chicken (bottom). Birds, such as chickens, are one of the natural reservoirs for this virus. Spread of the virus from birds to humans is one way that a new SARS epidemic outbreak might take place.
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! EN_90280357_0004 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Stem cells, computer artwork. A stem cell is an undifferentiated cell that can produce other types of cell when it divides. Medical researchers believe that eventually it will be possible to manufacture new tissues and organs from stem cells. There are three main types of mammalian stem cell: embryonic stem cells, derived from blastocysts; adult stem cells, which are found in adult tissues; and cord blood stem cells, which are found in the umbilical cord.
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! EN_90280357_0005 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Stem cells, computer artwork. A stem cell is an undifferentiated cell that can produce other types of cell when it divides. Medical researchers believe that eventually it will be possible to manufacture new tissues and organs from stem cells. There are three main types of mammalian stem cell: embryonic stem cells, derived from blastocysts; adult stem cells, which are found in adult tissues; and cord blood stem cells, which are found in the umbilical cord.
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! EN_90276047_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Rod-shaped bacterium, computer artwork. Typical rod-shaped bacteria (bacilli) are Escherichia coli and Salmonella bacteria, but there are many others. This bacterium has flagella (hair-like structures), which enable it to move.
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! EN_90276047_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Rod-shaped bacterium, computer artwork. Typical rod-shaped bacteria (bacilli) are Escherichia coli and Salmonella bacteria, but there are many others. This bacterium has flagella (hair-like structures), which enable it to move.
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! EN_90276047_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Rod-shaped bacterium, computer artwork. Typical rod-shaped bacteria (bacilli) are Escherichia coli and Salmonella bacteria, but there are many others. This bacterium has flagella (hair-like structures), which enable it to move.
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! EN_90261627_0006 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY H1N1 flu virus particles. Computer artwork of H1N1 influenza (flu) A virus particles (virions). In each particle's lipid envelope are two types of protein spike, haemagglutinin (H, tri-lobed spikes) and neuraminidase (N, squares), which determine the strain of virus. These are used for recognising and binding to the host cell.
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! EN_90275477_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Retrovirus replication. Computer artwork showing a retrovirus (brown) replicating. The virus attaches itself to its host cell's (blue) membrane and injects its RNA (ribonucleic acid) genome and the enzyme reverse transcriptase into the cell. Reverse transcriptase transcribes the RNA to DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid, red), which can then integrate into the host cell's DNA (grey). The virus hijacks the cell's nuclear machinery, causing it to produce viral RNA molecules and proteins. The proteins and RNA assemble into new viruses and then leave the cell.
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