poniedziałek, 18 grudnia 2017
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Wszechświat/Planety (319)

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! EN_90273098_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Planetary interiors compared, artwork. These cutaway artworks show the internal layers of the four inner terrestrial (rocky) planets of the solar system, as well as Earth's Moon. From left to right, from closest to the Sun, they are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, the Moon, and Mars. In all five examples, the heat and pressure increase with depth, turning the rocky materials molten. Earth is unique in that it has a strong magnetic field thought to be caused by motions in its liquid iron core. The relative size of the segments correspond to the relative sizes of the planets and the Moon.
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! EN_90273098_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Planetary interiors compared, artwork. These cutaway artworks show the internal layers of the four inner terrestrial (rocky) planets of the solar system, as well as Earth's Moon. From left to right, from closest to the Sun, they are: Mercury, Venus, Earth, the Moon, and Mars. In all five examples, the heat and pressure increase with depth, turning the rocky materials molten. Earth is unique in that it has a strong magnetic field thought to be caused by motions in its liquid iron core. The relative size of the segments correspond to the relative sizes of the planets and the Moon.
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! EN_90279498_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Solar system planetary orbits. Artwork of the planets of the solar system and their orbits. This oblique angle looks inwards from the orbit of the sixth planet Saturn (lower left). The next planet towards the Sun is Jupiter (lower right). The asteroid belt between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter is shown as a light blue band. Inside the asteroid belt are the planets of the inner solar system: Mars, Earth, Venus and Mercury. In the background are the two outer planets, Uranus (top centre) and Neptune (upper right).
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! EN_90285962_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Young star cluster. Artwork of a young star cluster seen from near a planet (lower right, green) orbiting the brightest star (centre right). The dark area left of centre is an area of interstellar dust and gas (a nebula) measuring several light-years from top to bottom. Young star clusters are groups of stars recently formed from a nebula like the one shown here.
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! EN_90271254_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Origin of the Moon. Computer artwork showing the Moon (centre right) forming from a ring of debris orbiting the Earth. It is thought that this ring of debris was caused by a Mars-sized body impacting with the Earth. An impact such as this would have caused a huge amount of debris to be ejected into space.
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! EN_90279499_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Solar system planets. Computer artwork showing the relative position and size of the eight planets of the solar system and Pluto. From left to right in order of distance from the Sun (left): Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. Pluto was re-categorised as a Dwarf planet in 2006. Between Mars and Jupiter is the Asteroid belt, the Kuiper belt can be seen at far right.
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! EN_90279499_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Solar system planets. Computer artwork showing the relative position and size of the eight planets of the solar system and Pluto. From left to right in order of distance from the Sun (left): Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto. Pluto was re-categorised as a Dwarf planet in 2006. Between Mars and Jupiter is the Asteroid belt, the Kuiper belt can be seen at far right.
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! EN_90273085_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY *** THIS PICTURE MAY NOT BE USED TO STATE OR IMPLY ESA ENDORSEMENT OF ANY COMPANY OR PRODUCT *** Planck and Herschel launch configuration, artwork. These two missions were launched into space on 14 May 2009 by an Ariane 5 rocket. The spacecraft are seen inside the rocket's upper stage. Once in space, the covering (or faring) will separate, revealing the spacecraft inside. First Herschel (top), and then Planck (bottom), will separate from the rocket and travel away from Earth to carry out their missions. Herschel will collect infrared radiation from some of the coolest and most distant objects in the Universe. Planck will study the Cosmic Microwave Background, the radiation left over from the Big Bang.
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! EN_90273091_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY *** THIS PICTURE MAY NOT BE USED TO STATE OR IMPLY ESA ENDORSEMENT OF ANY COMPANY OR PRODUCT *** Planck space observatory. Artwork of the European Space Agency's Planck space observatory. This unmanned spacecraft, measuring 4.2 metres by 4.2 metres, was launched on 14 May 2009. It will travel to the second Lagrangian point (L2), situated about 1.5 million kilometres from Earth in the direction opposite to the Sun. The aim of the mission is to study the Cosmic Microwave Background, the radiation left over from the Big Bang.
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! EN_90273091_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY *** THIS PICTURE MAY NOT BE USED TO STATE OR IMPLY ESA ENDORSEMENT OF ANY COMPANY OR PRODUCT *** Planck space observatory, with the Earth in the background, artwork. This unmanned spacecraft was launched from Earth on 14 May 2009. It then began travelling to the second Lagrangian point (L2), situated about 1.5 million kilometres from Earth in the direction opposite to the Sun (lower left). The aim of the mission is to study the Cosmic Microwave Background, the radiation left over from the Big Bang. Planck will take around 6 months to arrive at its destination, and will then spend 15 months surveying the sky.
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! EN_90283522_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY *** THIS PICTURE MAY NOT BE USED TO STATE OR IMPLY ESA ENDORSEMENT OF ANY COMPANY OR PRODUCT *** Universe timeline, artwork. Following the Big Bang (lower left), the temperature of the universe was about 1 thousand million degrees Kelvin. As the universe expanded and cooled matter began to form and recombine. Recombination was complete about 380,000 years after the Big Bang. Stars and galaxies (centre) formed in a pattern determined by the original variations in temperature shown by the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB, second image from left). Earth is at right. Missions such as the Planck space observatory are designed to study the CMB to reveal the early history of the universe.
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! EN_90263595_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Hypernova stage. Cutaway artwork showing one of the stages in the explosion of a massive star, known as a hypernova. A hypernova is a long-lived supernova, also known as a pair-instability supernova. This stage shows the outward radiation pressure balancing the inward gravitational force (arrows), preventing the star from collapsing. This type of supernova blasts the entire star into the surrounding space, unlike ordinary supernovas that leave a neutron star or black hole. This artwork and sequence (C002/3781 to C002/3785) are based on supernova SN2006GY.
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! EN_90263595_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Hypernova stage. Cutaway artwork showing one of the stages in the explosion of a massive star, known as a hypernova. A hypernova is a long-lived supernova, also known as a pair-instability supernova. This stage shows a close-up of the star's super-heated core at the critical point when electron-positron matter-antimatter pairs form, as opposed to the gamma rays formed in cooler, less massive stars. The outwards radiation pressure is now less than the gravitational force inwards (arrows) and the star collapses. The resulting supernova blasts the entire star into surrounding space, unlike ordinary supernovas that leave a neutron star or black hole. This artwork and sequence (C002/3781 to C002/3785) are based on supernova SN2006GY.
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! EN_90263595_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Hypernova stage. Cutaway artwork showing one of the stages in the explosion of a massive star, known as a hypernova. A hypernova is a long-lived supernova, also known as a pair-instability supernova. This stage shows the star's outer layers collapsing inwards under gravity (arrows), as the pair-instability that has formed in the core leads to the outward radiation pressure decreasing. The resulting supernova blasts the entire star into the surrounding space, unlike ordinary supernovas that leave a neutron star or black hole. This artwork and sequence (C002/3781 to C002/3785) are based on supernova SN2006GY.
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! EN_90263595_0004 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Hypernova stage. Cutaway artwork showing one of the stages in the explosion of a massive star, known as a hypernova. A hypernova is a long-lived supernova, also known as a pair-instability supernova. In this stage, the collapse has started and the compressed core has reached extremely high temperatures, initiating a runaway thermonuclear reaction, producing heavy metals like nickel and iron. The runaway reaction blasts the entire star (arrows) into the surrounding space, unlike ordinary supernovas that leave a neutron star or black hole. This artwork and sequence (C002/3781 to C002/3785) are based on supernova SN2006GY.
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! EN_90261657_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Habitable alien planet. Computer artwork of an Earth-like alien planet (upper centre). A planet's orbit and its size have to fit within a narrow range in order to have a surface temperature suitable for liquid water, and to retain an atmosphere. The number of other habitable planets in the Milky Way is not known, but has been estimated at anything between 1 (just Earth) and as many as 10 billion.
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! EN_90264057_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Inner solar system planets, computer artwork. The four planets of the inner solar system are seen orbiting the Sun. The orbits of the planets, and the Moon, are shown as blue lines. Distances and sizes are not to scale. The planets, in order from the Sun are: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Here, Mercury and Venus have collided, a possibility as the orbits of the inner planets are not stable. The bright band in the background is the Milky Way, our Sun's galaxy.
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! EN_90261633_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY HD 98800 planetary system, artwork. The artwork is based on observations made in infrared with the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST). There are four stars in this system, paired off into two doublets or binaries. One set is in the background at upper right. The other pair (foreground) has a dust disc around it, from which planets might form. There are two bands in the disc, the inner one at the Sun-Mars distance, and the other at the Sun-Jupiter distance. HD 98800, which is some 10 million years old, is 150 light years from Earth, in the constellation of Hydra.
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! EN_90273099_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Planetary system formation, artwork. This diagram is based on the planetary disc NGC 1333-IRAS 4B, which was observed in infrared by the Spitzer Space Telescope (SST). The diagram shows the central star surrounded by a protoplanetary disc (light blue). This is an early stage, where the surrounding nebula (dark blue) is still collapsing onto the newly formed star and disc. As frozen water from the nebula impacts the disc, it vaporises and this change can be seen in the infrared region of the spectrum. This signal can only be seen if the orientation allows observations through a 'window' in the nebula (clear cones at top and bottom) formed by radiation from the young star (see also image C001/1967).
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! EN_90248105_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Beta Pictoris planetary disc, artwork. Two planets are shown as insets, with an Earth-like planet above a Venus-like one. In the main picture, a protoplanetary disc has formed around the star Beta Pictoris (upper centre). Several planets have already formed, such as the gas giant at lower left. Ring-shaped empty areas are seen in the disc, formed by the passage of protoplanets in their orbits as they gather up surrounding material. At centre right, large asteroids are colliding with a rocky planet. Two comets are seen near the central Beta Pictoris star. The Beta Pictoris system is around 63 light years from Earth, in the constellation Pictor.
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