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EN_00958297_0951 PHO
Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Mercury. Geologists estimate that Mercury's core occupies about 42% of its volume; in comparison, for Earth this proportion is 17%. Recent research suggests that Mercury has a molten core with a mantle of silicates, 500-700 km thick, surrounding it. Mercury's crust is believed to be 100-300 km thick based on data gathered from earth based observation, and the mariner 10 mission.
EN_00958297_0952 PHO
Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Mercury. Geologists estimate that Mercury's core occupies about 42% of its volume; in comparison, for Earth this proportion is 17%. Recent research suggests that Mercury has a molten core with a mantle of silicates, 500-700 km thick, surrounding it. Mercury's crust is believed to be 100-300 km thick based on data gathered from earth based observation, and the mariner 10 mission.
EN_00958297_0953 PHO
Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Venus. It's core consists of rock and ice composed of iron, nickel and silicates. It's mantle is equivalent to 10 to 15 Earth masses and is rich in water, ammonia and methane. The crust atmosphere consists of hydrogen, helium and methane gas.
EN_00958297_0954 PHO
Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Venus. It's core consists of rock and ice composed of iron, nickel and silicates. It's mantle is equivalent to 10 to 15 Earth masses and is rich in water, ammonia and methane. The crust atmosphere consists of hydrogen, helium and methane gas.
EN_00958297_0957 PHO
Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Saturn. There is no direct information about Saturn's internal structure, although, it is thought to have a similar interior to Jupiter, having a small rocky core surrounded mostly by hydrogen and helium. The rocky core is similar in composition to the Earth, but denser. Above the core there is thought to be a thicker liquid metallic hydrogen layer, with a layer of liquid hydrogen and helium above that, and a gaseous atmosphere in the outermost 1000 km.
EN_00958297_0958 PHO
Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Saturn. There is no direct information about Saturn's internal structure, although, it is thought to have a similar interior to Jupiter, having a small rocky core surrounded mostly by hydrogen and helium. The rocky core is similar in composition to the Earth, but denser. Above the core there is thought to be a thicker liquid metallic hydrogen layer, with a layer of liquid hydrogen and helium above that, and a gaseous atmosphere in the outermost 1000 km.
EN_00958297_0959 PHO
Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Uranus. The standard model of Uranus's structure is that it consists of three layers: a rocky core in the center, an icy mantle in the middle and an outer gaseous hydrogen/helium envelope. The rocky core of Uranus is relatively small, with a mass of 0.55 Earth masses and a radius less than 20 percent of Uranus's; the mantle is about 13.4 Earth masses, and comprises the bulk of the planet; the upper atmosphere weighs only that of 0.5 Earth masses and extends for the last 20 percent of Uranus's radius.
EN_00958297_0960 PHO
Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Uranus. The standard model of Uranus's structure is that it consists of three layers: a rocky core in the center, an icy mantle in the middle and an outer gaseous hydrogen/helium envelope. The rocky core of Uranus is relatively small, with a mass of 0.55 Earth masses and a radius less than 20 percent of Uranus's; the mantle is about 13.4 Earth masses, and comprises the bulk of the planet; the upper atmosphere weighs only that of 0.5 Earth masses and extends for the last 20 percent of Uranus's radius.
EN_00958297_0961 PHO
Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Venus. At the center of Venus is a primarily solid iron core, which underlies a thick mantle made mainly of silicate minerals. On top of this is a very thin crust, which is only around 30 kilometers thick (compared to a maximum of around 70 kilometers for Earth's crust). Venus also has a thick, acidic atmosphere, which traps the heat of the Sun (a runaway green house effect). This makes Venus the hottest planet in the solar system, with surface temperatures reaching over 400 degrees Celsius.
EN_00958297_0962 PHO
Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Venus. At the center of Venus is a primarily solid iron core, which underlies a thick mantle made mainly of silicate minerals. On top of this is a very thin crust, which is only around 30 kilometers thick (compared to a maximum of around 70 kilometers for Earth's crust). Venus also has a thick, acidic atmosphere, which traps the heat of the Sun (a runaway green house effect). This makes Venus the hottest planet in the solar system, with surface temperatures reaching over 400 degrees Celsius.
! EN_90020640_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Calendar of the Universe, computer illustration. The Universe is estimated to be about 14 billion years old. This diagram presents the history of the Universe compressed into a single year, showing the relative timing of major events. It illustrates that the origin of complex life on Earth is relatively recent on a cosmological scale with the first animals not appearing until December 10. On this timescale, the whole history of human civilization is equivalent to the final minute of the year.
! EN_90020237_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Mars. Artwork of the planet Mars seen from space. Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun, and it is a rocky desert world. Its diameter is around half Earth's, and the surface area is about the same as Earth's land surface area. It has a thin carbon dioxide atmosphere, which forms ice (white) at the poles (South Pole at upper left). There are large canyons, volcanoes and craters on Mars. The orange colour is due to the iron oxides in the rocks. The dark area is the Syrtis Major highland. This view shows the eastern hemisphere of Mars.
! EN_90020236_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Mars. Artwork of the planet Mars seen from space. Mars is the fourth planet from the Sun, and it is a rocky desert world. Its diameter is around half Earth's, and the surface area is about the same as Earth's land surface area. It has a thin carbon dioxide atmosphere, which forms ice (white) at the poles (South Pole at upper left). There are large canyons, volcanoes and craters on Mars. The orange colour is due to the iron oxides in the rocks. The dark area is the Syrtis Major highland. This view shows the eastern hemisphere of Mars.
! EN_90020221_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Pulsar. Computer illustration of a pulsar showing its emission mechanism. Pulsars are rapidly rotating neutron stars which cast out narrow beams of energy (blue) as they rotate. The beams are confined by extremely strong magnetic fields (green). Any pulsar whose beam chances to cross Earth will appear to be flashing like a lighthouse, with regular pulses of energy sweeping across Earth. Pulsars rotate extremely fast, with periods ranging from hundredths of seconds to a few seconds. The pulse is visible from radio to X- ray wavelengths. Pulsars are formed in supernova explosions, and are composed of the star's collapsed core at the density of nuclear matter.
EN_90124633_0060 BSI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/BSIP Le mirage gravitationnel. Repr??sentation du mirage gravitationnel. Ou comment expliquer que l'image d'une galaxie observ??e de la terre est d??form??e par un amas de galaxies situ?? entre les deux.
! EN_90264906_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Kepler space telescope field of view. Star map showing the region of the Milky Way galaxy that is being viewed by the Kepler Space Telescope. This region covers the constellations of Cygnus and Lyra. The central square boxes represent the field of view of the Kepler Space Telescope and contains over 100,000 stars. Kepler was launched on March 7th, 2009, and will orbit the Sun for at least 3.5 years. It is designed to discover Earth-like planets orbiting other stars by measuring the tiny dip in brightness that occurs as a planet transits in front of its parent star.
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! EN_90280750_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Internal structure of Jupiter, cutaway computer artwork. The Earth is at lower right at the same scale. Jupiter is the largest planet in the solar system. It is a gas giant, but the name is slightly misleading. It has a core of solid rock and ice (brown), then a thick layer liquid metallic hydrogen (orange) and a layer of liquid hydrogen (green), which underlies the gaseous atmosphere.
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! EN_90280947_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Solar structure, cutaway computer artwork. At the sun's core (white) hydrogen atoms undergo nuclear fusion, producing helium atoms and releasing heat and light energy as photons. These radiate outwards through the inner region (radiative zone, yellow) to the outer convection zone layer (orange and yellow). Here, solar plasma rises in thermal columns to the visible surface (photosphere). Intense magnetic fields on the surface of the sun inhibit convection, causing some areas to have lower temperatures than others (sunspots, dark spots). These also cause solar prominences (loops), where charged gas is drawn across areas of opposite polarity.
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! EN_90279477_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Solar flare. Computer artwork of a large solar flare (orange lines) directed towards the Earth. A solar flare is an explosion in the Sun's atmosphere that causes a large increase in levels of dangerous radiation and charged particles. Many of these particles are deflected by the Earth's magnetic field (grey lines), but strong flares can still cause electromagnetic storms that disrupt power supplies and cause auroras in the sky.
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! EN_90280349_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Stellar habitable zone. Graph showing the habitable zone (white vertical band) for planets in the solar system (horizontal axis) against stellar mass (vertical axis) relative to the Sun (third star up). The unit along the horizontal axis is the radius of the planet's orbit relative to the Earth (positioned at '1'). A star's habitable zone is a narrow region where liquid water could exist to support life. An Earth-like planet that orbits within the habitable zone is sometimes known as a 'Goldilocks planet'.
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