poniedziałek, 23 lipca 2018
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Wszechświat/Planety (389)

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! EN_90241456_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Venus, artwork. This is the second planet from the Sun, the next in from Earth and around 42 million kilometres further in, an average of 108 million kilometres from the Sun. Its diameter of 12,100 kilometres is slightly smaller than that of the Earth. Venus has a dense atmosphere of carbon dioxide and sulphuric acid clouds that obscure the rocky surface. The atmosphere traps the Sun's heat and leads to surface temperatures of over 500 degrees Celsius, the hottest planetary surface in the solar system. In addition, the atmospheric pressure on the surface is 90 times that on Earth.
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! EN_90237843_0005 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Solar system planets. Computer artwork of the nine planets of the solar system. The four small, rocky planets (lower centre) of the inner solar system are (from left): Venus, Mercury, Mars and Earth. The four large, gas giant planets lie in the outer solar system: Jupiter (top centre), Saturn (lower centre), Uranus (centre right) and Neptune (upper left). Pluto (centre right) is a small planet of rock and ice that orbits at the outer edges of the solar system. Not to scale.
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! EN_90237843_0007 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Solar system planets. Computer artwork of the nine planets of the solar system arrayed from bottom to top in order of their distance from the Sun (not shown). The four small, rocky planets of the inner solar system are: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Then come the four large, gas giant planets of the outer solar system: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Finally, Pluto is a Dwarf planet of rock and ice that orbits at the outer edges of the solar system. Not to scale.
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! EN_90237843_0008 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Solar system planets. Computer artwork of the nine planets of the solar system arrayed from bottom to top in order of their distance from the Sun (not shown). The four small, rocky planets of the inner solar system are: Mercury, Venus, Earth and Mars. Then come the four large, gas giant planets of the outer solar system: Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Finally, Pluto is a Dwarf planet of rock and ice that orbits at the outer edges of the solar system. Not to scale.
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! EN_90232706_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Olympus Mons. Computer model looking down on the Olympus Mons shield volcano on Mars. North is at top. The colours indicate elevation from white (highest) through brown, red, orange, yellow, green and blue (lowest). Olympus Mons peaks 24 kilometres above the plain, and steep cliff edges rise a sheer 10 kilometres of this distance. Shield volcanoes are flat, and Olympus Mons is a massive 600 kilometres across and is the largest mountain in the solar system. The topography of this model was drawn with Terragen software, using data from the laser altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor probe.
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! EN_90242231_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Water on Mars. Computer artwork looking south-west over water in and around the Pettit Crater on Mars 3.5 billion years ago. The crater is around 100 kilometres across, and is situated in the Amazonis Planitia (Amazon Plain) region of Mars. Mars is now a desert world, but erosion features seen on Mars today suggest that water once flowed there. The water was lost due to the thin Martian atmosphere and weak gravity. The topography of this artwork was drawn with Terragen software, using data from the laser altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor probe.
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! EN_90242232_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Water on Mars. Computer artwork looking south-west over three large craters flooded by water from the Marineris Valles (Mariner Valley) region of Mars 3.5 billion years ago. The Aram Chaos (centre) and the Galilaei Crater (centre right) are seen. The Marineris Valles is an enormous fault system (not seen) to the west, channelling water to this area. This image is hundreds of kilometres across. Mars is now a desert world, as the water was ultimately lost due to the thin Martian atmosphere and weak gravity. The topography was drawn with Terragen software, using data from the laser altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor probe.
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! EN_90242232_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Water on Mars. Computer artwork looking west over water in the Aram Chaos Crater on Mars 3.5 billion years ago. The area is drying out, but is still supplied by water through the Ares Vallis (Ares Valley, from right). Areas across top are flooded by water from the massive Marineris Valles canyons to the west. This image is hundreds of kilometres across. Mars is now a desert world, and the water was ultimately lost due to its thin atmosphere and weak gravity. The topography was drawn with Terragen software, using data from the laser altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor probe.
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! EN_90242233_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Water on Mars. Computer artwork looking south over water around the snow-covered Apollinaris Patera volcano on Mars 3.5 billion years ago. The volcano is about 5 kilometres high and the caldera (centre crater) is around 80 kilometres across. The Gusev Crater (upper centre) has an outlet to the Ma'adim Vallis (Ma'adim Valley) behind it. Eroded features seen on Mars today, suggest that water once flowed there. Mars is now a desert world. The water was ultimately lost due to the thin Martian atmosphere and weak gravity. The topography was drawn with Terragen software, using data from the laser altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor probe.
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! EN_90242280_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Water on Mars. Computer artwork of Mars seen from space about 3.5 billion years ago. Darker colours show the water filling the large Amazonis Planitia basin (upper centre). Water dominates the northern hemisphere, while the southern hemisphere consists of a vast continental landmass (lighter colours). Water created the erosion features seen on Mars today, but was ultimately lost because of the thin Martian atmosphere and weak gravity. Mars is now a desert world with only ice deposits left. The Olympus Mons volcano (upper right) is the largest mountain in the solar system. The topography was drawn with Terragen software, using data from the laser altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor probe.
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! EN_90242280_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Water on Mars. Image 2 of 2. Computer artwork of water flowing east (towards top) along Eos Chasma canyon on Mars 3.5 billion years ago. Ice (white) lies on the surrounding land, several kilometres above the canyon floor. Mars is now a desert world, as the water was ultimately lost due to the thin Martian atmosphere and weak gravity. The image is hundreds of kilometres across. Eos Chasma is an eastern canyon of Valles Marineris (Mariner Valley), an enormous crack in the Martian crust near the equator. The topography was drawn with Terragen software, using data from the laser altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor probe. For this area today, see image R350/167.
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! EN_90242280_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Water on Mars. Image 2 of 2. Computer artwork looking east towards water in Melas Chasma canyon (upper right) & Candor Chasma canyon (upper left) on Mars 3.5 billion years ago. Ice (white) lies on the surrounding land several kilometres above the canyon floor. Mars is now a desert world, as its water was lost due to the thin Martian atmosphere and weak gravity. These canyons are part of the massive Marineris Valles (Mariner Valley) crack in the Martian crust near the equator. This image is hundreds of kilometres wide. The topography was drawn with Terragen software, using data from the laser altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor probe. For this area today, see image R350/169.
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! EN_90242280_0004 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Water on Mars. Image 2 of 2. Computer artwork of the coast of the sea (left) thought to fill the Isidis Planitia (Isidis Plain) on Mars 3.5 billion years ago. This view looks east. Ice (white) lies on the highlands to the south, several kilometres above the lowland plain. The water was ultimately lost due to the thin Martian atmosphere and weak gravity. Mars is now a desert world. The crater mountains of the Libya Montes are seen down right. This image is hundreds of kilometres wide. The topography was drawn with Terragen software, using data from the laser altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor probe. For this area today, see image R350/171.
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! EN_90242280_0005 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Water on Mars. Computer artwork of river channels (brown, from upper right) creating the Shalbatana Vallis (Shalbatana Valley) on Mars 3.5 billion years ago. North is at bottom right. The water has eroded the ice-covered highlands (white) of Xanthe Terra, flowing into the broad flood plain of the Simud Vallis (across upper left). The Simud is fed by floods from the Marineris Valles (not seen) to the south-west. The water was ultimately lost due to the thin Martian atmosphere and weak gravity. Mars is now a desert world. This image is hundreds of kilometres wide. The topography was drawn with Terragen software, using data from the laser altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor probe.
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! EN_90242280_0006 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Water on Mars. Computer artwork looking south over the large flood plain of the Simud Vallis (Simud Valley) on Mars 3.5 billion years ago. This valley is an eastern outflow of the massive canyon system of the Valles Marineris (stretching away to top centre). The two narrow channels of the Shalbatana Vallis (right) have been eroded by water flowing north from the Orson Welles Crater (upper right), through the ice-covered heights (white) of Xanthe Terra. The water was ultimately lost due to the thin Martian atmosphere and weak gravity. Mars is now a desert world. The topography was drawn with Terragen software, using data from the laser altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor probe.
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! EN_90242280_0007 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Water on Mars. Computer artwork looking south over the coast of the northern polar ocean on Mars 3.5 billion years ago. This is the Deuteronilus Mensae region of cliffs and promontories. Water is seen in the Cerulli Crater (upper centre) and the Focas Crater (upper right, connected to the ocean). Ice (white) covers this frozen polar landscape. This image is hundreds of kilometres across. The water was ultimately lost due to the thin Martian atmosphere and weak gravity. Mars is now a desert world. The topography was drawn with Terragen software, using data from the laser altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor probe.
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! EN_90242280_0008 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Water on Mars. Computer artwork looking south-west over water in the Tiu Vallis (Tiu Valley) on Mars 3.5 billion years ago. The water is 1.5 kilometres deep. The eastern canyons of the Valles Marineris (Mariner Valley) are seen on the horizon. Mist and cloud are also seen on the horizon and ice (white) lies on the elevated highlands, several kilometres above the sea floor. Mars is now a desert world, but erosion features seen on Mars today suggest that water once flowed there. The water was lost due to the thin Martian atmosphere and weak gravity. The topography of this artwork was drawn with Terragen software, using data from the laser altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor probe.
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! EN_90242280_0009 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Water on Mars. Computer artwork looking north-east over water in the Dao Vallis (Dao Valley, left) and the Niger Vallis (Niger Valley, right) on Mars 3.5 billion years ago. The valleys are in the Hellas Planitia (Hellas Plain) region of Mars. Mars is now a desert world, but erosion features seen on Mars today suggest that water once flowed there. The water was lost due to the thin Martian atmosphere and weak gravity. The topography of this artwork was drawn with Terragen software, using data from the laser altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor probe.
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! EN_90242280_0010 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Water on Mars. Computer artwork looking west over the Amazonis Planitia (Amazon Plain) at dusk on Mars 3.5 billion years ago. The 9-kilometre-high Elysium Mons volcano is seen on the horizon, with mist and clouds in the sky. Mars is now a desert world, but erosion features seen on Mars today suggest that water once flowed there. The water was lost due to the thin Martian atmosphere and weak gravity. The topography of this artwork was drawn with Terragen software, using data from the laser altimeter on the Mars Global Surveyor probe.
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! EN_90241260_0005 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Uranus. Artwork showing Uranus as seen from Miranda, one of its moons. Like Jupiter, Saturn and Neptune, Uranus is a gas giant, with an atmosphere mainly composed of hydrogen and helium. The atmosphere of the planet occupies about 30% of its radius and overlies an ocean of water, ammonia and methane at very high pressure (20 million kiloPascals) and temperature (2500 Kelvin). Miranda is composed of rock and water ice. It has a diameter of 670 kilometres (km) and a mean distance from Uranus of about 130,000 km. Its surface has a surprising range of features, including ridges, impact craters with diameters up to 50 km, and canyons as deep as 20km.
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