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Infografika retro (1779)

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! EN_01299358_0439 SCI
Prehistoric predatory sea animals. 1885 illustration by A. Demarle of a plesiosaurus (order plesiosauria, centre left), ichthyosaur (order Ichthyosauria, centre right) and squid (order Teuthida, lower left) from the Lower Jurassic Period (around 205 to 180 million years ago). Plesiosaurs were predatory marine reptile that fed mainly on fish. Ichthyosaurs were fish-like marine reptiles. Both lived during the Lower Jurassic period. From 'Natural Creation and Living being' by French journalist and author Jules Rengade (1841-1915).
! EN_01299358_0440 SCI
Prehistoric sea animals. 1885 illustration by A. Demarle of a prehistoric coastline with various marine invertebrates from the end of the Silurian period (around 443 to 419 million years ago). From 'Natural Creation and Living being' by French journalist and author Jules Rengade (1841-1915).
! EN_01299358_0449 SCI
Evolution of vertebrates. 1885 illustration by A. Demarle depicting the evolution of invertebrates into vertebrates. From 'Natural Creation and Living being' by French journalist and author Jules Rengade (1841-1915).
! EN_01299358_0450 SCI
Evolution of amphibians. 1885 illustration by A. Demarle depicting the evolution of fish into amphibians. From 'Natural Creation and Living being' by French journalist and author Jules Rengade (1841-1915).
! EN_01299358_0451 SCI
Prehistoric sea animals. 1885 illustration by A. Demarle of a prehistoric coastal sea with various marine invertebrates from the beginning of the Silurian period (around 443 to 419 million years ago). From 'Natural Creation and Living being' by French journalist and author Jules Rengade (1841-1915).
! EN_01299358_0452 SCI
Evolution of reptiles, conceptual image. 1885 illustration by A. Demarle representing the evolution of fish (bottom) into reptiles (top). From 'Natural Creation and Living being' by French journalist and author Jules Rengade (1841-1915).
! EN_01299358_0453 SCI
Geologic periods. 1885 illustration by A. Demarle showing the timeline of geologic periods (right) and the animals thought to have evolved/existed in each one (centre).
! EN_01173231_0001 SCI
Saturn and its rings. Saturn is the second largest planet in the solar system. Its rings consist of ice and dust particles. Engraving by Warren De la Rue (1815-1889).
! EN_01173231_0002 SCI
Schiaparelli's observations of Mars. This drawing was made by the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli (1835-1910). His most detailed observations were made between 1877 and 1888. He named the 'seas' and 'continents' of Mars, and called the straight surface features channels (mistranslated as canals). He also noticed that the patterns on the surface changed with the Martian seasons. He wrongly assumed this to be due to seasonal changes in vegetation. It is now known that Mars is swept by powerful dust storms which alter the surface features. The idea that there was life on Mars was very popular around the end of the 19th century.
! EN_01173231_0003 SCI
Nasmyth's sunspot observations. Artwork of observations of sunspots, made on 5 June 1864 by the Scottish amateur astronomer James Nasmyth (1808-1890). Sunspots, first observed with telescopes in 1610, are areas of magnetic activity that are cooler than the rest of the Sun's surface. They are massive structures, ranging in size from hundreds to thousands of kilometres across. This artwork shows the cooler central areas (dark) and the hotter (lighter) areas round each sunspot. This drawing, here taken from a German publication, was also published in Nasmyth's autobiography of 1885.
! EN_01173231_0004 SCI
Sun spots, 1875. This artwork is part of a collection by the French artist and amateur astronomer Etienne Leopold Trouvelot (1827-1895).
! EN_01173231_0005 SCI
Total solar eclipse, 1878. This artwork is part of a collection by the French artist and amateur astronomer Etienne Leopold Trouvelot (1827-1895).
! EN_01173231_0006 SCI
Mars, 1877. This artwork is part of a collection by the French artist and amateur astronomer Etienne Leopold Trouvelot (1827-1895).
! EN_01173231_0007 SCI
Jupiter, 1880. This artwork is part of a collection by the French artist and amateur astronomer Etienne Leopold Trouvelot (1827-1895).
! EN_01173231_0008 SCI
Langley's sunspot observation. Artwork showing an extended observation of a sunspot, made on 24 December 1873 by US astronomer and inventor Samuel Pierpont Langley (1834-1906). Sunspots, first observed with telescopes in 1610, are areas of magnetic activity that are cooler than the rest of the Sun's surface. They are massive structures, ranging in size from hundreds to thousands of kilometres across. This artwork shows the cooler central areas (dark) and the hotter (lighter) areas round the sunspot. This copy of Langley's drawing is from a German publication, and has a German caption across bottom.
! EN_01173231_0009 SCI
Secchi's sunspot observation. Artwork of an observation of a sunspot, made in 1873 by the Italian Jesuit astronomer Father Pietro Angelo Secchi (1818-1878). Sunspots, first observed with telescopes in 1610, are areas of magnetic activity that are cooler than the rest of the Sun's surface. They are massive structures, ranging in size from hundreds to thousands of kilometres across. This artwork shows the cooler central area (dark) and the hotter (lighter) areas round the sunspot.
! EN_01173231_0010 SCI
Lunar crater observations. 1882 artwork showing observations made of lunar craters. This is the landscape around the Tycho crater at sunset. Lunar craters are formed when asteroids or meteors impact the surface of the Moon. These collisions, which take place at high speeds, form a characteristic ring of crater walls, and a central peak. The mapping of the Moon with telescopes started with Galileo in 1610, and then developed further during the following centuries as telescopes improved. The observations, like those seen here, included recording changes in the shadows cast by high mountains and deep craters during the lunar day-night cycle.
! EN_01173231_0011 SCI
Jupiter and satellites. Historical artwork showing a telescopic observation made at 8.30pm on 21 October 1843 of Jupiter (lower right) and three of its four Galilean moons (upper left). These observations were made by the Astronomer Royal (George Biddell Airy) from the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, in London, UK. Cloud bands are seen on Jupiter, the largest of the planets with a diameter of 143,000 kilometres. The three moons here are (right to left): Europa, Callisto and Ganymede, the latter being the largest moon. Io is behind Jupiter. This artwork appeared in the 4 November 1843 issue of 'The Illustrated London News'.
! EN_01173231_0012 SCI
Moon's crater. Historical artwork of a crater on the moon as drawn by Eratosthenes. Eratosthenes of Cyrene (circa 276195 BC) was a Greek mathematician, poet, athlete, geographer, astronomer, and music theorist.
! EN_01173231_0013 SCI
Schiaparelli's Mars, historical artwork. Maps of the planet Mars, drawn by the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli between 1877 and 1878. Schiaparelli saw many dark lines criss-crossing the planet and called them 'canali' (channels), which was mistranslated as 'canals'. Today it is known that these canali were merely optical illusions. The white area at top is the southern polar cap.

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