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Infografika retro (1727)

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! EN_01173231_0001 SCI
Saturn and its rings. Saturn is the second largest planet in the solar system. Its rings consist of ice and dust particles. Engraving by Warren De la Rue (1815-1889).
! EN_01173231_0002 SCI
Schiaparelli's observations of Mars. This drawing was made by the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli (1835-1910). His most detailed observations were made between 1877 and 1888. He named the 'seas' and 'continents' of Mars, and called the straight surface features channels (mistranslated as canals). He also noticed that the patterns on the surface changed with the Martian seasons. He wrongly assumed this to be due to seasonal changes in vegetation. It is now known that Mars is swept by powerful dust storms which alter the surface features. The idea that there was life on Mars was very popular around the end of the 19th century.
! EN_01173231_0003 SCI
Nasmyth's sunspot observations. Artwork of observations of sunspots, made on 5 June 1864 by the Scottish amateur astronomer James Nasmyth (1808-1890). Sunspots, first observed with telescopes in 1610, are areas of magnetic activity that are cooler than the rest of the Sun's surface. They are massive structures, ranging in size from hundreds to thousands of kilometres across. This artwork shows the cooler central areas (dark) and the hotter (lighter) areas round each sunspot. This drawing, here taken from a German publication, was also published in Nasmyth's autobiography of 1885.
! EN_01173231_0004 SCI
Sun spots, 1875. This artwork is part of a collection by the French artist and amateur astronomer Etienne Leopold Trouvelot (1827-1895).
! EN_01173231_0005 SCI
Total solar eclipse, 1878. This artwork is part of a collection by the French artist and amateur astronomer Etienne Leopold Trouvelot (1827-1895).
! EN_01173231_0006 SCI
Mars, 1877. This artwork is part of a collection by the French artist and amateur astronomer Etienne Leopold Trouvelot (1827-1895).
! EN_01173231_0007 SCI
Jupiter, 1880. This artwork is part of a collection by the French artist and amateur astronomer Etienne Leopold Trouvelot (1827-1895).
! EN_01173231_0008 SCI
Langley's sunspot observation. Artwork showing an extended observation of a sunspot, made on 24 December 1873 by US astronomer and inventor Samuel Pierpont Langley (1834-1906). Sunspots, first observed with telescopes in 1610, are areas of magnetic activity that are cooler than the rest of the Sun's surface. They are massive structures, ranging in size from hundreds to thousands of kilometres across. This artwork shows the cooler central areas (dark) and the hotter (lighter) areas round the sunspot. This copy of Langley's drawing is from a German publication, and has a German caption across bottom.
! EN_01173231_0009 SCI
Secchi's sunspot observation. Artwork of an observation of a sunspot, made in 1873 by the Italian Jesuit astronomer Father Pietro Angelo Secchi (1818-1878). Sunspots, first observed with telescopes in 1610, are areas of magnetic activity that are cooler than the rest of the Sun's surface. They are massive structures, ranging in size from hundreds to thousands of kilometres across. This artwork shows the cooler central area (dark) and the hotter (lighter) areas round the sunspot.
! EN_01173231_0010 SCI
Lunar crater observations. 1882 artwork showing observations made of lunar craters. This is the landscape around the Tycho crater at sunset. Lunar craters are formed when asteroids or meteors impact the surface of the Moon. These collisions, which take place at high speeds, form a characteristic ring of crater walls, and a central peak. The mapping of the Moon with telescopes started with Galileo in 1610, and then developed further during the following centuries as telescopes improved. The observations, like those seen here, included recording changes in the shadows cast by high mountains and deep craters during the lunar day-night cycle.
! EN_01173231_0011 SCI
Jupiter and satellites. Historical artwork showing a telescopic observation made at 8.30pm on 21 October 1843 of Jupiter (lower right) and three of its four Galilean moons (upper left). These observations were made by the Astronomer Royal (George Biddell Airy) from the Royal Observatory at Greenwich, in London, UK. Cloud bands are seen on Jupiter, the largest of the planets with a diameter of 143,000 kilometres. The three moons here are (right to left): Europa, Callisto and Ganymede, the latter being the largest moon. Io is behind Jupiter. This artwork appeared in the 4 November 1843 issue of 'The Illustrated London News'.
! EN_01173231_0012 SCI
Moon's crater. Historical artwork of a crater on the moon as drawn by Eratosthenes. Eratosthenes of Cyrene (circa 276195 BC) was a Greek mathematician, poet, athlete, geographer, astronomer, and music theorist.
! EN_01173231_0013 SCI
Schiaparelli's Mars, historical artwork. Maps of the planet Mars, drawn by the Italian astronomer Giovanni Schiaparelli between 1877 and 1878. Schiaparelli saw many dark lines criss-crossing the planet and called them 'canali' (channels), which was mistranslated as 'canals'. Today it is known that these canali were merely optical illusions. The white area at top is the southern polar cap.
! EN_01150989_9870 SCI
The pantelegraph was an early form of facsimile machine based on the 1843 patent of the Scottish clockmaker Alexander Bain. He had discovered a way to transmit a two-dimensional image as a series of electrical pulses across two wires. An electrically-conductive swinging pendulum acted as a scanning stylus by moving back and forth and line by line across a copper plate containing a raised image. This generated electrical pulses which were transmitted by telegraph wires to the receiver equipped with a similar pendulum, synchronised with that on the sending device, which could generate an exact replica of the original image. The 6-ft high pantelegraph of 1865 developed by Abbe Giovanni Caselli, an Italian priest and professor of physics, became the first practicable fax machine able to go into commercial service by overcoming the synchronisation deficiencies of Bain's design.
! EN_01151355_0533 SCI
Thorax and abdomen. 19th century artwork showing the organs of the thorax and abdomen in profile. At top is the right lung. Below the lung are the liver (dark red) and the falciform ligament (pink), which attaches the liver to the body wall. Filling the majority of the abdominal cavity are the large (outer) and small (inner) intestines. The sac-like object at bottom right is the bladder. This anatomical artwork is plate 10 from volume 5 (1839) of 'Traite complet de l'anatomie de l'homme' (1831-1854). This 8-volume anatomy atlas was produced by the French physician and anatomist Jean-Baptiste Marc Bourgery (1797-1849). The illustrations were by Nicolas-Henri Jacob (1781-1871).
! EN_01151355_0537 SCI
Gum anatomy. 19th century artwork showing the anatomy of the gum around the canine tooth and first premolar in the lower jaw. Nerves are white, arteries are red and veins are blue. This anatomical artwork is plate 14 from volume 5 (1839) of 'Traite complet de l'anatomie de l'homme' (1831-1854). This 8-volume anatomy atlas was produced by the French physician and anatomist Jean-Baptiste Marc Bourgery (1797-1849). The illustrations were by Nicolas-Henri Jacob (1781-1871).
! EN_01151355_0538 SCI
Salivary glands, 19th century artwork. At top are the parotid glands, which are located just below the ear. At bottom left is a cut-away artwork of the lower jar in profile showing the submandibular gland (bottom left) and the sublingual gland (upper right beneath tongue). At bottom right is a view of the underside of the tongue showing the anterior lingual glands (top) and the sublingual glands (bottom). At centre is a view of the palate showing palatine mucous glands (left). This anatomical artwork is plate 14 from volume 5 (1839) of 'Traite complet de l'anatomie de l'homme' (1831-1854). This 8-volume anatomy atlas was produced by the French physician and anatomist Jean-Baptiste Marc Bourgery (1797-1849). The illustrations were by Nicolas-Henri Jacob (1781-1871).
! EN_01151355_0540 SCI
Tongue anatomy. 19th century artwork showing the musculature of the tongue. Top left and centre right show the muscle fibres on the dorsal (top) side of the tongue. Bottom left shows the muscle fibres on the ventral (bottom) side. Upper centre and centre show transverse sections through the tongue and tongue and lower jaw (centre). At centre the inner muscle between the tongue and jaw is the styloglossus, the outer muscle is the genioglossus. Top and bottom right show profile sections through the lower jaw. The main expanse of muscle at bottom right is the genioglossus. At top right this is overlaid with the hypoglossus (left) and styloglossus (top). This anatomical artwork is plate 15 from volume 5 (1839) of 'Traite complet de l'anatomie de l'homme' (1831-1854). This 8-volume anatomy atlas was produced by the French physician and anatomist Jean-Baptiste Marc Bourgery (1797-1849). The illustrations were by Nicolas-Henri Jacob (1781-1871).
! EN_01151355_0541 SCI
Tongue anatomy, 19th century artwork. Nerves are white, arteries are red and veins are blue. At left are views of the ventral (bottom, top left) and dorsal (top, bottom left) sides of the tongue. The globular structures are salivary and mucous glands. At right are transverse sections through the tongue and jaw (top and centre) and the tongue (bottom). Filiform papillae, which sense pressure, can be seen on the surface of the tongue. This anatomical artwork is plate 15 from volume 5 (1839) of 'Traite complet de l'anatomie de l'homme' (1831-1854). This 8-volume anatomy atlas was produced by the French physician and anatomist Jean-Baptiste Marc Bourgery (1797-1849). The illustrations were by Nicolas-Henri Jacob (1781-1871).
! EN_01151355_0542 SCI
Tongue anatomy. 19th century artwork of a transverse section through the tongue. Nerves are white, arteries are red and veins are blue. Filiform papillae, which sense pressure, cover most of the surface of the tongue. Also seen is a rounder fungiform papilla (top centre), which contains tastebuds. This anatomical artwork is plate 15 from volume 5 (1839) of 'Traite complet de l'anatomie de l'homme' (1831-1854). This 8-volume anatomy atlas was produced by the French physician and anatomist Jean-Baptiste Marc Bourgery (1797-1849). The illustrations were by Nicolas-Henri Jacob (1781-1871).

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