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Infografika retro (1727)

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! EN_01151355_0926 SCI
14th Century military equipment. 15th Century design for a pulley system by the German military engineer Konrad Kyeser.
! EN_01151355_0930 SCI
Arabic map of the World. Ancient Arabic manuscript with a map of the World based on that of Ptolemy.
! EN_01151355_0932 SCI
Grand Orrery by John Rowley. Historical artwork showing the Grand Orerry as it was first made by the English Instrument maker John Rowley. An orrery is a mechanical model of the solar system that illustrates or predicts the relative positions and motions of the planets and moons.
! EN_01151355_0939 SCI
Optics diagram, 13th century. This diagram is from 'Perspectiva' (c.1267) by English natural philosopher Roger Bacon (c.1214-1292). This was the first book by a European to bring together and summarise the earlier Greek and Arabic works on the subject of optics. This work by Bacon laid the foundations for optics over the following centuries. The text is in Latin. It is part of the manuscript collections held at the British Library.
! EN_01151355_0940 SCI
Optics diagram, 13th century. The diagram at lower right (see C022/5625) shows light from the Sun (left) being refracted and focused by a spherical lens. The text is in Latin. This folio page is part of a collection of manuscripts by a number of authors, gathered by English natural philosopher Roger Bacon (c.1214-1292). It is thought that this diagram is by English scholar Robert Grosseteste (c.1175-1253) as part of his 'De natura locorum'.
! EN_01151355_1396 SCI
Sugar cane boiling. 17th-century artwork of slaves on a sugar plantation, with an overseer, boiling the sugary juices extracted from the sugar cane plant. The juice is boiled in a series of vats and the resulting viscous liquid (left, molasses) is drained off in a trough and allowed to cool. The peak in the extent and size of the slave-worked sugar plantations was reached in the Caribbean in the 18th century. Artwork from 'De medicina Brasiliensi libri quatuor' (Four books of Brazilian medicine, 1648) by Dutch physician and naturalist Willem Piso (1611-1678).
! EN_01151355_1397 SCI
Man and rhino's head. 17th-century artwork comparing the appearance of a human head and that of a rhinoceros. This artwork was part of a study of physiognomy, the practice of assessing personality traits from a person's appearance. Artwork from the 1615 Italian edition of 'De humana physiognomonia' (On Human Physiognomy, 1586) by Italian scholar Giambattista della Porta (c.1535-1615).
! EN_01151355_1398 SCI
Man and monkey's head. 17th-century artwork comparing the appearance of a human head and that of a monkey. This artwork was part of a study of physiognomy, the practice of assessing personality traits from a person's appearance. Artwork from the 1615 Italian edition of 'De humana physiognomonia' (On Human Physiognomy, 1586) by Italian scholar Giambattista della Porta (c.1535-1615).
! EN_01151355_1399 SCI
Man and bull's head. 17th-century artwork comparing the appearance of a human head and that of a bull. This artwork was part of a study of physiognomy, the practice of assessing personality traits from a person's appearance. Artwork from the 1615 Italian edition of 'De humana physiognomonia' (On Human Physiognomy, 1586) by Italian scholar Giambattista della Porta (c.1535-1615).
! EN_01151355_1400 SCI
Aristotle (384 BC-322 BC), Ancient Greek philosopher and naturalist. Aristotle is one of the most important figures in the history of Western thought, heavily influencing later thinkers. He worked on cosmology, zoology, taxonomy, embryology, physics and logic. He was a pupil at Plato's Academy in Athens and later a tutor of the young Alexander the Great. This artwork attempts to assesses Aristotle's personality traits from his appearance. This pseudoscientific practice is known as physiognomy. Artwork from the 1615 Italian edition of 'De humana physiognomonia' (On Human Physiognomy, 1586) by Italian scholar Giambattista della Porta (c.1535-1615).
! EN_01151355_1613 SCI
Stomach and liver. 19th century artwork showing the blood vessels of the stomach and a section through the liver. Arteries are red and veins are blue. The large vein at centre is the portal vein, which carries blood from the spleen (purple, bottom left) and digestive system to the liver. This anatomical artwork is plate 20 from volume 5 (1839) of 'Traite complet de l'anatomie de l'homme' (1831-1854). This 8-volume anatomy atlas was produced by the French physician and anatomist Jean-Baptiste Marc Bourgery (1797-1849). The illustrations were by Nicolas-Henri Jacob (1781-1871).
! EN_01151355_1614 SCI
Stomach and liver. 19th century artwork of a posterior section through the upper abdomen. The stomach is at left and a section through the liver is at right. The oesophagus (gullet) joins the stomach at upper centre. At top centre is the aorta (red), the body's main artery. At top right is the vena cava (blue), the body's main vein. At bottom right and centre is the duodenum the first section of the small intestine. This anatomical artwork is plate 20 from volume 5 (1839) of 'Traite complet de l'anatomie de l'homme' (1831-1854). This 8-volume anatomy atlas was produced by the French physician and anatomist Jean-Baptiste Marc Bourgery (1797-1849). The illustrations were by Nicolas-Henri Jacob (1781-1871).
! EN_01151355_1615 SCI
Stomach lining. 19th century artwork of the blood supply of the mucous lining of the stomach. Arteries are red, veins are blue. At left the surface layer has been removed to show the deeper structure. This anatomical artwork is plate 24 from volume 5 (1839) of 'Traite complet de l'anatomie de l'homme' (1831-1854). This 8-volume anatomy atlas was produced by the French physician and anatomist Jean-Baptiste Marc Bourgery (1797-1849). The illustrations were by Nicolas-Henri Jacob (1781-1871).
! EN_01151355_1616 SCI
Stomach lining. 19th century artwork of a section through the mucous lining of the stomach. The upper layer is the glandular mucosa, which has gastric pits (brown) where the gastric glands open to the digestive lumen (top). Beneath this is the submucosa, which contains blood vessels, lymph vessels and nerves. This anatomical artwork is plate 24 from volume 5 (1839) of 'Traite complet de l'anatomie de l'homme' (1831-1854). This 8-volume anatomy atlas was produced by the French physician and anatomist Jean-Baptiste Marc Bourgery (1797-1849). The illustrations were by Nicolas-Henri Jacob (1781-1871).
! EN_01151355_1617 SCI
Small intestine. 19th century artwork of the duodenum, the first section of the small intestine. Nerves are white, arteries are red and veins are blue. The globular structures are lymph tissue. Part of the liver (red) and gallbaldder (yellow) are at top left. This anatomical artwork is plate 24 from volume 5 (1839) of 'Traite complet de l'anatomie de l'homme' (1831-1854). This 8-volume anatomy atlas was produced by the French physician and anatomist Jean-Baptiste Marc Bourgery (1797-1849). The illustrations were by Nicolas-Henri Jacob (1781-1871).
! EN_01151355_1658 SCI
Abdominal anatomy. 19th century artwork of the abdomen showing the nerves (white) of the spleen (top right), pancreas (cream, across centre) and the kidneys (lower right and left). At centre is the coeliac, or solar, plexus, the junction of the network of nerves that serve the upper abdominal organs. At bottom centre are the aorta (red), the body's main artery, and the vena cava (blue), the body's main vein. This anatomical artwork is plate 48 from volume 5 (1839) of 'Traite complet de l'anatomie de l'homme' (1831-1854). This 8-volume anatomy atlas was produced by the French physician and anatomist Jean-Baptiste Marc Bourgery (1797-1849). The illustrations were by Nicolas-Henri Jacob (1781-1871).
! EN_01151355_1659 SCI
Male reproductive system. 19th century artworks of the male reproductive system seen from below (left) and the front (right). At left, the white structure down centre is the rectum, which ends in the anus (round upper centre). Above the anus are the scrotum and the penis. At right the bladder is at centre, with the prostate gland (white) beneath it. At bottom left is a testicle. This anatomical artwork is plate 56 from volume 5 (1839) of 'Traite complet de l'anatomie de l'homme' (1831-1854). This 8-volume anatomy atlas was produced by the French physician and anatomist Jean-Baptiste Marc Bourgery (1797-1849). The illustrations were by Nicolas-Henri Jacob (1781-1871).
! EN_01151355_1684 SCI
15th Century map. 15th Century map by the German cartographer Nicolaus Germanus, showing Europe, Africa, the Mediterranean, and Asia.
! EN_01151355_1691 SCI
Historical astronomical chart. Historical map of the World showing the rising of the polar star in the sign of Capricorn.
! EN_01151355_1698 SCI
16th century woodcut showing an alchemist at work. The woodcut was made by H. Weiditz in 1535.

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