poniedziałek, 23 października 2017
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! EN_90263174_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Human evolution. Artwork of the evolution of hominids from our distant ancestors to present day humans (Homo sapiens sapiens). Comparisons of DNA and fossil records suggest that humans and modern African apes evolved from a common ape-like ancestor. The ancestors of humans diverged from the ancestors of today's African apes, which include gorillas and chimpanzees, between 5 to 8 million years ago. Since then there have been at least 15 different intermittent species discovered including, for example, Australopithicus afarensis, Paranthropus boisei and Homo erectus.
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! EN_90262771_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Hominid species landscape. Artwork of hominid species coexisting around 1.9 to 1.6 million years ago in east Africa. Three Homo habilis are in the tree in the foreground, some Australopithecus robustus are at the water's edge, Homo rudolfensis are at the edge of the savannah and Homo ergaster are hunting on the savannah. All of these species flourished in the lower paleolithic (old stone age), 2.5 million to 120,000 years ago, but Homo ergaster is the only one thought to be the direct ancestor of modern humans.
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! EN_90262786_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Homo floresiensis. Artist's impression of the head and face of Homo floresiensis. Remains of this hominid were found in 2003 at the Liang Bua cave on the island of Flores, Indonesia. H. floresiensis is thought to have become extinct 12,000 years ago, and so co-existed with modern humans (Homo sapiens). It was a small hominid, measuring just over a metre tall and with a very small brain. It is thought that it was a descendant of H. erectus that underwent island dwarfism, a process where isolated species that lack predators and are constrained by limited resources evolve to become smaller.
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! EN_90262786_0004 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Homo floresiensis. Artist's impression of the head and face of Homo floresiensis. Remains of this hominid were found in 2003 at the Liang Bua cave on the island of Flores, Indonesia. H. floresiensis is thought to have become extinct 12,000 years ago, and so co-existed with modern humans (Homo sapiens). It was a small hominid, measuring just over a metre tall and with a very small brain. It is thought that it was a descendant of H. erectus that underwent island dwarfism, a process where isolated species that lack predators and are constrained by limited resources evolve to become smaller.
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! EN_90262787_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Homo floresiensis and Homo sapiens. Artwork of a Homo sapiens (right) watching a group of Homo floresiensis next to a river. H. floresiensis is thought to have become extinct 12,000 years ago, and so co-existed with modern humans (Homo sapiens). It was a small hominid, measuring just over a metre tall and with a very small brain. It is thought that it was a descendant of H. erectus that underwent island dwarfism, a process where isolated species that lack predators and are constrained by limited resources evolve to become smaller. Remains of H. floresiensis were found in 2003 at the Liang Bua cave on the island of Flores, Indonesia.
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! EN_90262788_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Homo floresiensis comparison. Artwork comparing Homo erectus (left), H. floresiensis (centre) and H. sapiens (right). Remains of H. floresiensis were found in 2003 at the Liang Bua cave on the island of Flores, Indonesia. It is thought to have become extinct 12,000 years ago, and so co-existed with modern humans (Homo sapiens). It was a small hominid, measuring just over a metre tall and with a very small brain. It is thought that it was a descendant of H. erectus that underwent island dwarfism, a process where isolated species that lack predators and are constrained by limited resources evolve to become smaller.
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! EN_90262788_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Homo floresiensis comparison. Artwork comparing Homo erectus (left), H. floresiensis (centre) and H. sapiens (right). Remains of H. floresiensis were found in 2003 at the Liang Bua cave on the island of Flores, Indonesia. It is thought to have become extinct 12,000 years ago, and so co-existed with modern humans (Homo sapiens). It was a small hominid, measuring just over a metre tall and with a very small brain. It is thought that it was a descendant of H. erectus that underwent island dwarfism, a process where isolated species that lack predators and are constrained by limited resources evolve to become smaller.
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! EN_90262788_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Homo floresiensis comparison. Artwork comparing Homo erectus (left), H. floresiensis (centre) and H. sapiens (right). Remains of H. floresiensis were found in 2003 at the Liang Bua cave on the island of Flores, Indonesia. It is thought to have become extinct 12,000 years ago, and so co-existed with modern humans (Homo sapiens). It was a small hominid, measuring just over a metre tall and with a very small brain. It is thought that it was a descendant of H. erectus that underwent island dwarfism, a process where isolated species that lack predators and are constrained by limited resources evolve to become smaller.
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! EN_90247154_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Australopithecus garhi skull and head, illustration. The remains of this early hominid were discovered in 1996 near the village of Bouri in the Middle Awash valley in Ethiopia, Africa. A. garhi lived in the pilocene era, between 2 and 3 million years ago.
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! EN_90271831_0001 SCI
E437/0100 MAT Australopithecus garhi skull and head "Australopithecus garhi skull and head, illustration. The remains of this early hominid were discovered in 1996 near the village of Bouri in the Middle Awash valley in Ethiopia, Africa. A. garhi lived during the Pliocene, between 2 and 3 million years ago."
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! EN_90203806_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Origins of life. Artwork illustrating the theory that life on Earth originated around underwater volcanic vents called black smokers. Nine stages are shown here, from the atomic level to the cellular level. From bottom: prebiotic chemistry; amino acids, sugars and bases; more complex carbon compounds; formation of RNA (ribonucleic acids); formation of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). The evolutionary tree splits at this point into the routes that will form bacteria (left) and archaea (right). Each branch starts from a universal nucleic acid ancestor, followed by the formation of the cell wall, and finally, the bacteria and archaea breaking out of the black smoker wall to populate the Earth's oceans.
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! EN_90247144_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Australopithecus afarensis skull, computer artwork. Compared to the modern human skull the skull of A. afarensis had a more prominent brow ridge, a broader, flatter nose, a more prominent jaw and a smaller brain. A. afarensis lived between 3.9 and 2.9 million years ago.
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! EN_90247153_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Australopithecus boisei skull, computer artwork. Australopithecus boisei was a hominid that lived in Africa between about 2.3 to 1.3 million years ago. It had massive teeth, which are thought to have been an adaptation to a diet of tough plant foods. It is thought that its specialisation to such a diet led to its extinction after its environment changed. A. boisei was first discovered by Mary Leakey in the Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, in 1959, and was named Zinjanthropus boisei. It is a robust australopithecine, and was heavier-built than the gracile australopithecines such as A. afarensis from which humans are thought to have evolved.
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! EN_90262790_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Homo georgicus. Artist's impression of the skull, head and face of H. Georgicus. This hominid lived during the Pleistocene era. Its remains were found in 1999 and 2001 at the Dmanisi archeological site in Georgia. H. georgicus is believed to have been the first of the hominids to have settled in Europe. Their remains show that they had small brains and that the male of the species was much larger than the female.
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! EN_90262773_0007 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Homo antecessor with a fresh kill, illustration. One of the hominids is holding a rock, threatening two wolf-like creatures at the mouth of the cave. The remains of this H. antecessor were discovered in level TD6 of the Gran Dolina archaeological site in Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. Some of the remains contained cuts on the bones suggesting that this hominid may have practiced cannibalism. It lived between 600,000 and 250,000 years ago during the Pleistocene era, averaging about 5.5 feet in height and weighing up to 200 pounds.
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! EN_90262790_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Homo georgicus elderly male. This hominid lived during the Pleistocene era. Its remains were found in 1999 and 2001 at the Dmanisi archeological site in Georgia. H. georgicus is believed to have been the first of the hominids to have settled in Europe. Their remains show that they had small brains and that the male of the species was much larger than the female.
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! EN_90262791_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Homo georgicus family eating meat. This illustration depcits a hominid family which lived during the Pleistocene era. Its remains were found in 1999 and 2001 at the Dmanisi archeological site in Georgia. H. georgicus is believed to have been the first of the hominids to have settled in Europe. Their remains show that they had small brains and that the male of the species was much larger than the female.
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! EN_90262773_0004 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Homo antecessor. Artist's impression of a Homo antecessor family group. The remains of this hominid were discovered in level TD6 of the Gran Dolina archaeological sites in Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. Some of the remains contained cuts on the bones suggesting that this hominid may have practiced cannibalism. It lived between 600,000 and 250,000 years ago during the Pleistocene era, averaging about 5.5 feet in height and weighing up to 200 pounds.
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! EN_90262773_0005 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Homo antecessor. Artist's impression of a Homo antecessor group undertaking a funeral ritual. The remains of this hominid were discovered in level TD6 of the Gran Dolina archaeological sites in Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. Some of the remains contained cuts on the bones suggesting that this hominid may have practiced cannibalism. It lived between 600,000 and 250,000 years ago during the Pleistocene era, averaging about 5.5 feet in height and weighing up to 200 pounds.
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! EN_90262773_0006 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Homo antecessor. Artist's impression of the skull, head and face of an adult male Homo antecessor. The remains of this hominid were discovered in level TD6 of the Gran Dolina archaeological sites in Sierra de Atapuerca, Spain. Some of the remains contained cuts on the bones suggesting that this hominid may have practiced cannibalism. It lived between 600,000 and 250,000 years ago during the Pleistocene era, averaging about 5.5 feet in height and weighing up to 200 pounds.
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