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! EN_01150989_3918 SCI
Timeline of human evolution, artwork. From left to right: an early bipedal hominin (between 7 and 5 million years ago), Australopithecus afarensis (around 4 million years ago), Australopithecus africanus (around 3 million years ago), Homo erectus (around 1.8 million years ago), Homo neanderthalensis (around 600,000 years ago), and Homo sapiens (around 400,000 years ago). These and other bipedal species evolved in Africa from a common ancestor with chimpanzees and other apes, spreading to Europe and Asia, and then the rest of the world. All are now extinct except modern humans.
! EN_01150989_8414 SCI
Artwork of mollusks of the subclass Ammonoidea in a Jurassic sea 170 million years ago. The planispiral shells are about 1 metre in diameter, making them among the larger known ammonites. Also in this image are ray-finned fish of the infraclass Teleostei and jellyfish of the order Scyphozoa.
! EN_01151355_0534 SCI
Height variation in Pleistocene hominids. Artwork and scale chart showing the variation in height for three male hominids (right) compared to modern humans (chart at left). These reconstructions are based on fossil bones found at the Sima de los Huesos site in the Atapuerca Mountains of northern Spain. The fossils date from around 500,000 years ago during the Pleistocene. The three hominds are (left to right): Homo heidelbergensis, Homo neanderthalensis, and the Cro-Magnon form of early modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens). The height calculations were made by researchers at the Human Evolution Laboratory at the University of Burgos, Spain.
! EN_01150989_0196 SCI
Evolution of life on Earth. Sequence of artworks showing the timeline of the evolution of life on Earth, first in the sea and then on land, from the Proterozoic (650 million years ago) to the Eocene (40 million years ago). From left, the periods and fauna shown are: the Ediacaran (sessile invertebrates: Dickinsonia), the Cambrian (Burgess Shale arthropods: Marrella), the Ordovician (trilobites), the Devonian (ammonites), the Carboniferous (the first terrestrial land animals and tetrapods), the Jurassic (sauropod dinosaurs), the Cretaceous (therapod and ornithischian dinosaurs), and the Eocene (mammals such as horses and Diprotodon).
! EN_01150989_1956 SCI
Geological timescale. Artwork representing the geological timescale from 4.567 billion years ago (top right) to the present day (bottom right). The lower half of the strip represents four geological eras: the Precambrian (grey), the Paleozoic (blue), the Mesozoic (green), and the Cenozoic (yellow). The upper half of the strip represents various geological eras, periods and epochs (19 shown here). From top to bottom: Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic, Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous, Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene. For labels, see C021/3470 and C021/3471.
! EN_01150989_1957 SCI
Geological timescale and life. Artwork of life that evolved on Earth's geological timescale from 4.567 billion years ago (top right) to the present day (bottom right), colour-coded for various geological eras, periods and epochs. 1) Precambrian (early life): Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic. 2) Paleozoic (fish, land plants, insects, amphibians, reptiles): Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian. 3) Mesozoic (dinosaurs, flowers, birds, mammals): Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous. 4) Cenozoic (horses, primates, whales, humans): Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene. See also: C021/3468, C021/3471.
! EN_01150989_1958 SCI
Geological timescale and life. Artwork of life that evolved on Earth's geological timescale from 4.567 billion years ago (top right) to the present day (bottom right), colour-coded for various geological eras, periods and epochs. 1) Precambrian (early life): Hadean, Archean, Proterozoic. 2) Paleozoic (fish, land plants, insects, amphibians, reptiles): Cambrian, Ordovician, Silurian, Devonian, Carboniferous, Permian. 3) Mesozoic (dinosaurs, flowers, birds, mammals): Triassic, Jurassic, Cretaceous. 4) Cenozoic (horses, primates, whales, humans): Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene, Pleistocene, and Holocene. See also: C021/3468, C021/3470.
! EN_01132903_0329 SCI
Australopithecus africanus reconstruction. Reconstruction (left to right) of the 'Mrs Ples' specimen of Australopithecus africanus. The fossil skull on which this reconstruction is based dates from around 2 million years ago and was discovered in Sterkfontein, South Africa, in 1947. It is not certain whether the skull is from a male or female. A. africanus is one of several extinct species forming an early part of the human evolutionary tree. Reconstruction by Elisabeth Daynes of the Daynes Studio, Paris, France.
This image may not be used in any context outside of mainstream science without the express permission of Atelier Daynes. Permission must be cleared for use by museums, in exhibitions, private use and front covers. No use in articles about Elisabeth Dayne
! EN_01132903_0521 SCI
Human evolution. Artwork of eight different species from the human evolutionary tree, all now extinct except modern humans (Homo sapiens sapiens, lower right). The others are: Paranthropus (upper left, around 2.7 million years ago); Australopithecus afarensis (upper centre, 3.9 to 2.9 million years ago); Homo habilis (upper right, 2.3 to 1.4 million years ago); Homo erectus (centre left, 1.9 million to 150,000 years ago); Homo heidelbergensis (centre, 600,000 to 200,000 years ago); Homo georgicus (centre right, around 1.8 million years ago); and Homo sapiens neanderthalensis (lower left, around 600,000 to 45,000 years ago). Modern humans evolved around 200,000 years ago.
! EN_01132903_0534 SCI
Indo-European language origins. Map showing the theory that the Indo-European group of languages originated around 8500 years ago in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey). The distribution of languages and their ages was examined in a study published in 2012. The ages are colour-coded from oldest (red) to youngest (blue), according to the key at upper left. The Indo-European language family contains several hundred related languages (including Spanish, English and Hindi) ranging from Europe through the Middle East to India.
! EN_01132903_0535 SCI
Indo-European language origins. Map showing the theory that the Indo-European group of languages originated around 8500 years ago in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey). The distribution of languages and their ages was examined in a study published in 2012. The ages are colour-coded from oldest (red) to youngest (blue), according to the key at upper left. The Indo-European language family contains several hundred related languages (including Spanish, English and Hindi) ranging from Europe through the Middle East to India.
! EN_01126623_0062 SCI
Tianyulong confuciusi dinosaurs, artwork. The fossils of this ornithischian dinosaur were found in the Tiaojishan Formation in Jianchang County, Western Liaoning Province, China. Described in 2009, they date from around 160 million years ago during the late Jurassic. This dinosaur was around 2 metres long. Ornithischian dinosaurs in general were beaked and herbivorous. This one had primitive filamentary structures on its back. It is thought that these are analogous to primitive forms of feathers, but may have evolved independently.
! EN_01126623_0063 SCI
Tianyulong confuciusi dinosaurs, artwork. The fossils of this ornithischian dinosaur were found in the Tiaojishan Formation in Jianchang County, Western Liaoning Province, China. Described in 2009, they date from around 160 million years ago during the late Jurassic. This dinosaur was around 2 metres long. Ornithischian dinosaurs in general were beaked and herbivorous. This one had primitive filamentary structures on its back. It is thought that these are analogous to primitive forms of feathers, but may have evolved independently.
! EN_01126623_0064 SCI
Group of dinosaurs, artwork. Three sauropod dinosaurs are shown (long-necked, large quadrupeds) with theropod predators behind them. Above one of the sauropods is a winged bird-like dinosaur (upper left). At lower left are examples of Triceratops (Cretaceous), Stegosaurus (Jurassic), and Ankylosaurus (Cretaceous). In front of them is a small dromaeosaurid (raptor) dinosaur (Jurassic to Cretaceous). At centre is a duck-billed dinosaur (Hadrosaurid, Cretaceous) with its distinctive crest on its head. At centre left is the parrot-beaked Psittacosaurus. At centre right is a Spinosaurus dinosaur (Cretaceous) with its 'sail' on its back.
! EN_01126623_0065 SCI
Feathered dinosaurs. Artwork showing a range of feathered and winged dinosaurs. At top is the winged dinosaur Anchiornis huxleyi (Jurassic). At bottom left is a Tianyulong confuciusi dinosaur (Jurassic). Other feathered dinosaurs included Psittacosaurus (large, centre) and Nomingia (far right), as well as Microraptor, Caudipteryx and similar species. The first feathered dinosaur that was described was Sinosauropteryx (a compsognathid dinosaur), with the most famous being Archaeopteryx (a transitional species between feathered dinosaurs and modern birds).
! EN_01126623_0067 SCI
Evolution of dinosaur feathers. Artwork showing the evolution of feathers in dinosaurs, from primitive forms at left, to forms more adapted to flight at right. Sinosauropteryx (far left) dates from around 124 million years ago during the Early Cretaceous. Caudipteryx (centre left) dates from around the same time. Anchiornis huxleyi (centre) dates from around 160 million years ago during the Late Jurassic. Archaeopteryx (centre right, transitional between dinosaurs and birds) dates from around 150 million years ago during the Late Jurassic. Confuciusornis (far right) is an early bird from around 120 million years ago in the Early Cretaceous.
! EN_01126623_0068 SCI
Evolution of feathers. Artwork showing the evolution of feathers in dinosaurs and birds, from primitive forms at left, to forms more adapted to flight at right. At far left is a hollow filament or spine. This was followed by filamentous forms (centre left). At centre, a primitive feather has a central rachis but the barbs are not joined. At centre right is a pennaceous feather, the type found in modern birds. This one is symmetrical about the central rachis and the barbs are joined together. At far right is a pennaceous feather that is non-symmetrical about the central rachis. This evolution took place over tens of millions of years (Jurassic to Cretaceous).
! EN_01126623_0069 SCI
Animal nervous systems. Artwork of nerves (yellow) in animals during evolution. The first primitive nervous systems were nerve nets in organisms with radial symmetry such as jellyfish and comb jellies (top). This was followed by the development of bilateral symmetry, nerve cords, and a primitive brain (grouping of ganglia) in a worm-like animal from the Ediacaran period (550-600 million years ago). Below that is a lobster (a crustacean) with the ventral nerve cord along its abdomen typical of arthropods. The vertebrate nervous system is shown for a lizard (bottom), marking the emergence of a spinal cord and a true brain.
! EN_01126623_0152 SCI
Artwork of an adult Brontotherium from 35 million years ago compared to a modern adult white rhinoceros.
! EN_01126623_0153 SCI
Artwork of a Carboniferous forest of Midwestern North America 350 million years ago featuring Lepidodendron aculeatum, Sigillaria scutellata, Asteroxylon mackiei, and primitive ferns.

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