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! EN_01346064_0008 SCI
Peoples of the world. Illustration showing people of diverse ethnicities and cultures from across the world, including Africa, Asia, Europe, Australasia and the Americas. From Meyers Konversations-Lexikon encyclopaedia, 1902.
! EN_01346064_0009 SCI
American peoples. Illustration showing people of diverse ethnicities and cultures from across the Americas. From Meyers Konversations-Lexikon encyclopaedia, 1902.
! EN_01346064_0010 SCI
Asiatic peoples. Illustration showing people of diverse ethnicities and cultures from across Asia. From Meyers Konversations-Lexikon encyclopaedia, 1902.
! EN_01346064_0011 SCI
African peoples. Illustration showing people of diverse ethnicities and cultures from across Africa. From Meyers Konversations-Lexikon encyclopaedia, 1902.
! EN_01337221_0263 SCI
Stages in human evolution, illustration. From left to right are: Ardipithecus ramidus, fossils of which have been found in Aramis, Ethiopia, and dated to around 4.4 million years ago; Australopithecus afarensis, based on the Lucy specimen found in the Afar region of Ethiopia, and dating from 3.3 million years ago; Australopithecus sediba, which lived in Southern Africa around 1.9 million years ago; Australopithecus africanus, which lived in Southern Africa 3.3 to 2.1 million years ago; Paranthropus boisei, which lived in eastern Africa around 2.3 to 1.2 million years ago; Homo erectus, which lived in Africa and Asia between 1.9 million and 143,000 years ago; Homo naledi, whose fossils have been found in South Africa, dating to between 300,000 and 200,000 years old; Homo tsaichangensis, based on the Penghu 1 mandible, found in Taiwan, and believed to have lived less than 450,000 years ago; Homo neanderthalensis, which lived in Europe and western Asia between 230,000 and 29,000 years ago; Denisova hominin, or Denisovan, based on the Xuchang 1 skull found in Eastern China and dating to between 105,000 and 125,000 years ago; finally a Homo sapiens, or modern human.
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! EN_01337221_0264 SCI
Stages in human evolution, illustration. From left to right are: Ardipithecus ramidus, fossils of which have been found in Aramis, Ethiopia, and dated to around 4.4 million years ago; Australopithecus afarensis, based on the Lucy specimen found in the Afar region of Ethiopia, and dating from 3.3 million years ago; Australopithecus sediba, which lived in Southern Africa around 1.9 million years ago; Australopithecus africanus, which lived in Southern Africa 3.3 to 2.1 million years ago; Paranthropus boisei, which lived in eastern Africa around 2.3 to 1.2 million years ago; Homo erectus, which lived in Africa and Asia between 1.9 million and 143,000 years ago; Homo naledi, whose fossils have been found in South Africa, dating to between 300,000 and 200,000 years old; Homo tsaichangensis, based on the Penghu 1 mandible, found in Taiwan, and believed to have lived less than 450,000 years ago; Homo neanderthalensis, which lived in Europe and western Asia between 230,000 and 29,000 years ago; Denisova hominin, or Denisovan, based on the Xuchang 1 skull found in Eastern China and dating to between 105,000 and 125,000 years ago; finally a Homo sapiens, or modern human.
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! EN_01332964_0309 SCI
Biodiversity, conceptual computer illustration. A variety of animals and plants are depicted as a sample of the biodiversity found on Earth.
! EN_01331816_0015 SCI
Evolution of life on Earth. Illustration showing examples of forms of life that have evolved on Earth, from the Cambrian 540 million years ago to the present day. The earliest life is at upper left and the newest life is at lower right. Examples include early invertebrates and arthropods, trilobites, early fish, amphibians, early reptiles, winged insects, dinosaurs, winged reptiles, prehistoric mammals, modern mammals, and early modern humans.
! EN_01317194_0561 SCI
Temnodontosaurus ichthyosaur and prey, illustration. This large ichthyosaur (12 metres long) is feeding on a smaller ichthyosaur (Ichthyosaurus communis). Ichthyosaurs were marine reptiles that lived from 248 to 90 million years ago, during the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous. They were carnivorous predators, and being streamlined and swift were extremely well adapted to their marine habitat. They inhabited an ecological niche that was similar to that of the present day porpoises (marine mammals). Temnodontosaurus ichthyosaurs existed around 200 to 175 million years ago in the Early Jurassic. For a black-and-white version of this artwork, see C038/6469.
! EN_01317194_0562 SCI
Temnodontosaurus ichthyosaur and prey, illustration. This large ichthyosaur (12 metres long) is feeding on a smaller ichthyosaur (Ichthyosaurus communis). Ichthyosaurs were marine reptiles that lived from 248 to 90 million years ago, during the Triassic, Jurassic and Cretaceous. They were carnivorous predators, and being streamlined and swift were extremely well adapted to their marine habitat. They inhabited an ecological niche that was similar to that of the present day porpoises (marine mammals). Temnodontosaurus ichthyosaurs existed around 200 to 175 million years ago in the Early Jurassic. For a colour version of this artwork, see C038/6468.
! EN_01317194_0564 SCI
Magpie and raptor dinosaur, conceptual illustration. The magpie (left) is an example of modern birds, all of which evolved from feathered dinosaurs. The dinosaur shown here is a small raptor-like dinosaur, such as those classified as dromaeosaurs. Such dinosaurs were bipedal and often had feathers. The dinosaur shown here became extinct long before humans and magpies evolved.
! EN_01317194_0565 SCI
Magpie and dinosaur foot, conceptual illustration. The magpie is an example of modern birds, all of which evolved from feathered dinosaurs. The dinosaur foot shown here is that of a large theropod (the group that included dinosaurs such as Tyrannosaurus rex). Such dinosaurs were bipedal and had four toes (one backwards pointing), the same as modern birds. Birds are modern examples of extant (still-living) theropods, and have the same basic foot anatomy. The dinosaur shown here became extinct long before humans and modern birds evolved.
! EN_01312545_0413 SCI
Stages in human evolution, illustration. At left, Proconsul (23-15 million years ago) is shown as an African ape with both primitive and advanced features. From it Australopithecus afarensis (4- 2.5 mya) evolved and displayed a bipedal, upright gait walking on two legs. Homo habilis (2.5 mya) resembled Australopithecus but also used stone tools. At centre is Homo naledi (discovered 2013). About 1.5 mya Homo erectus appeared in Africa, used fire, wooden tools, and migrated into Eurasia. Homo neanderthalensis (200,000 years ago; Europe and the Middle East) was closely related to modern humans (Homo sapiens, right). DNA analysis of a specimen of Homo sapiens (Cheddar Man) suggests the darker skin tone shown here, though it is not possible to be certain about the skin colours of prehistoric humans.
! EN_01312545_0434 SCI
Amniote embryo anatomy. Illustration of the anatomical features common to the embryos of all amniotes. The amniotes are the tetrapod vertebrates: reptiles, birds, and mammals. The developing embryo (formed during sexual reproduction) is surrounded by an amniotic sac and amniotic fluid, encased in a membrane called the amnion. The embryo is nourished by the yolk, contained in its yolk sac. The allantois is a structure used to exchange gases and handle liquid waste. Surrounding all these structures is another membrane, the chorion. The albumen is the egg white (found in the eggs of birds and reptiles). Both the albumen and the outermost shell are different in structure (or absent) in mammals, where the embyro implants in the uterus rather than developing inside a shell. The evolution of the amniote embryo enabled the move from water to land, avoidnig the need to lay eggs in water.
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! EN_01309398_0155 SCI
Pagetia bootes. Illustration of Pagetia bootes, a trilobite known from fossils in the Burgess Shale site (508 million years old) in British Columbia, Canada. The Burgess Shale fossil site records a key moment in Earth's history, the Cambrian Explosion, when an unprecedented period of evolution produced a wide diversity of body types, including those of today's animals.
! EN_01297101_0454 SCI
Prehistoric marine reptiles, illustration. At upper left is Ceresiosaurus. At right is Nothosaurus. At lower left is Placodus. These are earlier, more primitive forms of marine reptiles, with legs and webbed feet or webbed flippers, compared to the fully developed flippers of the plesiosaurs and ichthyosaurs. All three existed during during the Middle Triassic, around 240 million years ago.
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! EN_01292973_0394 SCI
Dimetrodon, illustration. This extinct prehistoric animal is a synapsid, an early form of the evolution from reptiles to mammals. It lived during the 295 to 272 million years ago, during the Early Permian. Most of the known fossils have been found in Texas, USA. Around 3 metres in length, it was one of the dominant land predators at the time. The neural spine sail may have been for thermoregulation, but is also thought to have been used for mating displays. The early synapsids, such as this pelycosaur synapsid, are sometimes described as mammal-like reptiles.
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! EN_01292973_0397 SCI
Moschops head-butting, illustration. The skull of this extinct prehistoric animal evolved to withstand head-butting contests, similar to those seen in goats. This therapsid lived around 260 million years ago (in the later stages of the Permian) in what is today the Karoo region of South Africa. It was a herbivore, and grew to a length of some 5 metres. Therapsids, which evolved from reptiles, included the animals that later evolved into mammals.
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! EN_01292973_0418 SCI
Thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus), illustration. Also called the Tasmanian tiger or wolf, this species of marsupial is considered extinct. The last confirmed sighting in the wild was in Tasmania in 1933, and the last captive animal died in 1936. None have been found since, despite extensive searches. Unrelated to the dog or wolf, the thylacine was about the size of a small wolf, making it the largest marsupial carnivore in recent times. The short, coarse hair was brown with black stripes across the back. Fossils of the species have been found in New Guinea, Australia and Tasmania. It evolved in the Early Pliocene, around 5 million years ago.
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! EN_01292973_0456 SCI
Cat evolution. Illustration showing the skulls and evolutionary relationships between modern cats and prehistoric members of the cat-like carnivorans (felids and feliforms). The evolution ranges over 56 million years, from the Eocene through the Oligocene, Miocene, Pliocene and Pleistocene, to the Holocene and the present day. At lower right are the false sabre-toothed cats (Hoplophoninae and Nimravinae). At upper right are the sabre-toothed cats (Machairodontinae). At centre left and upper left are the modern cats (Felinae), including the cheetah (Acinonyx), the lynxes (Lynx), the pumas (Puma), the wildcat and domestic cat (Felis), the clouded leopards (Neofelis), and the lion, tiger, jaguar and leopards (Panthera).

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