poniedziałek, 23 października 2017
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! EN_90221176_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Early man. Conceptual computer artwork of the debate between Darwin's theory of Evolution (upper left) and the story of Genesis (lower right), the first book of the Bible's Old Testament. In Genesis, Adam and Eve took an apple from the Tree of Knowledge, which was offered by the Devil in the form of a serpent. Adam and Eve were later cast out of Eden into the world as punishment for eating the forbidden fruit.
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! EN_90263175_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Human evolution, conceptual computer artwork. Human footprint over the continent of Africa, representing the 'Out of Africa' theory of evolution. Also seen is a molecule of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), at left, which contains sections called genes that encode the body's genetic information. According to the 'Out of Africa' theory, anatomically modern humans evolved solely in Africa, between 200 and 100 thousand years ago.
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! EN_90263175_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Human evolution, conceptual computer artwork. Human footprints within an imprint of the continent of Africa. This could represent the 'Out of Africa' theory of evolution. According to this theory, anatomically modern humans evolved solely in Africa, between 200 and 100 thousand years ago.
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! EN_90263175_0004 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Human evolution, conceptual computer artwork. Human footprints and a molecule of dna (deoxyribonucleic acid), which contains sections called genes that encode the body's genetic information. Studying the DNA evidence has confirmed the 'Out of Africa' theory of evolution. The theory proposes that anatomically modern humans evolved solely in Africa, between 200 and 100 thousand years ago.
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! EN_90221164_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Early history of the universe. Artwork showing the cooling and expansion of the early universe from its origin in the Big Bang (upper left). The first stage (orange area) is a mixture of protons (blue balls), neutrons (yellow balls) and light photons (yellow arrows). The following four stages (seen from left to right as curved bands) are: a line of hydrogen and helium atoms (379,000 years); the universe becoming transparent to radiation (the straight lines of light); the formation of the first stars (400 million years) and gas clouds (blue area); and the formation of the galaxies (final band, with galaxies shown).
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! EN_90267559_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Mammoth evolutionary migration. Artwork showing the evolution and migration of mammoth species over millions of years. Starting in Africa from 4.8 to 3 million years ago, the mammoth spread to Europe and central Asia (2.6 to 0.7 million years ago), to India (0.7 to 0.3 million years ago), Siberia (350,000 to 3,700 years ago) and North America (1.2 to 0.2 million years ago). A dwarf species of mammoth survived the last Ice Age (20,000 years ago), and was found in California up until 13,500 years ago. All these mammoth species are now extinct.
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! EN_90263174_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Human evolution. Artwork showing a snapshot of the evolution of humans from earlier forms of life. At far left is the shrew-like mammal, Purgatorius (65 million years ago, mya), that is thought to have evolved into a lemur-like animal (second from left, 45 mya). Following this is a succession of four pre-human primates: Aegyptopithecus (35 mya), Proconsul (20 mya), Australopithecus afarensis (4 mya), and Homo erectus (1 mya). Finally, modern humans, Homo sapiens (far right), appeared around 400 thousand years ago.
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! EN_90236922_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Seven Ages of Man. Artwork depicting a male human at seven stages of development. In his play As You Like It, William Shakespeare called these the Seven Ages of Man. They are, from far left: infant, school-boy, lover, soldier, legal justice, pantaloon and second childhood (old age).
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! EN_90217243_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Cladogram of the tree of life. Artwork showing the relative kinship between living organisms. Animals, bacteria, fungi and plants are depicted as a branching 'tree of life', known as a cladogram. It shows a common ancestor (single branch, centre) from which all organisms are descended. Present day organisms (shown as coloured silhouettes) are grouped into taxonomic order according to the closeness of their morphological, molecular and genetic make-up. It shows how closely related groups of organisms are, and supports suggestions of a possible evolutionary ancestry. The 'tree of life' was first popularised by Charles Darwin in his book, The Origin of Species. Cladistics was first developed by German biologist Willi Hennig.
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! EN_90247145_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Australopithecus afarensis skull, computer artwork. Compared to the modern human skull the skull of A. afarensis had a more prominent brow ridge, a broader, flatter nose, a more prominent jaw and a smaller brain. A. afarensis lived between 3.9 and 2.9 million years ago and is thought to be an ancestor of modern humans.
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! EN_90247153_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Australopithecus boisei skull, computer artwork. Australopithecus boisei was a hominid that lived in Africa between about 2.3 to 1.3 million years ago. It had massive teeth, which are thought to have been an adaptation to a diet of tough plant foods. It is thought that its specialisation to such a diet led to its extinction after its environment changed. A. boisei was first discovered by Mary Leakey in the Olduvai Gorge, Tanzania, in 1959, and was named Zinjanthropus boisei. It is a robust australopithecine, and was heavier-built than the gracile australopithecines such as A. afarensis from which humans are thought to have evolved.
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! EN_90191120_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Charles Darwin in his evolutionary tree. Caricature of the British naturalist Charles Robert Darwin (1809-1882) sitting in his 'evolutionary tree'. Darwin studied the differences in closely related but geographically separated species. The evolutionary tree was the notion that all living things are related and, as different species have evolved from common ancestors, new 'branches' of the tree occur. This notion was first illustrated and popularised in The Origin of Species (1859), which also discussed 'natural selection', the notion that variations in species form arose over time, but only those variations which enhanced a species' chance of survival would be propagated.
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! EN_90262789_0005 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Homo floresiensis skull (left) next to a human (Homo sapiens sapiens) skull (right), computer artwork. Homo floresiensis was a very small hominid, measuring just over a metre tall and having a very small brain. It is thought that it was a descendant of Homo erectus that underwent island dwarfism, a process where isolated species that lack predators, and are constrained by limited resources evolve to become smaller. It is thought to have become extinct 12,000 years ago, and so co-existed with modern humans (Homo sapiens). Remains of this skull were found in Liang Bua cave, Flores, Indonesia in 2003.
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! EN_90262765_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Hominid settlement. Artwork of a group of Paranthropus boisei around a grass hut. This was a species of early hominid estimated to have lived 2.6 to 1.3 million years ago in the Pliocene and Pleistocene epochs.
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! EN_90262765_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Hominid settlement. Artwork of an Homo erectus tribe in a settlement. Some are using fire to make tools while others in the group are feeding on a recent kill. Homo erectus was a hominid that lived from around 1.8 to 0.3 million years ago in the Pleistocene epoch during the Quaternary period.
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! EN_90262772_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Hominids. Artwork of a group of Australopithecus hominids (Australopithecus africanus) using tools and feeding. This omnivorous hominid lived in the Pliocene (between 3.3 and 2.4 million years ago).
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! EN_90256445_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Ediacaran organisms. Artwork of organisms that existed during the Ediacaran period (around 635 to 542 million years ago). This period of the Proterozoic era was characterised by the emergence of the first multicellular animals. These were soft-bodied bottom-dwelling marine animals and included Dickinsonia (centre left, red) Tribrachidium (disc- shaped, yellow, centre right) and Spriggina (orange, lower centre).
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! EN_90213696_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Historical artwork of four great apes. These four apes are catarrhines, an infraorder which includes the apes and Old World monkeys. Apes, unlike monkeys, do not have tails, are more intelligent and depend more on their eyes than their noses. The great apes seen here are (from bottom left working clockwise) an orangutan, a chimpanzee, a gorilla and a human. There is some debate as to whether humans should be considered great apes, though a chimpanzee shares more genetic material with a human - about 99% - than with a gorilla. Illustration by Ernst Haeckel, first published in his Anthropogenie (1874).
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! EN_90236922_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Seven Ages of Man. Artwork depicting a male human at seven stages of development. In his play As You Like It, William Shakespeare called these the Seven Ages of Man. They are, from far left: infant, school-boy, lover, soldier, legal justice, pantaloon and second childhood (old age).
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! EN_90236922_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Seven Ages of Man. Artwork depicting a male human at seven stages of development. In his play As You Like It, William Shakespeare called these the Seven Ages of Man. They are, from far left: infant, school-boy, lover, soldier, legal justice, pantaloon and second childhood (old age).
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