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Anatomia człowieka (1037)

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! EN_90227832_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Kidneys. Computer artwork of the human renal system. The kidneys (brown/red, left and right) filter waste products and water from blood that passes through the organs in the renal arteries (red) and veins (blue). The filtrate (urine) is passed down the ureters (beige) to the urinary bladder (not seen), where it is stored. On the top of each kidney is an adrenal gland (yellow). These glands produce steroid hormones, adrenaline and noradrenaline that function in controlling heart rate and blood pressure.
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! EN_90230084_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Male urinary tract. Computer artwork of the male urinary tract. The kidneys (brown, upper left and right) filter waste products from the blood. The filtrate (urine) is passed down the ureters (beige) to the urinary bladder (red, lower centre), where it is stored. Urine is expelled from the body through the urethra (blue) below the bladder. The prostate gland (brown) and Cowper's glands (white) produce seminal fluid. On the top of each kidney is an adrenal gland (yellow). These glands produce steroid hormones, and adrenaline and noradrenaline, which function in controlling heart rate and blood pressure.
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! EN_90233364_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Pancreas. Computer artwork of a human pancreas. The pancreas is between 15 and 20 centimetres in length. It is located in the abdominal cavity behind the stomach. Cells in the pancreas secrete digestive juices and the hormones insulin and glucagon, which regulate blood sugar levels. The digestive juices collect in a duct (not seen), which runs the length of the pancreas. The juices are discharged into the duodenum, the beginning of the small intestine that receives food from the stomach.
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! EN_90226580_0011 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Human skeleton. Computer artwork of the human skeletal system. The 206 bones of the skeleton provide protection and support, and their joints allow locomotion. The skull (at top) protects the brain. The ribs of the chest (at upper centre) enclose the heart and lungs. The pelvis (at centre) protects the lower abdominal organs. The flexible backbone runs from the skull to the pelvis and protects the spinal cord. The long leg and arm bones provide support. The humerus (upper- arm bone) articulates with the radius and ulna (lower-arm bones) at the elbow. The femur (thigh bone) articulates with the fibula and tibia (lower-leg bones) at the knee.
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! EN_90226598_0010 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Human skull, computer artwork. The skull consists of numerous bones fused together to protect the organs of the head. The bones of the cranium (upper centre) cover and protect the brain. The eyes fit in the two large cavities (centre), while the nose covers the nasal cavity between the eyes. The cheek bones below the eyes run back around the face towards the ear holes on each side of the skull. The large spaces each side of the eyes are where the soft tissue of the temple is found. The lower jaw bone (mandible) slots into these spaces and is attached at flexible joints, allowing it to move. The upper and lower jaw bones contain 32 permanent teeth.
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! EN_90241241_0005 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Upper body anatomy. Glass-effect human male body showing the internal anatomy of the upper body and head. Inside the head is the brain (top). Inside the chest is the ribcage (upper centre), which protects the heart (just right of the spine) and lungs (either side of the spine). At the bottom of the ribcage is the stomach where food is digested before passing into the intestine (lower centre). The small and large intestines fill the abdominal cavity above the pelvic bone.
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! EN_90241241_0006 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Upper body anatomy. Glass-effect human male body in side view, showing the internal anatomy of the upper body and head. Inside the head is the brain (top). The backbone (spine) runs down the back of the body from the base of the head to the pelvic bone. Inside the chest is the ribcage (upper centre), which protects the heart and lungs. At the bottom of the ribcage is the stomach where food is digested before passing into the intestine (lower centre). The small and large intestines fill the abdominal cavity above the pelvic bone.
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! EN_90241241_0007 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Upper body anatomy. Glass-effect human female body showing the internal anatomy of the upper body and head. Inside the head is the brain (top). Inside the chest is the ribcage (upper centre), which protects the heart (just right of the spine) and lungs (either side of the spine). At the bottom of the ribcage is the stomach where food is digested before passing into the intestine (lower centre). The small and large intestines fill the abdominal cavity above the pelvic bone.
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! EN_90241241_0008 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Upper body anatomy. Glass-effect human female body in side view, showing the internal anatomy of the upper body and head. Inside the head is the brain (top). The backbone (spine) runs down the back of the body from the base of the head to the pelvic bone. Inside the chest is the ribcage (upper centre), which protects the heart and lungs. At the bottom of the ribcage is the stomach where food is digested before passing into the intestine (lower centre). The small and large intestines fill the abdominal cavity above the pelvic bone.
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! EN_90241243_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Upper body skeleton. Computer artwork of a glass- effect human male body showing the skeletal structure of the head and torso. Inside the head is the skull (top), comprising the cranium or braincase, facial and jaw bones. The backbone or spinal column runs down the back of the body from the base of the skull to the pelvic bones (bottom). The ribcage (centre) is formed of twelve pairs of curved ribs that attach to the spinal column. The ribcage protects the organs of the thoracic cavity. The ribs attach at the front of the body to the sternum or breastbone (centre). At the top of the sternum are the collar bones, also known as clavicles (left & right, upper centre).
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! EN_90241243_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Upper body skeleton. Computer artwork of a glass- effect human male body in side view showing the skeletal structure of the head and torso. Inside the head is the skull (top), comprising the cranium or braincase, facial and jaw bones. The backbone or spinal column runs down the back of the body from the base of the skull to the pelvic bones (not seen). The ribcage (lower centre) is formed of twelve pairs of curved ribs that attach to the spinal column at the back and the sternum or breastbone at the front. The ribcage protects the organs of the thoracic cavity. The large bones behind the ribcage are the scapulae or shoulder blades (only one seen).
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! EN_90241243_0003 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Upper body skeleton. Computer artwork of a glass- effect human female body showing the skeletal structure of the head and torso. Inside the head is the skull (top), comprising the cranium or braincase, facial and jaw bones. The backbone or spinal column runs down the back of the body from the base of the skull to the pelvic bones (bottom). The ribcage (centre) is formed of twelve pairs of curved ribs that attach to the spinal column. The ribcage protects the organs of the thoracic cavity. The ribs attach at the front of the body to the sternum or breastbone (centre). At the top of the sternum are the collar bones, also known as clavicles (left & right, upper centre).
Wysoka rozdzielczosc dostepna na zamowienie
! EN_90241243_0004 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Upper body skeleton. Computer artwork of a glass- effect human female body in side view showing the skeletal structure of the head and torso. Inside the head is the skull (top), comprising the cranium or braincase, facial and jaw bones. The backbone or spinal column runs down the back of the body from the base of the skull to the pelvic bones (not seen). The ribcage (lower centre) is formed of twelve pairs of curved ribs that attach to the spinal column at the back and the sternum or breastbone at the front. The ribcage protects the organs of the thoracic cavity. The large bones behind the ribcage are the scapulae or shoulder blades (only one seen).
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! EN_90226443_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Brain, brainstem. Computer artwork of a human brain in profile within a glass-effect male head, showing the location of the brainstem and central brain structures (red). The brainstem (lower centre of brain) connects the brain to the spinal cord. It consists of the medulla oblongata, pons and the midbrain. The brainstem functions in attention, arousal and consciousness. Deep in the centre of the brain are the thalamus and basal ganglia, which relay sensory and motor information between the cerebral cortex and brainstem. The hypothalamus, which regulates temperature and appetite, and the pituitary gland, which produces hormones, are also located in this central area.
Wysoka rozdzielczosc dostepna na zamowienie
! EN_90226443_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Brain, brainstem. Computer artwork of a human brain in profile within a glass-effect female head, showing the location of the brainstem and central brain structures (red). The brainstem (lower centre of brain) connects the brain to the spinal cord. It consists of the medulla oblongata, pons and the midbrain. The brainstem functions in attention, arousal and consciousness. Deep in the centre of the brain are the thalamus and basal ganglia, which relay sensory and motor information between the cerebral cortex and brainstem. The hypothalamus, which regulates temperature and appetite, and the pituitary gland, which produces hormones, are also located in this central area.
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! EN_90226451_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Brain, occipital lobe. Computer artwork of a human brain in profile within a glass-effect male head, showing the location of the occipital lobe (red). The occipital lobe is part of the cerebral cortex and is the centre for visual perception. It receives and processes information from the optic tract, allowing awareness and discrimination of visual stimuli. The cerebral cortex is rich in nerve cells and is folded into gyri. The brainstem (bottom centre of the brain) sub-consciously controls the body's vital functions, including breathing and blood pressure. The cerebellum (lower left of brain) controls muscular coordination, balance and posture.
Wysoka rozdzielczosc dostepna na zamowienie
! EN_90226451_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Brain, occipital lobe. Computer artwork of a human brain in profile within a glass-effect female head, showing the location of the occipital lobe (red). The occipital lobe is part of the cerebral cortex and is the centre for visual perception. It receives and processes information from the optic tract, allowing awareness and discrimination of visual stimuli. The cerebral cortex is rich in nerve cells and is folded into gyri. The brainstem (bottom centre of the brain) sub-consciously controls the body's vital functions, including breathing and blood pressure. The cerebellum (lower left of brain) controls muscular coordination, balance and posture.
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! EN_90229465_0008 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Lungs in a wireframe body, computer artwork. The windpipe (trachea, grey) runs downwards from the neck. It branches (upper centre) into two bronchi, one for each of the two lungs. Each bronchus branches to form bronchioles, which themselves branch to form smaller bronchioles. This repeated branching forms numerous airways in each lung. The airways terminate in tiny air sacs called alveoli (not visible). The alveoli provide a large surface area for gaseous exchange. In the alveoli, oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged between the blood and the lungs. The lungs expand and contract with each breath. The shapes that they form in the chest are shown (dark blue).
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! EN_90232080_0001 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Nerve cell synapse formation. Computer artwork of the formation of a synapse, the junction between a nerve cell and another cell. The nerve cell (blue) has been found by the axon (orange) of another nerve cell (main body not seen). The axon is an extension that a nerve cell uses to transmit electrical impulses to other cells. The target cell will form its own extension (a dendrite, five already seen here) to receive the signals and to strengthen the synapse formed. The formation and strengthening of new brain synapses is a key part of childhood development. The axon's terminal bouton (bulge) contains neurotransmitter chemicals that carry signals across the synaptic junction.
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! EN_90232080_0002 SCI
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Nerve cell synapse formation. Computer artwork of the formation of a synapse, the junction between a nerve cell and another cell. The nerve cell (blue) has been found by the axon (orange) of another nerve cell (main body not seen). The axon is an extension that a nerve cell uses to transmit electrical impulses to other cells. The target cell will form its own extension (a dendrite, five already seen here) to receive the signals and to strengthen the synapse formed. The formation and strengthening of new brain synapses is a key part of childhood development. The axon's terminal bouton (bulge) contains neurotransmitter chemicals that carry signals across the synaptic junction.
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