Friday, July 19, 2019
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Scientists (66)

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Pictures

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Johannes Muller von Konigsberg (1436-1476), known by his Latin pseudonym Regiomontanus, a German mathematician, astronomer and astrologer. Portrait from Liber chronicarum mundi, Nuremberg (1493).
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Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), Danish astronomer. After becoming interested in astronomy as a student in Copenhagen, Tycho Brahe realized the difficulty of making accurate measurements of celestial bodies with the instruments of the day. His designs for new methods and devices won him great fame. He was granted an estate on the island of Hven to conduct his research, and funding to built the Uraniborg observatory. From there he generated the most accurate astronomical data of his time. He was exiled to Prague in 1597 and was assisted in his work there by Johannes Kepler until his death. Due to a duelling injury at university, he always wore a metal nose prosthetic.
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Tycho Brahe (1546-1601), Danish astronomer. After becoming interested in astronomy as a student in Copenhagen, Tycho Brahe realized the difficulty of making accurate measurements of celestial bodies with the instruments of the day. His designs for new methods and devices won him great fame. He was granted an estate on the island of Hven to conduct his research, and funding to built the Uraniborg observatory. From there he generated the most accurate astronomical data of his time. He was exiled to Prague in 1597 and was assisted in his work there by Johannes Kepler until his death. Due to a duelling injury at university, he always wore a metal nose prosthetic.
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Richard Anthony Proctor, English astronomer, best known for producing one of the earliest maps of Mars in 1867 from 27 drawings by the English observer William Rutter Dawes.
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Portrait of Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), the Polish astronomer who first claimed that the Universe was centered around the Sun. From 1512, he developed a mathematical model for this heliocentric theory. This system contrasted with the thousand-year-old Earth-centered Ptolemaic system, to which the Roman Catholic church adhered. Copernicus feared persecution and delayed publication of his book, "The Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres," until 1543. The book was banned by the Roman Catholic church from 1616 until 1835. Color enhancement of BN2273.
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Polish astronomer Johannes Hevelius (1611-1687) and his wife Elisabetha observing the stars. This is an illustration from Hevelius' book "Machina Coelestis" (Celestial Machine). Hevelius invented ten new constellations, seven of which are still recognized by astronomers. Elisabetha Koopman, Hevelius' second wife and assistant, completed her husband's final project after his death. Color enhancement of BN2268.
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Christoph Scheiner (c.1573-1650), a German Jesuit father, physicist and astronomer, and a co-discoverer of sunspots. Color enhancement of BN2271.
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Portrait of Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543), the Polish astronomer who first claimed that the Universe was centered around the Sun. From 1512, he developed a mathematical model for this heliocentric theory. This system contrasted with the thousand-year-old Earth-centered Ptolemaic system, to which the Roman Catholic church adhered. Copernicus feared persecution and delayed publication of his book, "The Revolution of the Heavenly Spheres," until 1543. The book was banned by the Roman Catholic church from 1616 until 1835. Color enhancement of BN2272.
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"The doctor discovers, one by one, the secrets of the human body." Andreas Vesalius (1514-1564), the Belgian anatomist who founded modern anatomy. In Italy, Vesaluis revolutionized the study of anatomy, ending the teaching of Galen and practicing direct observation by dissection. His results were published in 1543 in the famous book De Humani Corporis Fabrica (On Structure of the Human Body). The first accurate work on human anatomy, it included many descriptions and fine woodcuts. After this early success, he became a court physician and all but gave up research. Color enhancement of 9N1103.
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Johannes Kepler, German astronomer (1571-1630). Kepler devised the three fundamental laws of planetary motion. These laws were based on detailed observations of the planets made by Tycho Brahe and himself. Kepler's first law states that the planets orbit the Sun in elliptical paths, with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse. The second law states that the closer a planet comes to the Sun, the faster it moves. Kepler's third law states that the ratio of the cube of a planet's mean distance from the Sun to the square of its orbital period is a constant. Newton used these ideas to formulate his theory of gravity. Enhancement of black and white image 7p8543.
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Democritus of Abdera (470-400 BC), Greek philosopher and the father of atomic theory. Democritus published works on ethics, physics, mathematics, cosmology and music. Very little has survived but his theories are known through commentaries on his work by later philosophers. In his atomic theory he stated that matter is made up of tiny indivisible particles called atoms. The properties of different substances were determined by the physical features of the atoms. For instance, atoms of water were smooth and round whilst atoms of fire were thorny. He believed that the motion of atoms was dictated by definite universal laws of nature and not by the will of the Gods. (Enhancement of BD8010)
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Newton analyzing the Ray of light. Colorized version of 9L6458.
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A wood engraving of Aristotle (384-322 BC), the ancient Greek philosopher who wrote on everything from poetry to physics, rhetoric, logic, zoology, biology and government. His many works include 'Nicomachean Ethics' and 'Poetics.' Colorized version of 9A8252.
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Sir Isaac Newton, President of the Royal Society and an English mathematician, philosopher, and scientist. Colorized version of 9A8188.
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Johann Kepler (1571-1630), German astronomer. Kepler formulated the three fundamental laws of planetary motion based on the detailed observations of the planets made by Tycho Brahe. The first of these laws concerned the orbits of planets, which Kepler showed to be elliptical and not circular as previous held. Colorized version of 9A8154.
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David Brewster (1781-1868), Scottish physicist. Brewster was a child prodigy, and studied for the ministry of the Church of Scotland. Because he was afraid of speaking in public, he turned instead to the study of optics. He received an award in 1816 for his equation for Brewster's Angle, an angle to maximize reflected light polarization. His other advances in optics included the polyzonal lens (1811) that improved lighthouse lights. He is best remembered for his invention, in 1816, of the kaleidoscope. Millions of the toys were sold. His work on polarization has numerous applications in fiber optics, lasers, microscopy and radio. He was knighted in 1832. Colored Version of BD8006.
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Illustration of Pierre Curie (1859-1906), a French physicist renowned for his study of crystallography, magnetism, piezoelectricity, and radioactivity. Colored Version of BD5963.
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A portrait of Copernicus, the astronomer.
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Johannes Kepler, German astronomer (1571-1630). Kepler devised the three fundamental laws of planetary motion. These laws were based on detailed observations of the planets made by Tycho Brahe and himself. Kepler's first law states that the planets orbit the Sun in elliptical paths, with the Sun at one focus of the ellipse. The second law states that the closer a planet comes to the Sun, the faster it moves. Kepler's third law states that the ratio of the cube of a planet's mean distance from the Sun to the square of its orbital period is a constant. Newton used these ideas to formulate his theory of gravity.
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PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SSPL Unmanned balloon ascent from the Champs de Mars in Paris. After hearing of the Montgolfier brothers?? success, Jacques Charles (1746-1823), a French professor of physics, joined forces with two local craftsmen, Jean and Nicolas Robert, to produce ?"The Globe??. 12 feet in diameter, it was made of silk with an inpermeable rubberised coating containing the lifting gas hydrogen. It rose 3000 feet in the air before falling to the ground near Gonesse 15 miles (24 km) away, whereupon terrified villagers, believing it to be the devil, set upon it and tore it to shreds. Illustration from ?"Histoire des ballons et des aeronautes celebres: 1783-1800?? (History of balloons and famous aeronauts), by Gaston Tissandier (1843-1899), published in 1887.

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