Monday, June 26, 2017
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Scientists (486)

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! EN_01173231_0014 SCI
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642). Historical artwork of the Italian astronomer and physicist Galileo Galilei. Galileo was the first to successfully use a telescope to observe the heavens, discovering new stars, mountains on the Moon, and the phases of Venus. His discoveries supported the Copernican theory that the Sun, not the Earth, was at the centre of the solar system. This brought Galileo into conflict with the Roman Catholic Church and, in 1632, he was found guilty of heresy and was held under house arrest for the rest of his life.
Editorial use only
! EN_01150989_9866 SCI
Charles Tilston Bright (1832-1888), British electrical engineer who worked on submarine telegraph cables in the British Isles. He then supervised the laying of the first transatlantic telegraph cable in 1858 and many other deep-water telegraph cables in many overseas locations including the Mediterranean, the Caribbean, and the Persian Gulf section of the telegraph linking London and India. The acoustic telegraph known as Bright's Bells was one of the inventions and improvements he introduced into the working of the telegraph. Together with his brother he held many wide-ranging patents on telegraphy. He became the President of the Institution of Electrical Engineers in 1887, and was Liberal member of Parliament for Greenwich from 1865 to 1868.
! EN_01150989_9867 SCI
John Watkins Brett (18051863), English art collector and telegraph engineer, considered the founder of the submarine telegraph. With his younger brother, Jacob, he developed the idea of telegraphy using submerged cables across the Atlantic to America. He sold part of his art collection to raise finance, but the project was too ambitious. The brothers formed the Submarine Telegraph Company to lay a cable between Dover and Calais in 1850. It failed almost immediately due to design and manufacturing problems, but they established a permanent link in 1851. In 1856 Brett helped to found the Atlantic Telegraph Company which laid the first transatlantic cable, but this failed after a few weeks. Unfortunately, Brett did not live to see the first successful transatlantic cable of 1866.
! EN_01150989_9868 SCI
Abbe Giovanni Caselli (1815 1891), Italian priest and professor of physics, invented the first practicable telefax machine, the pantelegraph. Its use of a large pendulum overcame the synchronisation problems between the transmitter and receiver found on the existing telefax devices of Bain and Bakewell. It was capable of sending and receiving both written script and drawings. Following a successful demonstration in 1861 Napoleon III ordered the pantelegraph to be used on the French national telegraph service. It ws also used in Great Britain from 1863 and in Russia from 1864.
! EN_01150989_9869 SCI
Josiah Latimer Clark (1822-98) a civil engineer closely associated with the evolution of the electric telegraph, and also the design and construction of submarine cables. Originally a chemist, in 1848 he was appointed assistant engineer in the construction of the Menai Straits railway bridge. His interest in telegraphic communications technology led him to introduce several improvements in cable construction, notably by coating the gutta-percha enclosing the underground wires with a protective solution. Amongst his many patents was an insulator to carry telegraph wires, and he also investigated the problems involved in the propagation of electric current in submarine telegraph cables. In 1861 he went into partnership with Charles Tilston Bright, and under Clark's supervision their firm laid some 50, 000 miles of cables across the world's oceans.
! EN_01151355_0196 SCI
Sir Henry Halford (1766-1844), First Baronet, English physician. Born Henry Vaughan, he was educated at Rugby School and at Christchurch College, Oxford. Having qualified, he moved to London and advanced rapidly through the strata of medicine. In 1793 he was made physician extraordinary to King George III, the youngest ever such appointee.In 1809 he was created Baronet, at which time he changed his name to Halford in expectation of a family inheritance. He served as Physician in Ordinary to George III from 1812, retaining the position with George IV, William IV and the young Queen Victoria.
! EN_01151355_0197 SCI
Sir Henry Bessemer (1813-98), British metallurgist. Bessemer achieved fame for developing a process for the mass production of steel. He developed his 'converter', in which impurities were removed from iron, then controlled amounts of carbon added to make the desired grade of steel. Particularly important was the use of a calcium carbonate lining to the converter, used to remove the phosphorus found in European iron ore that made steel brittle. Although his original motivation was to produce steel for armaments, the process allowed steel to be made for railroads and large civil engineering projects. Bessemer was knighted in 1879.
! EN_01151355_0198 SCI
Sir Robert Christison (1797-1882), Scottish toxicologist and physician. Christison was born and educated at Edinburgh, before studying in London and Paris. In 1822 he was appointed professor of medical jurisprudence at Edinburgh, rapidly becoming known as an authority on poisons. He wasn't above self-experimentation, having taken high doses of chemicals such as physostigmine. In 1832 he accepted the chair of medicine and therapeutics, which led to a substantial reputation and even more substantial private practice. In 1848 he was appointed physician to Queen Victoria and in 1871 received a baronetcy. He finally retired at the age of 80 and died five years later.
! EN_01151355_0199 SCI
Sir Robert Kane (1809-90), Irish chemist. Kane was born in Dublin, Ireland, and was educated by his father. Kane went on to study medicine at Trinity College and pharmacy in Paris. He was appointed Professor of Chemistry at the Apothecaries' Hall, Dublin, in 1831 and was elected to the Royal Irish Academy in 1832. He wrote influencial books such as 'Elements of Practical Pharmacy' (1831) and 'Elements of Chemistry' (1849). He was the first to show that hydrogen is electropositive, proposed the existence of the ethyl radical and made many advances in the study of acids. He made a detailed report on the industrial resources of Ireland and served on several commissions. he was knighted in 1846.
! EN_01151355_0201 SCI
George Stephenson (1781-1848), English engineer known as the father of the railways. At the age of 14, Stephenson began a job as a steam engine tender at a coal mine. He obtained a basic education at night school, working at various pits until settling at Killingworth. In 1811 he fixed the mine's pumping engine so well that he was appointed enginewright. Following a visit by Trevithick, Stephenson designed his first steam locomotive, the 'Blucher', in 1814, and in 1821 built the first railway between Stockton and Darlington with the engine 'Locomotion'. The distance he set between rails, 4ft 8.5in (1440mm) remains the world's effective standard guage. He invented a miners' safety lamp in 1818, independently of Davy, but was only recognised as such after years of legal wrangling. He also designed the fist skew arch bridge, allowing roads and canals to cross railways at acute angles.
! EN_01151355_0202 SCI
Sir Thomas Foxwell Buxton (1786-1845), English politician and social reformer. Buxton was born at Castle Hedingham in Essex and privately educated. He started working at a brewery belonging to family friends in 1808, was made a partner in 1811 and eventually became sole owner. Although an Anglican by upbringing, he encountered the Gurney family, prominent Quakers, and became a supporter of many of their social causes. He raised money for the London weavers and for Elizabeth Fry's work on penal reform. In 1818 he became Member of Parliament (MP) for Weymouth and became a major figure campaining for the abolition of slavery and for an end to capital punishment. During his career, the num ber of capital offences on the statutes were reduced from over 200 to just eight. Buxton was also founding chairman of the Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals, later the RSPCA.
! EN_01151355_0204 SCI
Sir Henry Bessemer (1813-98), British metallurgist. Bessemer achieved fame for developing a process for the mass production of steel. He developed his 'converter', in which impurities were removed from iron, then controlled amounts of carbon added to make the desired grade of steel. Particularly important was the use of a calcium carbonate lining to the converter, used to remove the phosphorus found in European iron ore that made steel brittle. Although his original motivation was to produce steel for armaments, the process allowed steel to be made for railroads and large civil engineering projects. Bessemer was knighted in 1879.
! EN_01151355_0206 SCI
John Ross (1777-1856), Scottish naval officer and explorer. Ross was born near Stranraer, the son of a clergyman. At the age of nine he was apprenticed into the Royal Navy. After rising through the ranks, in 1818 he was sent by the Admiralty to recommence a search for the Northwest Passage from the Atlantic to the Pacific, and to collect tide, current and magnetic information. He set off with two ships, but didn't progress further than was already known. On a second expedition he managed to get stuck in the ice for four years, but did locate the magnetic north pole. After a failed third expedition, he retired with the rank of Rear Admiral and settled in Scotland.
! EN_01151355_0207 SCI
David Hume (1711-76), Scottish philosopher and historian. Hume was born and educated at Edinburgh. He rejected the idea of causality, claiming that one event would not necessarily lead to another; events were linked only by the imagination of the observer rather than by reason. In effect, Hume was rejecting scientific laws which state that one action necessarily produces another in a completely predictable manner. As a historian, Hume broke with tradition by explaining the intellectual and economic reasons behind events rather than just describing the events in a strictly chronological order.
! EN_01151355_0208 SCI
Isambard Kingdom Brunel (1806-1859), English civil engineer. He was educated first by his father Marc, then later at Caen and Paris. He was apprenticed to the clock maker Breguet, but after completing his apprenticeship in 1822 returned to London. In 1825, Brunel helped his father to construct the first tunnel under the Thames in London, England. In 1830, he won the competition for a design for the Clifton Suspension Bridge in Bristol, England, his first independent work. In 1833, he was appointed engineer of the Great Western Railway (GWR). He designed and built the broad guage GWR railway track between London and southwest England, including many viaducts and tunnels. He later designed huge steam ships capable of crossing the Atlantic, amongst which were the Great Britain, the Great Western, and the Great Eastern.
! EN_01151355_0209 SCI
Robert Peel (1788-1850), British Prime Minister, reformer and politician. Peel studied at Oxford University, and became a Member of Parliament (MP) for the Tory party at the age of 21. He was Home Secretary from 1822. In this role he was responsible for the creation of the Metropolitan Police Force in 1829, the first official British police force. They were called 'peelers' or 'bobbies' (the latter term derives from the nickname Bob for Robert - and is still in use today). Peel was briefly Prime Minister from 1834-1835, then as leader of a majority government from 1841-1846. Reforms included the Factory Act (1844) and repealing the Corn Laws (1846) as a belated response to the Irish potato famine. He inherited his father's title of baronet in 1830.
! EN_01151355_0210 SCI
Michael Faraday (1791-1867), British chemist and physicist. Faraday lacked a formal education and achieved fame through his experimental work. He worked at the Royal Institution, London, rising from laboratory assistant to Humphrey Davy (1813), to Professor of Chemistry (1833). Faraday made several discoveries in chemistry in the 1820s, but his major works were in the areas of magnetism and electricity. Early experiments used electricity to produce motion (1821). Work on electromagnetic induction produced the first transformer (1831) and then the dynamo in the same year. He suggested the concepts of electric and magnetic fields. His lectures at the Royal Institution popularized science amongst the public, through 'evening discourses' for the gentry and the Christmas Lecture series for children, both of which continue to this day.
! EN_01151355_0211 SCI
John Quekett (1815-61), English microscopist and histologist. Quekett was born in Langport, Somerset and educated at home. By the age of 16 he had built his own microscope and was lecturing on microscopic subjects. He was apprenticed to a local surgeon, then to his brother Edwin, before entering King's College London and the London Hospital medical school. He formed an extensive collection of over 2500 prepared slides of animal and plant cells in health and disease, later purchased by the Royal College of Surgeons where he succeeded Richard Owen as conservator of the Hunterian Museum. Quekett published many books of instruction in the use of the microscope, influencing many later generations of histologists and anatomists. In 1839 he founded the Royal Microscopical Society and was later elected Fellow of the Linnean Society and the Royal Society.
! EN_01151355_0212 SCI
John Quekett (1815-61), English microscopist and histologist. Quekett was born in Langport, Somerset and educated at home. By the age of 16 he had built his own microscope and was lecturing on microscopic subjects. He was apprenticed to a local surgeon, then to his brother Edwin, before entering King's College London and the London Hospital medical school. He formed an extensive collection of over 2500 prepared slides of animal and plant cells in health and disease, later purchased by the Royal College of Surgeons where he succeeded Richard Owen as conservator of the Hunterian Museum. Quekett published many books of instruction in the use of the microscope, influencing many later generations of histologists and anatomists. In 1839 he founded the Royal Microscopical Society and was later elected Fellow of the Linnean Society and the Royal Society.
! EN_01151355_0213 SCI
George Stephenson (1781-1848), English engineer known as the father of the railways. At the age of 14, Stephenson began a job as a steam engine tender at a coal mine. He obtained a basic education at night school, working at various pits until settling at Killingworth. In 1811 he fixed the mine's pumping engine so well that he was appointed enginewright. Following a visit by Trevithick, Stephenson designed his first steam locomotive, the 'Blucher', in 1814, and in 1821 built the first railway between Stockton and Darlington with the engine 'Locomotion'. The distance he set between rails, 4ft 8.5in (1440mm) remains the world's effective standard guage. He invented a miners' safety lamp in 1818, independently of Davy, but was only recognised as such after years of legal wrangling. He also designed the fist skew arch bridge, allowing roads and canals to cross railways at acute angles.

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