Electromagnetic particle shower. Particle tracks (moving from bottom to top) showing multiple electron-positron pairs created from the energy of a high-energy gamma ray photon produced by a neutrino collision. The positron is the anti-particle of the electron, and this process is called ^Ipair-creation^i. Electrons and positrons are charged particles and form these paired spirals as they curve away from each other in a magnetic field. As they do so, they radiate photons, which can in turn produce new electron-positron pairs. This shower of particle creation continues until the energy of the original photon is used up. The region shown here is about 2 metres tall.

^BElectromagnetic spectrum.^b Computer artwork of the electromagnetic (EM) spectrum (across centre) and the component colours of visible light (across bottom). The changing wavelength of EM radiation through the spectrum is shown by the trace across top. At the high wavelength end of the spectrum are (from left to right) gamma rays, X-rays and ultraviolet light. In the centre of the EM spectrum are wavelengths that the human eye can see, known as visible light. Visible light comprises light of different wavelengths and energies, and hence colours. At the low wavelength end of the EM spectrum (centre to right) are infra red radiation, microwaves and radio waves.

Stanene sheet. Computer artwork showing the molecular structure of a sheet of stanene. Stanene is the name given by researchers to 2-dimensional sheets of tin (silver-coloured) that are only 1-atom thick, in a manner similar to graphene. Stanene is a theoretical topological insulator that may display superconductivity at its edges above room temperature. The addition of fluorine (green) atoms to the tin lattice could extend the critical temperature up to 100 degrees Celsius.

Superstring theory is an attempt to explain all of the particles and fundamental forces of nature in one theory by modelling them as vibrations of tiny supersymmetric strings. Superstring theory is a shorthand for supersymmetric string theory because unlike bosonic string theory, it is the version of string theory that incorporates fermions and supersymmetry. Since the second superstring revolution the five superstring theories are regarded as different limits of a single theory tentatively called M-theory, or simply string theory.

energy formation

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lasers and bubbles

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Atomic symbol

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Atomic symbol

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Glossy Red Atomic-Nuclear Symbol

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Newtons Cradle

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Computer illustration of electrical discharge.

Mandelbrot set. Fractal geometry is used to derive complex shapes as are often found in nature. Complex patterns are produced by a series of repeated mathematical operations or mappings. Generated on a computer screen, fractals are used to create models for real-world non-linear phenomena. Center coordinates: Real: -0.1673077, Imaginary: 1.0410714, Side Length: 0.001.

Digital illustration of the atomic structure. The nucleus is made up of protons and neutrons, and the orbitals are made up of electrons.

Fractal landscape. Mandelbrot set. Fractal geometry is used to derive complex shapes as are often found in nature. Complex patterns are produced by a series of repeated mathematical operations or mappings. Generated on a computer screen, fractals are used to create models for real-world non-linear phenomena.

Fractal landscape. Mandelbrot set. Fractal geometry is used to derive complex shapes as are often found in nature. Complex patterns are produced by a series of repeated mathematical operations or mappings. Generated on a computer screen, fractals are used to create models for real-world non-linear phenomena.

Fractal landscape. Mandelbrot set. Fractal geometry is used to derive complex shapes as are often found in nature. Complex patterns are produced by a series of repeated mathematical operations or mappings. Generated on a computer screen, fractals are used to create models for real-world non-linear phenomena.

Computer-generated model of a neon atom. The nucleus, at center, is too small to be seen at this scale and is represented by the flash of light. Surrounding the nucleus are the atom's electron orbitals: 1s (small sphere), 2s (large sphere) and 2p (lobed). The 2p orbitals are attenuated for clarity.

Computer-generated model of a neon atom. The nucleus, at center, is too small to be seen at this scale and is represented by the flash of light. Surrounding the nucleus are the atom's electron orbitals: 1s (small sphere), 2s (large sphere) and 2p (lobed). The 2p orbitals are attenuated for clarity.

Computer-generated model of a neon atom. The nucleus, at center, is too small to be seen at this scale and is represented by the flash of light. Surrounding the nucleus are the atom's electron orbitals: 1s (small sphere), 2s (large sphere) and 2p (lobed). The 2p orbitals are attenuated for clarity.

Computer-generated Mandelbrot fractal. The Mandelbrot set is a set of points in the complex plane, the boundary of which forms a fractal.