czwartek, 18 grudnia 2014
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Zoologia (96)

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EN_90227651_0002
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Jumping plant louse (Trioza urticae), artwork. This species of psyllid usually folds its wings over its body like a tent. Shown at top are enlarged views of various parts of its anatomy. These are: (from top left) the head and rostrum, the pointed tubular hairs at the end of the femora (legs), hooks and pads on the on the terminal tarsus, and the antennae. The antennae segements are made up of telescoped rings. This herbivorous insect is found on nettles.
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EN_90227652_0001
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Jumping plant louse nymph (Trioza urticae). Artwork of various stages in the development of a jumping plant louse. The drawing at top left is of eggs on the underside of a nettle leaf. Inside the eggs are developed larvae with red eyes. Below this is a drawing of a newly hatched nypmh on a nettle leaf. The drawing at top right is a side view of hatched nypmph and below this is a top view. The nymph legs have terminal suction pads and tubular hairs. The main drawing is a mature nymph. It has wing buds and the underside of its head supports piercing mouthparts for sucking sap. This species lives exclusively on nettles.
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EN_90228785_0001
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Leafhopper feeding. Artwork of a leafhopper (Eupteryx aurata) with its mouthparts inserted in the phloem of a nettle leaf vein (Urtica sp.). The leafhopper is drinking the sap from the nettle leaf.
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EN_90232097_0001
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Nettle aphid (Microlophium carnosum), artwork. This is a winged adult female. It is able to reproduce by parthenogenesis (asexually), giving birth to pregnant offspring. This phenomenon is known as telescoping generations. The generation of young produced by winged adults are able to reproduce sexually. The red eyes of its young can be seen inside the body.
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EN_90233466_0001
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Parasitic fly (Phryxe sp.), artwork. This species of tachinid fly is often seen lingering around nettle foliage (Urtica sp.) because it lays its eggs on the larvae of species of butterflies and (Lepidoptera). The fly larva bores its way through the skin and becomes an endoparasitoid. The fly is characterised by a hairy body.
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EN_90233481_0001
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Parasitised aphid (Microlophium carnosum) on a nettle leaf, artwork. The dead aphid has been parasitised by the endoparasitoid larva of a braconid wasp. The adult wasp lays its egg inside the aphid and the larva consumes its host. After the aphid is consumed its skin becomes indurated and forms a so-called 'mummy'. The adult wasp has exited from the hole in the aphid's abdomen. This is characteristic of braconid wasps of the genus Aphidus. Endoparasitoid relationships are utilised in organic farming techniques as a form of biological pest control.
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EN_90216411_0003
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Capsid bug (Heterotoma planicornis), artwork. This predatory species of capsid bug measures between 4.6-5.5mm long. It has greatly enlarged antennal segments and brightly coloured femora (leg segments). It predates small insects on nettles (Urtica sp.).
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EN_90216411_0004
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Capsid bug (Plagiognathus chrysanthemi), artwork. This species of capsid bug measures between 3.3- 4.1mm long. It lives partially on nettles (Urtica sp.).
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EN_90218754_0001
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Common green capsid bug (Lygocoris pabulinus), artwork. This species of plant bug measures between 5.6-6.0mm long. Its bright green colour serves to camouflage it against the plants on which it feeds. It is a common pest of many species of garden plant, feeding on the sap of young shoot tips and buds. When it feeds it secretes a chemical which causes the surrounding tissue to die. When the buds open the dead areas tear open and holes appear in the new leaves.
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EN_90218773_0001
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Common nettle capsid bug (Licoris triptulatus), artwork. This species of plant bug measures between 3.8-5.0mm long. Its striped colouring is either black and green or black and yellow. It is confined to nettles (Urtica sp.).
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EN_90222999_0002
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Female capsid bug (Orthonotus rufrifrons), artwork. This species of plant bug measures between 3.0-3.5mm long. It is confined to nettles and exhibits sexual dimorphism. This is a female. Females are often called the oil beetle because of their shape.
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EN_90229946_0001
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Male capsid bug (Orthonotus rufifrons), artwork. This species of plant bug measures between 3.0- 3.5mm long. It is confined to nettles and exhibits sexual dimorphism. This is a male.
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EN_90232099_0001
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Nettle groundbug (Heterogaster urticae), artwork. This insect measures between 6-7mm long. It is often found on nettle leaves (Urtica dioica) in large masses of individual adults and various nymphal stages.
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EN_90233476_0002
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Parasitic wasp. Artwork of a chalcid wasp (Pteromalus sp.). This species of wasp is a parasite of the larva of other insects. This specimen hatched from a pupa found in a nettle gall. It measures between 2-3mm and has a metallic sheen. It belongs to the family Pteromalidae. The nettle (Urtica dioica) supports a large community of hymenopterous parasitoids, the larvae of which are either inquilines or endoparasitoids.
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EN_90233481_0002
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Parasitised aphid (Microlophium carnosum) on a nettle leaf, artwork. It has been parasitised by the endoparasitoid larva of a braconid wasp. The adult wasp lays it egg inside the aphid and the larva consumes its host. After the aphid is consumed its skin becomes indurated and forms a so-called 'mummy'. The larva exits the aphid and spins a cocoon beneath the abdomen, inside which it becomes a pupa. This is characteristic of the wasps Praon sp., Dyscritulus sp. and Protaphidus sp.. Endoparasitoid relationships are utilised in organic farming techniques as a form of biological pest control.
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EN_90187920_0001
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Animal cell. Computer artwork of a section through an animal cell. At the centre is the nucleus, which contains the cell's genetic information in the form of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid). Surrounding the nucleus is endoplasmic reticulum (ER, pink), a membrane bound organelle that is the site of lipid synthesis and the production of membrane-bound proteins. Also present are mitochondria (blue and yellow), which produce the cell's energy and golgi bodies (dark pink with vesicles budding from them) a membrane-bound organelle that modifies and packages proteins.
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EN_90216411_0001
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Capsid bug (Calocoris sexguttatus), artwork. This species of plant bug measures between 5.6- 7.6mm long. It is commonly found on nettles and has striking warning colouration.
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EN_90216411_0002
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Capsid bug (Deraecoris ruber), artwork. This predatory species of capsid bug measures between 6.5-7.5mm long. Its bright colouration varies greatly between individuals. It predates small insects on nettles (Urtica sp.).
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EN_90222999_0001
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Female hop capsid bug (Calocoris fulvomaculatus), artwork. This predatory species of plant bug measures between 5.8- 7.0mm. It has very small wings (micropterous) and is found on nettles (Urtica dioica) and other plants.
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EN_90223966_0001
PHOTO: EAST NEWS/SCIENCE PHOTO LIBRARY Froghopper (Cercopis vulnerata), artwork. This species has distinctive warning colouration to ward off predators. It feeds on plant sap and is commonly found found in hedgerows, meadows and woodland from spring. it measures between 9.5- 10.5mm in length.
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