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Wszechświat/Planety (308)

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! EN_01151355_0348 SCI
Computer artwork of the Moon on a starfield background rising above a blue and white limb of the Earth. The Moon is the only natural satellite of the Earth. It has a diameter of 3476km and lies at a mean distance of 384,000km from the Earth. Its rotation period around the Earth is equal to its period of revolution of 27.3 days. For this reason the Moon keeps the same face turned towards the Earth. The visible side has large dark areas called the lunar maria and craters caused by the impacts of falling meteoroids. The lunar maria are relatively empty of craters suggesting that these basins were filled recently by volcanic material.
! EN_01151355_1550 SCI
Exoplanet types. Artwork of a range of types of extrasolar planets that have been discovered beyond our Solar System. These exoplanets range from very large gas giant planets (largest), to super-Earth (upper left), to gaseous, icy, hot, ringed and rocky planets. As of September 2014, more than 1700 alien planets have been detected, with 452 multi-planet systems, and many thousands more candidates not yet confirmed. Some of these planets may be capable of supporting life.
! EN_01151355_2027 SCI
Artwork of the Earth, Sun and Moon seen from space. Earth is the third planet from the Sun. The Moon (lower right) has a diameter just over a quarter of the Earth's. It orbits the Earth at a distance of around 385,000 kilometres, taking just over 27 days for one orbit. It does not have an atmosphere and is a heavily cratered and barren piece of rock. The Earth-Moon system orbits the Sun (upper centre) at a distance of about 150 million kilometres. A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly behind the Earth into its shadow.
! EN_01151355_2028 SCI
Artwork of the Sun with the orbits of the Earth and Moon. Earth is the third planet from the Sun. The Moon (lower right) has a diameter just over a quarter of the Earth's. It orbits the Earth at a distance of around 385,000 kilometres, taking just over 27 days for one orbit. It does not have an atmosphere and is a heavily cratered and barren piece of rock. The Earth-Moon system orbits the Sun at a distance of about 150 million kilometres. A lunar eclipse occurs when the Moon passes directly behind the Earth into its shadow, and a solar eclipse occurs when the Moon moves between the Sun and the Earth.
! EN_01151355_2029 SCI
Jupiter, artwork. Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the solar system, with a mass two and a half times that of all the other planets put together. Jupiter's atmosphere consists of colourful, swirling bands of cloud; it is dominated by the Great Red Spot, visible towards bottom left, which is a giant, circulating atmospheric disturbance.
! EN_01151355_2030 SCI
Jupiter and its rings, artwork. Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the solar system. The rings are made of fast-moving dust particles. They have a radial structure; dark, dust-free areas represent orbits which are perturbed by the gravitational influence of Jupiter's moons. Jupiter's rings are unstable, and the dust gradually falls towards the planet, constantly being refreshed by dust which probably comes from the slow disintegration of orbiting moons and moonlets.
! EN_01151355_2031 SCI
Jupiter's interior. Cutaway artwork showing the interior structure of the planet Jupiter. Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the solar system, with a mass two and a half times that of all the other planets put together. A rocky core (small sphere, centre) about the size of Earth lies at its centre, where the temperature is 20,000-30,000 degrees Celsius. Around the core is a vast layer of liquid hydrogen (dark grey), which accounts for most of the planet's mass. The inner part of the hydrogen layer is under such high pressure that it acts like molten metal. The outermost parts of the planet consist of a thin atmosphere of hydrogen, water and ice, ammonium hydrosulphide and ammonia crystals.
! EN_01151355_2032 SCI
Jupiter's interior. Cutaway artwork showing the interior structure of the planet Jupiter. Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun and the largest in the solar system. A rocky core (small sphere, centre) about the size of Earth lies at its centre, where the temperature is 20,000-30,000 degrees Celsius. Around the core is a vast layer of liquid hydrogen (dark grey), which accounts for most of the planet's mass. The inner part of the hydrogen layer is under such high pressure that it acts like molten metal. The outermost parts of the planet consist of a thin atmosphere of hydrogen, water and ice, ammonium hydrosulphide and ammonia crystals. Jupiter's rings are made of fast-moving dust particles.
EN_00958297_0947 PHO
Optical image of Mars with an illustration showing it's core, mantle and crust. Current studies say its core consists primarily of iron with about 14-17% sulfur, and is about 1480 km in radius. The core is surrounded by a silicate mantle that formed many of the tectonic and volcanic features on the planet, but now appears to be inactive. The average thickness of the planet's crust is about 50 km, while the maximum thickness is about 125 km. In comparison, Earth's crust, averages 40 km, and is only one third as thick as the crust of Mars.
EN_00958297_0948 PHO
Optical image of Mars with an illustration showing it's core, mantle and crust. Current studies say its core consists primarily of iron with about 14-17% sulfur, and is about 1480 km in radius. The core is surrounded by a silicate mantle that formed many of the tectonic and volcanic features on the planet, but now appears to be inactive. The average thickness of the planet's crust is about 50 km, while the maximum thickness is about 125 km. In comparison, Earth's crust, averages 40 km, and is only one third as thick as the crust of Mars.
EN_00958297_0951 PHO
Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Mercury. Geologists estimate that Mercury's core occupies about 42% of its volume; in comparison, for Earth this proportion is 17%. Recent research suggests that Mercury has a molten core with a mantle of silicates, 500-700 km thick, surrounding it. Mercury's crust is believed to be 100-300 km thick based on data gathered from earth based observation, and the mariner 10 mission.
EN_00958297_0952 PHO
Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Mercury. Geologists estimate that Mercury's core occupies about 42% of its volume; in comparison, for Earth this proportion is 17%. Recent research suggests that Mercury has a molten core with a mantle of silicates, 500-700 km thick, surrounding it. Mercury's crust is believed to be 100-300 km thick based on data gathered from earth based observation, and the mariner 10 mission.
EN_00958297_0953 PHO
Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Venus. It's core consists of rock and ice composed of iron, nickel and silicates. It's mantle is equivalent to 10 to 15 Earth masses and is rich in water, ammonia and methane. The crust atmosphere consists of hydrogen, helium and methane gas.
EN_00958297_0954 PHO
Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Venus. It's core consists of rock and ice composed of iron, nickel and silicates. It's mantle is equivalent to 10 to 15 Earth masses and is rich in water, ammonia and methane. The crust atmosphere consists of hydrogen, helium and methane gas.
EN_00958297_0957 PHO
Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Saturn. There is no direct information about Saturn's internal structure, although, it is thought to have a similar interior to Jupiter, having a small rocky core surrounded mostly by hydrogen and helium. The rocky core is similar in composition to the Earth, but denser. Above the core there is thought to be a thicker liquid metallic hydrogen layer, with a layer of liquid hydrogen and helium above that, and a gaseous atmosphere in the outermost 1000 km.
EN_00958297_0958 PHO
Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Saturn. There is no direct information about Saturn's internal structure, although, it is thought to have a similar interior to Jupiter, having a small rocky core surrounded mostly by hydrogen and helium. The rocky core is similar in composition to the Earth, but denser. Above the core there is thought to be a thicker liquid metallic hydrogen layer, with a layer of liquid hydrogen and helium above that, and a gaseous atmosphere in the outermost 1000 km.
EN_00958297_0959 PHO
Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Uranus. The standard model of Uranus's structure is that it consists of three layers: a rocky core in the center, an icy mantle in the middle and an outer gaseous hydrogen/helium envelope. The rocky core of Uranus is relatively small, with a mass of 0.55 Earth masses and a radius less than 20 percent of Uranus's; the mantle is about 13.4 Earth masses, and comprises the bulk of the planet; the upper atmosphere weighs only that of 0.5 Earth masses and extends for the last 20 percent of Uranus's radius.
EN_00958297_0960 PHO
Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Uranus. The standard model of Uranus's structure is that it consists of three layers: a rocky core in the center, an icy mantle in the middle and an outer gaseous hydrogen/helium envelope. The rocky core of Uranus is relatively small, with a mass of 0.55 Earth masses and a radius less than 20 percent of Uranus's; the mantle is about 13.4 Earth masses, and comprises the bulk of the planet; the upper atmosphere weighs only that of 0.5 Earth masses and extends for the last 20 percent of Uranus's radius.
EN_00958297_0961 PHO
Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Venus. At the center of Venus is a primarily solid iron core, which underlies a thick mantle made mainly of silicate minerals. On top of this is a very thin crust, which is only around 30 kilometers thick (compared to a maximum of around 70 kilometers for Earth's crust). Venus also has a thick, acidic atmosphere, which traps the heat of the Sun (a runaway green house effect). This makes Venus the hottest planet in the solar system, with surface temperatures reaching over 400 degrees Celsius.
EN_00958297_0962 PHO
Illustration showing the core, mantle and crust of Venus. At the center of Venus is a primarily solid iron core, which underlies a thick mantle made mainly of silicate minerals. On top of this is a very thin crust, which is only around 30 kilometers thick (compared to a maximum of around 70 kilometers for Earth's crust). Venus also has a thick, acidic atmosphere, which traps the heat of the Sun (a runaway green house effect). This makes Venus the hottest planet in the solar system, with surface temperatures reaching over 400 degrees Celsius.

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